List of countries by GDP (nominal)

Largest economies by nominal GDP in 2020[1]

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.[2] Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. Nominal GDP does not take into account differences in the cost of living in different countries, and the results can vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of the country's currency.[3] Such fluctuations may change a country's ranking from one year to the next, even though they often make little or no difference in the standard of living of its population.[4]

Countries by nominal GDP in 2019[note 1]
  >$20 trillion
  $10–$20 trillion
  $5–$10 trillion
  $1–$5 trillion
  $750 billion–$1 trillion
  $500–$750 billion
  $250–$500 billion
  $100–$250 billion
  $50–$100 billion
  $25–$50 billion
  $5–$25 billion
  <$5 billion

Comparisons of national wealth are also frequently made on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP), to adjust for differences in the cost of living in different countries. PPP largely removes the exchange rate problem, but has its own drawbacks; it does not reflect the value of economic output in international trade, does not take into account the differences of quality of goods and services among countries, and it also requires more estimation than nominal GDP.[5] On the whole, PPP per capita figures are less spread than nominal GDP per capita figures.[6]

The United States is the world's largest economy with a GDP of approximately $20.513 trillion, notably due to high average incomes, a large population,[7] capital investment, low unemployment,[8] high consumer spending,[9] a relatively young population,[10] and technological innovation.[11] Tuvalu is the world's smallest national economy, with a GDP of about $32 million, because of its very small population, a lack of natural resources, reliance on foreign aid, negligible capital investment, demographic problems, and low average incomes.[12]

Although the rankings of national economies have changed considerably over time, the United States has maintained its top position since the Gilded Age, a time period in which its economy saw rapid expansion, surpassing the British Empire and Qing dynasty in aggregate output.[13][14] Since China's transition to a market-based economy through controlled privatisation and deregulation,[15][16] the country has seen its ranking increase from ninth in 1978 to second to only the United States in 2016 as economic growth accelerated and its share of global nominal GDP surged from 2% in 1980 to 15% in 2016.[14][1] India has also experienced a similar economic boom since the implementation of economic liberalisation in the early 1990s.[17] When supranational entities are included, the European Union is the second largest economy in the world. It was the largest from 2004, when ten countries joined the union,[18] to 2014, after which it was surpassed by the United States.[19]

The first list includes estimates compiled by the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook, the second list shows the World Bank's data, and the third list includes data compiled by the United Nations Statistics Division. The IMF definitive data for the past year and estimates for the current year are published twice a year in April and October. Non-sovereign entities (the world, continents, and some dependent territories) and states with limited international recognition (such as Kosovo, the State of Palestine and Taiwan) are included in the list in cases in which they appear in the sources. These economies are not ranked in the charts here, but are listed in sequence by GDP for comparison. In addition, non-sovereign entities are marked in italics.

Lists

Per the International Monetary Fund (2020 estimates)[1] Per the World Bank (2019)[20] Per the United Nations (2018)[21]
Rank Country/Territory GDP
(US$million)
   World[19] 83,844,988
1   United States 20,807,269
2   China[n 1][a] 14,860,775
3   Japan 4,910,580
4   Germany 3,780,553
5   United Kingdom 2,638,296
6   India 2,592,583
7   France 2,551,451
8   Italy 1,848,222
9   Canada 1,600,264
10   South Korea 1,586,786
11   Russia[n 2] 1,464,078
12   Brazil 1,363,767
13   Australia 1,334,688
14   Spain 1,247,464
15   Indonesia 1,088,768
16   Mexico 1,040,372
17   Netherlands 886,339
18    Switzerland 707,868
19   Saudi Arabia 680,897
20   Turkey 649,436
  Taiwan 635,547
21   Iran 610,662
22   Poland 580,894
23   Sweden 529,054
24   Thailand 509,200
25   Belgium 503,416
26   Nigeria 442,976
27   Austria 432,894
28   Ireland 399,064
29   Israel 383,425
30   Argentina 382,760
31   Philippines 367,362
32   Norway 366,386
33   Egypt 361,875
34   United Arab Emirates 353,899
  Hong Kong 341,319
35   Vietnam 340,602
36   Denmark 339,626
37   Singapore 337,451
38   Malaysia 336,330
39   Bangladesh 317,768
40   South Africa 282,588
41   Pakistan (2019) 276,114
42   Finland 267,856
43   Colombia 264,933
44   Romania 248,624
45   Chile 245,414
46   Czech Republic 241,975
47   Portugal 221,716
48   Peru 195,761
49   Greece 194,376
50   New Zealand 193,545
51   Iraq 178,112
52   Kazakhstan 165,730
53   Hungary 149,939
54   Qatar 147,791
55   Algeria 147,323
56   Ukraine 142,250
57   Morocco 112,220
58   Kuwait 108,656
59   Slovakia 101,892
60   Kenya 101,048
61   Ethiopia 95,588
  Puerto Rico 93,968
63   Ecuador 93,078
64   Sri Lanka 81,120
65   Dominican Republic 77,883
66   Guatemala 76,191
67   Myanmar 70,890
68   Luxembourg 68,613
69   Bulgaria 67,917
70   Ghana 67,337
71   Tanzania 64,123
72   Angola 62,724
73   Oman 62,305
74   Côte d'Ivoire 61,502
75   Panama 60,286
76   Uzbekistan 59,771
77   Costa Rica 59,645
78   Belarus 57,708
79   Croatia 56,768
80   Lithuania 55,064
81   Uruguay 54,135
82   Serbia 51,999
83   Slovenia 51,802
84   Venezuela 48,610
85   Turkmenistan 47,986
86   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 46,062
87   Jordan 42,609
88   Azerbaijan 41,666
89   Tunisia 39,226
90   Cameroon 39,036
91   Bolivia 38,938
92   Uganda 37,733
93   Paraguay 35,606
94   Bahrain 34,624
95   Latvia 33,015
96   Sudan 32,576
97     Nepal 32,158
98   Estonia 30,468
99   Cambodia 26,316
  Macau 26,348
100   El Salvador 24,784
101   Senegal 24,409
102   Honduras 23,984
103   Papua New Guinea 23,283
104   Cyprus 23,246
105   Trinidad and Tobago 22,718
106   Libya 21,805
107   Yemen 20,948
108   Iceland 20,805
109   Afghanistan 19,006
110   Zambia 18,909
111   Bosnia and Herzegovina 18,893
112   Lebanon 18,734
113   Laos 18,653
114   Mali 17,685
115   Georgia 16,316
116   Burkina Faso 16,082
117   Botswana 15,872
118   Benin 15,292
119   Gabon 15,145
120   West Bank and Gaza 14,750
121   Mozambique 14,557
122   Malta 14,290
123   Guinea 14,238
124   Jamaica 14,228
125   Madagascar 14,199
126   Albania 14,034
127   Zimbabwe 14,002
128   Mongolia 13,385
129   Niger 12,971
130   Armenia 12,813
131   North Macedonia 12,510
132   Nicaragua 11,905
133   The Bahamas 11,560
134   Mauritius 11,341
135   Moldova 11,241
136   Brunei 10,647
137   Chad 10,510
138   Rwanda 10,428
139   Namibia 10,252
140   Equatorial Guinea 10,028
141   Congo, Republic of the 9,964
142   Haiti 8,347
143   Malawi 8,330
144   Tajikistan 7,898
145   Kosovo 7,484
146   Kyrgyzstan 7,480
147   Mauritania 7,428
148   Guyana 6,806
149   Togo 5,719
150   Montenegro 4,943
151   Somalia 4,918
152   Maldives 4,712
153   Barbados 4,630
154   South Sudan 4,177
155   Sierra Leone 4,140
156   Fiji 3,932
157   Eswatini 3,848
158   Djibouti 3,408
159   Burundi 3,131
160   Liberia 3,068
161   Bhutan 2,587
162   Suriname 2,538
163   Central African Republic 2,321
  Aruba 2,288
164   Eritrea 2,075
165   Timor-Leste 1,920
166   Lesotho 1,906
167   Cabo Verde 1,870
167   The Gambia 1,806
168   Saint Lucia 1,770
169   Belize 1,556
170   Solomon Islands 1,551
171   San Marino 1,410
172   Guinea-Bissau 1,392
173   Antigua and Barbuda 1,389
174   Comoros 1,200
175   Seychelles 1,198
176   Grenada 1,074
177   Saint Kitts and Nevis 871
178   Vanuatu 864
179   Samoa 829
180   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 777
181   Dominica 545
182   Tonga 503
183   São Tomé and Príncipe 417
184   Micronesia, Federated States of 395
185   Palau 251
186   Marshall Islands 225
187   Kiribati 194
188   Nauru 114
189   Tuvalu 45
  Syria N/a
Rank Country/Territory GDP
(US$million)
   World 87,751,541
1   United States 21,427,700
2   China[n 3] 14,342,903
3   Japan 5,081,770
4   Germany 3,845,630
5   India 2,875,142
6   United Kingdom 2,827,113
7   France 2,715,518
8   Italy 2,001,244
9   Brazil 1,839,758
10   Canada 1,736,426
11   Russia[n 2] 1,699,877
12   South Korea 1,642,383
13   Spain 1,394,116
14   Australia 1,392,681
15   Mexico 1,258,287
16   Indonesia 1,119,191
17   Netherlands 909,070
18   Saudi Arabia 792,967
19   Turkey 754,412
20    Switzerland 703,082
21   Poland 592,164
  Taiwan (2017) 574,905
22   Thailand 543,650
23   Sweden 530,833
24   Belgium 529,607
25   Argentina 449,663
26   Nigeria 448,120
27   Austria 446,315
28   Iran (2017) 445,345
29   United Arab Emirates 421,142
30   Norway 403,336
31   Israel 395,099
32   Ireland 388,699
33   Philippines 376,796
34   Singapore 372,063
  Hong Kong 366,030
35   Malaysia 364,702
36   South Africa 351,432
37   Denmark 348,078
38   Colombia 323,803
39   Egypt 303,175
40   Bangladesh 302,571
41   Chile 282,318
42   Pakistan 278,222
43   Finland 268,761
44   Vietnam 261,921
45   Romania 250,077
46   Czech Republic 246,489
47   Portugal 237,686
48   Iraq 234,094
49   Peru 226,848
50   Greece 209,853
51   New Zealand 206,929
52   Qatar 183,466
53   Kazakhstan 180,162
54   Algeria 169,988
55   Hungary 160,967
56   Ukraine 153,781
57   Kuwait 134,761
58   Morocco[n 4] 118,725
59   Ecuador 107,436
60   Slovak Republic 105,422
-   Puerto Rico 104,989
61   Cuba (2018) 100,023
62   Ethiopia 96,108
63   Kenya 95,503
64   Angola 94,635
65   Dominican Republic 88,941
66   Sri Lanka 84,009
67   Oman 76,983
68   Guatemala 76,710
69   Myanmar 76,086
70   Luxembourg 71,105
71   Bulgaria 67,927
72   Ghana 66,984
73   Panama 66,801
74   Tanzania[n 5] 63,177
75   Belarus 63,080
76   Costa Rica 61,774
77   Croatia 60,416
78   Cote d'Ivoire 58,792
79   Uzbekistan 57,921
80   Uruguay 56,046
81   Lithuania 54,219
-   Macau 53,859
82   Slovenia 53,742
83   Lebanon 53,367
84   Libya 52,076
85   Serbia 51,409
86   Azerbaijan 48,048
87   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 47,320
88   Jordan 43,744
89   Bolivia 40,895
90   Turkmenistan (2018) 40,761
91   Tunisia 38,798
92   Cameroon 38,760
93   Bahrain 38,574
94   Paraguay 38,145
95   Uganda 34,387
96   Latvia 34,117
97   Estonia 31,387
98     Nepal 30,641
99   Cambodia 27,089
100   El Salvador 27,023
101   Honduras 25,095
102   Papua New Guinea 24,970
103   Cyprus[n 6] 24,565
104   Iceland 24,188
105   Trinidad and Tobago 24,100
106   Senegal 23,578
107   Zambia 23,065
108   Zimbabwe 21,441
109   Bosnia and Herzegovina 20,048
110   Afghanistan 19,101
111   Sudan 18,902
112   Botswana 18,341
113   Laos 18,174
114   Georgia[n 7] 17,743
115   Mali 17,510
116   Gabon 16,658
117   Jamaica 16,458
118   Burkina Faso 15,746
119   Albania 15,278
120   Mozambique 14,934
121   Malta 14,786
122   West Bank and Gaza (2018) 14,616
123   Benin 14,391
124   Mauritius 14,180
125   Madagascar 14,084
126   Mongolia 13,853
127   Armenia 13,673
128   Guinea 13,590
129   Brunei 13,469
130   Niger 12,928
131   Bahamas, The 12,827
132   North Macedonia 12,695
133   Nicaragua 12,521
134   Namibia 12,367
135   Moldova[n 8] 11,955
136   Chad 11,315
137   Equatorial Guinea 11,027
138   Congo, Republic of the 10,821
139   Rwanda 10,122
140   Haiti 8,499
141   Kyrgyzstan 8,455
142   Tajikistan 8,117
-   Kosovo 7,926
143   Malawi 7,667
144   Mauritania 7,594
145   Maldives 5,729
146   Fiji 5,536
147   Montenegro 5,495
148   Togo 5,460
149   Barbados 5,209
150   Eswatini 4,405
151   Guyana 4,280
152   Suriname 3,985
153   Sierra Leone 3,941
154   Djibouti 3,319
155   Andorra 3,154
156   Liberia 3,071
157   Burundi 3,012
158   Lesotho 2,460
159   Bhutan (2018) 2,447
160   Central African Republic 2,220
161   Saint Lucia 2,122
162   Cabo Verde 1,982
163   Belize 1,880
164   Gambia, The 1,764
165   Antigua and Barbuda 1,728
166   Seychelles 1,699
167   Timor-Leste 1,674
168   San Marino (2018) 1,638
169   Solomon Islands 1,425
170   Guinea-Bissau 1,340
171   Grenada 1,228
172   Comoros 1,186
173   Saint Kitts and Nevis 1,051
174   Vanuatu 917
175   Samoa 851
176   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 825
177   Dominica 596
178   Tonga (2018) 450
179   Sao Tome and Principe 429
180   Micronesia, Federated States of (2018) 402
181   Palau (2018) 284
182   Marshall Islands (2018) 221
183   Kiribati 195
184   Nauru 118
185   Tuvalu 47
Rank Country/Territory GDP
(US$million)
   World[22] 85,085,189
1   United States 20,580,223
2   China[n 3] 13,608,152
3   Japan 4,971,323
4   Germany 3,949,549
5   United Kingdom 2,855,297
6   India 2,779,351
7   France 2,778,892
8   Italy 2,084,882
9   Brazil 1,868,613
10   South Korea 1,720,489
11   Canada 1,712,562
12   Russia[n 2] 1,660,514
13   Australia 1,453,871
14   Spain 1,419,735
15   Mexico 1,223,401
16   Indonesia 1,042,173
17   Netherlands 914,105
18   Saudi Arabia 782,484
19   Turkey 771,355
20    Switzerland 705,141
21   Poland 585,661
  Taiwan 579,865
22   Sweden 556,087
23   Belgium 543,026
24   Argentina 518,475
25   Thailand 504,992
26   Iran 473,091
27   Austria 455,508
28   Norway 434,167
29   Nigeria 421,821
30   United Arab Emirates 414,179
31   Ireland 382,674
32   Israel 370,588
33   South Africa 368,094
  Hong Kong 362,682
34   Singapore 361,115
35   Malaysia 358,579
36   Denmark 355,675
37   Philippines 330,910
38   Colombia 330,228
39   Chile 298,231
40   Pakistan 282,346
41   Finland 276,878
42   Bangladesh 269,628
43   Egypt 249,751
44   Czech Republic 245,226
45   Vietnam 244,901
46   Portugal 240,792
47   Romania 239,552
48   Peru 222,237
49   Greece 218,139
50   Iraq 212,272
51   Venezuela 208,339
52   New Zealand 207,921
53   Qatar 191,362
54   Kazakhstan 179,340
55   Algeria 173,758
56   Hungary 157,883
57   Kuwait 141,698
58   Ukraine 130,832
59   Morocco 117,921
60   Ecuador 108,398
61   Slovakia 105,956
62   Angola 105,902
  Puerto Rico 101,131
63   Cuba 100,023
64   Oman 92,112
65   Sri Lanka 88,942
66   Kenya 87,906
67   Dominican Republic 81,299
68   Ethiopia 80,293
69   Guatemala 78,461
70   Myanmar 72,745
71   Luxembourg 70,920
72   Bulgaria 66,199
73   Ghana 65,535
74   Panama 65,055
75   Croatia 60,991
76   Costa Rica 60,126
77   Belarus 59,662
78   Uruguay 59,597
79   Tanzania 57,145
80   Lebanon 56,409
  Macau 54,545
81   Slovenia 54,034
82   Lithuania 53,455
83   Serbia 50,597
84   Sudan 50,514
85   Uzbekistan 50,500
86   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 47,146
87   Azerbaijan 46,939
88   Côte d'Ivoire 43,028
89   Jordan 42,231
90   Turkmenistan 40,749
91   Paraguay 40,308
92   Bolivia 40,288
93   Tunisia 39,895
94   Cameroon 38,694
95   Bahrain 37,876
96   Latvia 34,426
97   Libya 34,377
98   Estonia 30,747
99   Uganda 30,098
100     Nepal 27,830
101   Zambia 27,283
102   Yemen 26,672
103   El Salvador 26,057
104   Iceland 25,882
105   Cyprus 24,963
106   Cambodia 24,572
107   Zimbabwe 24,312
108   Honduras 23,970
109   Senegal 23,809
110   Trinidad and Tobago 23,808
111   Papua New Guinea 23,077
112   Afghanistan 20,514
113   Bosnia and Herzegovina 19,782
114   Botswana 18,615
115   Laos 17,954
116   Georgia 17,600
117   Korea, North 17,487
118   Mali 17,172
119   Gabon 16,994
120   Syria 16,628
  Palestine 16,277
121   Burkina Faso 16,200
122   Jamaica 15,714
123   Albania 15,059
124   Mozambique 14,717
125   Malta 14,549
126   Namibia 14,519
127   Mauritius 14,220
128   Congo, Republic of the 14,173
129   Madagascar 13,851
130   Brunei 13,567
131   Equatorial Guinea 13,324
132   Nicaragua 13,118
133   Mongolia 13,010
134   Niger 12,821
135   North Macedonia 12,629
136   Armenia 12,433
137   Bahamas, The 12,425
138   Guinea 11,640
139   Chad 11,387
140   Moldova 11,309
141   Benin 10,412
  New Caledonia 10,174
142   Rwanda 9,510
143   Haiti 9,287
144   South Sudan 8,207
145   Kyrgyzstan 8,093
  Kosovo 7,943
146   Mauritania 7,620
147   Tajikistan 7,523
148   Malawi 7,196
149   Monaco 7,189
150   Eritrea 6,855
151   Liechtenstein 6,796
  Bermuda 6,351
  French Polynesia 6,100
152   Fiji 5,537
153   Montenegro 5,507
  Cayman Islands 5,485
154   Maldives 5,327
155   Togo 5,166
156   Barbados 5,087
157   Eswatini 4,711
158   Sierra Leone 4,101
159   Guyana 3,818
160   Suriname 3,458
161   Burundi 3,285
162   Andorra 3,238
  Aruba 3,203
  Curaçao 3,128
  Greenland 3,052
163   Djibouti 2,923
164   Bhutan 2,658
165   Lesotho 2,631
166   Timor-Leste 2,581
167   Central African Republic 2,243
168   Liberia 2,121
169   Cape Verde 1,977
170   Saint Lucia 1,922
171   Belize 1,871
172   San Marino 1,638
173   Gambia, The 1,633
  Zanzibar 1,618
174   Antigua and Barbuda 1,611
175   Seychelles 1,590
176   Somalia 1,495
177   Guinea-Bissau 1,459
  British Virgin Islands 1,445
178   Solomon Islands 1,271
179   Grenada 1,169
180   Comoros 1,166
  Turks and Caicos Islands 1,022
181   Saint Kitts and Nevis 1,011
  Sint Maarten 980
182   Vanuatu 889
183   Samoa 834
184   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 811
185   Dominica 551
186   Tonga 504
187   São Tomé and Príncipe 411
188   Micronesia, Federated States of 371
  Cook Islands 363
  Anguilla 293
189   Palau 284
190   Marshall Islands 214
191   Kiribati 189
192   Nauru 127
  Montserrat 64
193   Tuvalu 46

See also

End note

  1. ^ There is a discrepancy between the data for China given by IMF's World Economic Outlook (October 2020) database and the same data given by IMF's DATAMAPPER; the number here is from the former source.

Notes

  1. ^ Based on IMF data. If no data is available for a country from the IMF, then data from the United Nations is used.
  1. ^ Figures exclude Taiwan, and special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  2. ^ a b c Figures exclude Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol.
  3. ^ a b Figures exclude special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  4. ^ Includes Western Sahara.
  5. ^ Covers mainland Tanzania only.
  6. ^ Data are for the area controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.
  7. ^ Excludes Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
  8. ^ Excludes data for Transnistria.

References

  1. ^ a b c "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 13 October 2020. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  2. ^ "What is GDP and why is it so important?". Investopedia. IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  3. ^ Moffatt, Mike. "A Beginner's Guide to Purchasing Power Parity Theory". About.com. IAC/InterActiveCorp. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  4. ^ Ito, Takatoshi; Isard, Peter; Symansky, Steven (January 1999). "Economic Growth and Real Exchange Rate: An Overview of the Balassa-Samuelson Hypothesis in Asia" (PDF). Changes in Exchange Rates in Rapidly Development Countries: Theory, Practice, and Policy Issues. National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  5. ^ Callen, Tim (28 March 2012). "Purchasing Power Parity: Weights Matter". Finance & Development. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  6. ^ Callen, Tim (28 March 2012). "Gross Domestic Product: An Economy's All". Finance & Development. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  7. ^ Vo, Lam Thuy (30 May 2012). "The World's Richest Countries and Biggest Economies, In 2 Graphics". Planet Money. National Public Radio. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  8. ^ Burgen, Emily; et al. (5 April 2012). "An Elusive Relation Between Unemployment and GDP Growth: Okun's Law". Economic Trends. Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  9. ^ Vitez, Osmond. "The Importance of Consumer Spending". Houston Chronicle. Hearst Corporation. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  10. ^ Koesterich, Russ (16 May 2014). "America The Youthful? Yes, On a Relative Basis". BlackRock. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  11. ^ Landefeld, J. Steven (11 February 2008). "The Multi-Factor Productivity Residual" (PDF). Measuring Innovation’s Role in GDP & Productivity Growth. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  12. ^ "Tuvalu". Europa. European Commission. 17 February 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  13. ^ Matthews, Chris (5 October 2014). "5 Most Powerful Economic Empires of All Time". Fortune. Time, Inc. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  14. ^ a b Kroeber, Arthur R. (2016). China's Economy: What Everyone Needs to Know. New York, United States: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190239053.
  15. ^ Kau, Michael Ying-mao (30 September 1993). China in the Era of Deng Xiaoping: A Decade of Reform. Studies on Contemporary China. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781563242786. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  16. ^ Hu, Zuliu; Khan, Mohsin S. (April 1997). "Why Is China Growing So Fast?" (PDF). Economic Issues. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  17. ^ Rodrik, Dani; et al. (March 2004). "From "Hindu Growth" to Productivity Surge: The Mystery of the Indian Growth Transition" (PDF). National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
  18. ^ "The economics of enlargement". Europa. European Commission. 30 October 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  19. ^ a b "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019". World Economic Outlook. International Monetary Fund. April 2019.
  20. ^ "GDP (current US$)". World Development Indicators. World Bank. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  21. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - National Accounts". unstats.un.org.
  22. ^ "All countries and regions/subregions (totals) for all years - sorted by region/subregion". United Nations. Retrieved 28 January 2019.