Croatia (// (listen), kroh-AY-shə; Croatian: Hrvatska, pronounced [xř̩ʋaːtskaː]), officially the Republic of Croatia (Croatian: Republika Hrvatska, listen (help·info)),[d] is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy. Its capital, Zagreb, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres (21,851 square miles) and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics.
Republic of Croatia
Anthem: "Lijepa naša domovino"
(English: "Our Beautiful Homeland")
and largest city
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic|
• Joined Habsburg Monarchy
|1 January 1527|
• Secession from
|29 October 1918|
|4 December 1918|
|25 June 1991|
|12 November 1995|
|1 July 2013|
|56,594 km2 (21,851 sq mi) (124th)|
• Water (%)
• 2019 estimate
• 2011 census
|73/km2 (189.1/sq mi) (109th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
|$113 billion (84th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
|$61.586 billion (81st)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2018)|| 29.7|
low · 17th
|HDI (2017)|| 0.831|
very high · 46th
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
• Summer (DST)
|Date format||dd.mm.yyyy (CE)|
|ISO 3166 code||HR|
Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, and in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into a Nazi-backed client-state, the Independent State of Croatia. In response, a resistance movement developed. This led to the creation of the Federal State of Croatia, which after the war became a founding member and constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year. The Croatian War of Independence was fought successfully for four years following the declaration.
The sovereign state of Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a very high standard of living. It is a member of the European Union (EU), the United Nations (UN), the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization (WTO), and a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has constantly invested in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors.
Croatia's economy is dominated by service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world. The state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, and a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.
The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which possibly comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-. The word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait- which is the native name of Arachosia.
The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe. The oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ ("Zvonimir, Croatian king").
The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852. The original is lost, and just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim. The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm. The inscription is not believed to be dated accurately, but is likely to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.
The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country. The largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, and the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, and Vučedol cultures. The Iron Age left traces of the early Illyrian Hallstatt culture and the Celtic La Tène culture.
Greek and Roman rule
Much later, the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar, Korčula, and Vis. In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305.
During the 5th century, the last de jure Western emperor last Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy to go into exile in 475. The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of almost all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast, islands and mountains. The city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum.
The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain and there are several competing theories, Slavic and Iranian being the most frequently put forward. The most widely accepted of these, the Slavic theory, proposes migration of White Croats from the territory of White Croatia during the Migration Period. Conversely, the Iranian theory proposes Iranian origin, based on Tanais Tablets containing Greek inscription of given names Χορούαθος, Χοροάθος, and Χορόαθος (Khoroúathos, Khoroáthos, and Khoróathos) and their interpretation as anthroponyms of Croatian people.
According to the work De Administrando Imperio written by the 10th-century Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII, the Croats had arrived in what is today Croatia in the early 7th century. However, that claim is disputed and competing hypotheses date the event between the 6th and the 9th centuries. Eventually two dukedoms were formed—Duchy of Pannonia and Duchy of Croatia, ruled by Ljudevit and Borna, as attested by chronicles of Einhard starting in 818. The record represents the first document of Croatian realms, vassal states of Francia at the time.
The Frankish overlordship ended during the reign of Mislav two decades later. According to the Constantine VII Christianization of Croats began in the 7th century, but the claim is disputed and generally Christianization is associated with the 9th century. The first native Croatian ruler recognised by the Pope was Duke Branimir, who received papal recognition from Pope John VIII on 7 June 879.
Tomislav was the first king of Croatia, styled as such in a letter of Pope John X in 925. Tomislav defeated Hungarian and Bulgarian invasions, spreading the influence of Croatian kings. The medieval Croatian kingdom reached its peak in the 11th century during the reigns of Petar Krešimir IV (1058–1074) and Dmitar Zvonimir (1075–1089). When Stjepan II died in 1091 ending the Trpimirović dynasty, Dmitar Zvonimir's brother-in-law Ladislaus I of Hungary claimed the Croatian crown. This led to a war and personal union of Croatia and Hungary in 1102 under Coloman.
For the next four centuries, the Kingdom of Croatia was ruled by the Sabor (parliament) and a ban (viceroy) appointed by the king. The period saw increasing threat of Ottoman conquest and struggle against the Republic of Venice for control of coastal areas. The Venetians gained control over most of Dalmatia by 1428, with exception of the city-state of Dubrovnik which became independent. Ottoman conquests led to the 1493 Battle of Krbava field and 1526 Battle of Mohács, both ending in decisive Ottoman victories. King Louis II died at Mohács, and in 1527, the Croatian Parliament met in Cetin and chose Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg as new ruler of Croatia, under the condition that he provide protection to Croatia against the Ottoman Empire while respecting its political rights. This period saw the rise of influential nobility such as the Frankopan and Zrinski families to prominence and ultimately numerous Bans from the two families.
Habsburg Monarchy and Austria-Hungary
Following the decisive Ottoman victories, Croatia was split into civilian and military territories, with the partition formed in 1538. The military territories would become known as the Croatian Military Frontier and were under direct Imperial control. Ottoman advances in the Croatian territory continued until the 1593 Battle of Sisak, the first decisive Ottoman defeat, and stabilisation of borders.
 During the Great Turkish War (1683–1698), Slavonia was regained but western Bosnia, which had been part of Croatia before the Ottoman conquest, remained outside Croatian control. The present-day border between the two countries is a remnant of this outcome. Dalmatia, the southern part of the border, was similarly defined by the Fifth and the Seventh Ottoman–Venetian Wars.
The Ottoman wars instigated great demographic changes. Croats migrated towards Austria and the present-day Burgenland Croats are direct descendants of these settlers. To replace the fleeing population, the Habsburgs encouraged the Christian populations of Bosnia to provide military service in the Croatian Military Frontier. Most of the transferred population were Orthodox Vlachs and the peak of transferring was during the 16th century.
The Croatian Parliament supported King Charles III's Pragmatic Sanction and signed their own Pragmatic Sanction in 1712. Subsequently, the emperor pledged to respect all privileges and political rights of Kingdom of Croatia and Queen Maria Theresa made significant contributions to Croatian matters.
Between 1797 and 1809 the First French Empire gradually occupied the entire eastern Adriatic coastline and a substantial part of its hinterland, ending the Venetian and the Ragusan republics, establishing the Illyrian Provinces. In response the Royal Navy started the blockade of the Adriatic Sea leading to the Battle of Vis in 1811. The Illyrian Provinces were captured by the Austrians in 1813, and absorbed by the Austrian Empire following the Congress of Vienna in 1815. This led to formation of the Kingdom of Dalmatia and restoration of the Croatian Littoral to the Kingdom of Croatia, now both under the same crown. The 1830s and 1840s saw romantic nationalism inspire the Croatian National Revival, a political and cultural campaign advocating the unity of all South Slavs in the empire. Its primary focus was the establishment of a standard language as a counterweight to Hungarian, along with the promotion of Croatian literature and culture. During the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 Croatia sided with the Austrians, Ban Josip Jelačić helping defeat the Hungarian forces in 1849, and ushering a period of Germanization policy.
By the 1860s, failure of the policy became apparent, leading to the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and creation of a personal union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary. The treaty left the issue of Croatia's status to Hungary, and the status was resolved by the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement of 1868 when kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia were united. The Kingdom of Dalmatia remained under de facto Austrian control, while Rijeka retained the status of Corpus separatum introduced in 1779.
After Austria-Hungary occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina following the 1878 Treaty of Berlin, the Croatian Military Frontier was abolished and the territory returned to Croatia in 1881, pursuant to provisions of the Croatian-Hungarian settlement. Renewed efforts to reform Austria-Hungary, entailing federalisation with Croatia as a federal unit, were stopped by advent of World War I.
On 29 October 1918 the Croatian Parliament (Sabor) declared independence and decided to join the newly formed State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, which in turn entered into union with the Kingdom of Serbia on 4 December 1918 to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. The Croatian Parliament never ratified a decision to unite with Serbia and Montenegro. The 1921 constitution defining the country as a unitary state and abolition of Croatian Parliament and historical administrative divisions effectively ended Croatian autonomy. The new constitution was opposed by the most widely supported national political party—the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS) led by Stjepan Radić.
The political situation deteriorated further as Radić was assassinated in the National Assembly in 1928, leading to the dictatorship of King Alexander in January 1929. The dictatorship formally ended in 1931 when the king imposed a more unitarian constitution, and changed the name of the country to Yugoslavia. The HSS, now led by Vladko Maček, continued to advocate federalisation of Yugoslavia, resulting in the Cvetković–Maček Agreement of August 1939 and the autonomous Banovina of Croatia. The Yugoslav government retained control of defence, internal security, foreign affairs, trade, and transport while other matters were left to the Croatian Sabor and a crown-appointed Ban.
In April 1941, Yugoslavia was occupied by Germany and Italy. Following the invasion the territory, parts of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the region of Syrmia were incorporated into the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), a Nazi-backed puppet state. Parts of Dalmatia were annexed by Italy, and the northern Croatian regions of Baranja and Međimurje were annexed by Hungary. The NDH regime was led by Ante Pavelić and ultranationalist Ustaše.
A resistance movement soon emerged. On 22 June 1941, the 1st Sisak Partisan Detachment was formed near Sisak, as the first military unit formed by a resistance movement in occupied Europe. This sparked the beginning of the Yugoslav Partisan movement, a communist multi-ethnic anti-fascist resistance group led by Josip Broz Tito. The movement grew rapidly and at the Tehran Conference in December 1943 the Partisans gained recognition from the Allies.
With Allied support in logistics, equipment, training and air power, and with the assistance of Soviet troops taking part in the 1944 Belgrade Offensive, the Partisans gained control of Yugoslavia and the border regions of Italy and Austria by May 1945, during which thousands of members of the Ustaše, as well as Croat refugees, were killed by the Yugoslav Partisans.
The political aspirations of the Partisan movement were reflected in the State Anti-fascist Council for the National Liberation of Croatia, which developed in 1943 as the bearer of Croatian statehood and later transformed into the Parliament of Croatia in 1945, and AVNOJ—its counterpart at the Yugoslav level.
NDH was trying to fit into the Nazi ideology and tried to establish such an internal structure that would be consistent with that of the Third Reich and fascist Italy. As modelled on the Third Reich, the authorities of NDH have adopted similar racial interpretations. For this reason, they have already introduced a series of racist laws against Jews, Roma, Serbs and some other groups in 1941. All those who opposed the Ustaše regime were also victims of the regime. Shortly after, the deportations and the executions of Serbs, Jews and Roma began, which were imprisoned in concentration camps. Considering the total number of detainees and the number of victims, the largest concentration camps were Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška. Jasenovac was at the same time a death camp and a labour camp where detainees, among other things, went to work on agricultural land. It is estimated that between 70,000 and 100,000 detainees were killed there. Vladimir Žerjavić has come to the estimated 83,000 people killed in Jasenovac. The number of Croats killed in the NDH is estimated to be approximately 200,000, either by Ustaše, as members of the armed resistance, or as Axis collaborators. Several thousand of these were killed by the Chetniks. Most Croatian historians place the number of Croats killed by the Chetniks on the territory of modern-day Croatia at between 3,000 and 3,500. Croatian estimates for the number of Croats killed by Chetniks in the whole of Yugoslavia range from 18,000 to 32,000 combatants and civilians.
Furthermore, a significant number of Serbs were killed by the Ustaše on the territory of the NDH during the war. The Ustashe regime systematically murdered approximately 300,000 to 500,000 Serbs. According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 320,000–340,000 ethnic Serbs were murdered under Ustaše rule. The Yad Vashem World Holocaust Museum and Research Center concludes that "more than 500,000 Serbs were murdered in horribly sadistic ways, 250,000 were expelled, and another 200,000 were forced to convert." Some Croats, including politicians, have attempted to minimise the magnitude of the genocide perpetrated against Serbs.
After World War II, Croatia became a single-party socialist federal unit of the SFR Yugoslavia, ruled by the Communists, but enjoying a degree of autonomy within the federation. In 1967, Croatian authors and linguists published a Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Standard Language demanding greater autonomy for Croatian language. The declaration contributed to a national movement seeking greater civil rights and decentralization of the Yugoslav economy, culminating in the Croatian Spring of 1971, suppressed by Yugoslav leadership. Still, the 1974 Yugoslav Constitution gave increased autonomy to federal units, basically fulfilling a goal of the Croatian Spring, and providing a legal basis for independence of the federative constituents.
Following the death of Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito in 1980, the political situation in Yugoslavia deteriorated, with national tension fanned by the 1986 SANU Memorandum and the 1989 coups in Vojvodina, Kosovo and Montenegro. In January 1990, the Communist Party fragmented along national lines, with the Croatian faction demanding a looser federation. In the same year, the first multi-party elections were held in Croatia, with Franjo Tuđman's win raising nationalist tensions further. Some of Serbs in Croatia left Sabor and declared the autonomy of areas that would soon become the unrecognised Republic of Serbian Krajina, intent on achieving independence from Croatia.
As tensions rose, Croatia declared independence on 25 June 1991. However, the full implementation of declaration only came into effect on 8 October 1991. In the meantime, tensions escalated into overt war when the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and various Serb paramilitary groups attacked Croatia. By the end of 1991, a high-intensity conflict fought along a wide front reduced Croatia to control of only about two-thirds of its territory. The various Serb paramilitary groups then began pursuing a campaign of killing, terror and expulsion against the Croats in the rebel territories, killing thousands of Croat civilians and forcing at least 170,000 from their homes.
On 15 January 1992, Croatia gained diplomatic recognition by the European Economic Community members, and subsequently the United Nations. The war effectively ended in August 1995 with a decisive victory by Croatia. This was accompanied by the uncompelled flight of about 200,000 Serbs from the rebel territories, whose lands were subsequently settled by Croat refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The remaining occupied areas were restored to Croatia pursuant to the Erdut Agreement of November 1995, with the process concluded in January 1998.
Following the end of the war, Croatia faced the challenges of post-war reconstruction, the return of refugees, advancing democratic principles, protection of human rights and general social and economic development. The post-2000 period is characterized by democratization, economic growth and structural and social reforms, as well as problems such as unemployment, corruption and the inefficiency of the public administration.
Croatia joined the Partnership for Peace on 25 May 2000 and become a member of the World Trade Organization on 30 November 2000. On 29 October 2001, Croatia signed a Stabilization and Association Agreement with the European Union, submitted a formal application for the EU membership in 2003, was given the status of candidate country in 2004, and began accession negotiations in 2005. In November 2000 and March 2001, the Parliament amended the Constitution changing its bicameral structure back into historic unicameral and reducing the presidential powers.
Although Croatia experienced a significant boom in the economy in the early 2000s, the increase of the government debt and the absence of concrete reforms led to a financial crisis in 2008 which forced the government to cut public spending thus provoking a public outcry. On 1 April 2009, Croatia joined NATO. A wave of anti-government protests organized via Facebook took place in early 2011 as general dissatisfaction with political and economic state grew.
The majority of Croatian voters voted in favour of country's EU membership at the 2012 referendum. Croatia completed EU accession negotiations in 2011 and joined the European Union on 1 July 2013. Croatia was affected by the European migrant crisis in 2015 when Hungary's closure of its borders with Serbia forced over 700,000 migrants to use Croatia as a transit country on their way to Western Europe.
Croatia is located in Central and Southeast Europe, on the coast of the Adriatic Sea. It borders Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro to the southeast, and Slovenia to the northwest. It lies mostly between latitudes 42° and 47° N and longitudes 13° and 20° E. Part of the territory in the extreme south surrounding Dubrovnik is a practical exclave connected to the rest of the mainland by territorial waters, but separated on land by a short coastline strip belonging to Bosnia and Herzegovina around Neum.
The territory covers 56,594 square kilometres (21,851 square miles), consisting of 56,414 square kilometres (21,782 square miles) of land and 128 square kilometres (49 square miles) of water. It is the 127th largest country in the world. Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Dinaric Alps with the highest point of the Dinara peak at 1,831 metres (6,007 feet) near the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina in the south to the shore of the Adriatic Sea which makes up its entire southwest border. Insular Croatia consists of over a thousand islands and islets varying in size, 48 of which are permanently inhabited. The largest islands are Cres and Krk, each of them having an area of around 405 square kilometres (156 square miles).
The hilly northern parts of Hrvatsko Zagorje and the flat plains of Slavonia in the east which is part of the Pannonian Basin are traversed by major rivers such as Danube, Drava, Kupa, and Sava. The Danube, Europe's second longest river, runs through the city of Vukovar in the extreme east and forms part of the border with Vojvodina. The central and southern regions near the Adriatic coastline and islands consist of low mountains and forested highlands. Natural resources found in the country in quantities significant enough for production include oil, coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, and hydropower. Karst topography makes up about half of Croatia and is especially prominent in the Dinaric Alps. There are a number of deep caves in Croatia, 49 of which are deeper than 250 m (820.21 ft), 14 of them deeper than 500 m (1,640.42 ft) and three deeper than 1,000 m (3,280.84 ft). Croatia's most famous lakes are the Plitvice lakes, a system of 16 lakes with waterfalls connecting them over dolomite and limestone cascades. The lakes are renowned for their distinctive colours, ranging from turquoise to mint green, grey or blue.
Croatia can be subdivided between a number of ecoregions because of its climate and geomorphology. The country is consequently one of the richest in Europe in terms of biodiversity. There are four types of biogeographical regions in Croatia—Mediterranean along the coast and in its immediate hinterland, Alpine in most of Lika and Gorski Kotar, Pannonian along Drava and Danube, and continental in the remaining areas. One of the most significant are karst habitats which include submerged karst, such as Zrmanja and Krka canyons and tufa barriers, as well as underground habitats.
The karst geology harbours approximately 7,000 caves and pits, some of which are the habitat of the only known aquatic cave vertebrate—the olm. Forests are also significantly present in the country, as they cover 2,490,000 hectares (6,200,000 acres) representing 44% of Croatian land surface. Other habitat types include wetlands, grasslands, bogs, fens, scrub habitats, coastal and marine habitats. In terms of phytogeography, Croatia is a part of the Boreal Kingdom and is a part of Illyrian and Central European provinces of the Circumboreal Region and the Adriatic province of the Mediterranean Region. The World Wide Fund for Nature divides Croatia between three ecoregions—Pannonian mixed forests, Dinaric Mountains mixed forests and Illyrian deciduous forests.
There are 37,000 known species in Croatia, but their actual number is estimated to be between 50,000 and 100,000. The claim is supported by nearly 400 new taxa of invertebrates discovered in Croatia in the first half of the 2000s alone. There are more than a thousand endemic species, especially in Velebit and Biokovo mountains, Adriatic islands and karst rivers. Legislation protects 1,131 species. The most serious threat to species is loss and degradation of habitats. A further problem is presented by invasive alien species, especially Caulerpa taxifolia algae.
The invasive algae are regularly monitored and removed to protect the benthic habitat. Indigenous sorts of cultivated plants and breeds of domesticated animals are also numerous. Those include five breeds of horses, five breeds of cattle, eight breeds of sheep, two breeds of pigs, and a poultry breed. Even the indigenous breeds include nine endangered or critically endangered ones. There are 444 protected areas of Croatia, encompassing 9% of the country. Those include eight national parks, two strict reserves, and ten nature parks. The most famous protected area and the oldest national park in Croatia is the Plitvice Lakes National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Velebit Nature Park is a part of the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme. The strict and special reserves, as well as the national and nature parks, are managed and protected by the central government, while other protected areas are managed by counties. In 2005, the National Ecological Network was set up, as the first step in the preparation of the EU accession and joining of the Natura 2000 network.
Most of Croatia has a moderately warm and rainy continental climate as defined by the Köppen climate classification. Mean monthly temperature ranges between −3 °C (27 °F) in January and 18 °C (64 °F) in July. The coldest parts of the country are Lika and Gorski Kotar where snowy forested climate is found at elevations above 1,200 metres (3,900 feet). The warmest areas of Croatia are at the Adriatic coast and especially in its immediate hinterland characterised by the Mediterranean climate, as the temperature highs are moderated by the sea. Consequently, temperature peaks are more pronounced in the continental areas. The lowest temperature of −35.5 °C (−31.9 °F) was recorded on 3 February 1919 in Čakovec, and the highest temperature of 42.8 °C (109.0 °F) was recorded on 4 August 1981 in Ploče.
Mean annual precipitation ranges between 600 millimetres (24 inches) and 3,500 millimetres (140 inches) depending on geographic region and prevailing climate type. The least precipitation is recorded in the outer islands (Biševo, Lastovo, Svetac, Vis) and in the eastern parts of Slavonia. However, in the latter case, it occurs mostly during the growing season. The maximum precipitation levels are observed on the Dinara mountain range and in Gorski kotar.
Prevailing winds in the interior are light to moderate northeast or southwest, and in the coastal area, prevailing winds are determined by local area features. Higher wind velocities are more often recorded in cooler months along the coast, generally as the cool northeasterly bura or less frequently as the warm southerly jugo. The sunniest parts of the country are the outer islands, Hvar and Korčula, where more than 2700 hours of sunshine are recorded per year, followed by the middle and southern Adriatic Sea area in general, and northern Adriatic coast, all with more than 2000 hours of sunshine per year.
The Republic of Croatia is a unitary state using a parliamentary system of governance. With the collapse of the ruling communist party in SFR Yugoslavia, Croatia organized its first multi-party elections and adopted its present constitution in 1990. It declared independence on 8 October 1991 which led to the break-up of Yugoslavia and countries international recognition by the United Nations in 1992. Under its 1990 Constitution, Croatia operated a semi-presidential system until 2000 when it switched to a parliamentary system. Government powers in Croatia are divided into legislative, executive and judiciary powers.
The President of the Republic (Croatian: Predsjednik Republike) is the head of state, directly elected to a five-year term and is limited by the Constitution to a maximum of two terms. In addition to being the commander in chief of the armed forces, the president has the procedural duty of appointing the prime minister with the consent of the parliament, and has some influence on foreign policy. The most recent presidential elections were held on 11 January 2015, when Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović won. She took the oath of office on 15 February 2015. The Government is headed by the Prime Minister, who has four deputy prime ministers and 16 ministers in charge of particular sectors of activity. As the executive branch, it is responsible for proposing legislation and a budget, executing the laws, and guiding the foreign and internal policies of the republic. The Government is seated at Banski dvori in Zagreb. Since 19 October 2016, Croatian Prime Minister has been Andrej Plenković.
A unicameral parliament (Sabor) holds legislative power. A second chamber, the House of Counties, set up in 1993 pursuant to the 1990 Constitution, was abolished in 2001. The number of Sabor members can vary from 100 to 160; they are all elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms. The sessions of the Sabor take place from 15 January to 15 July, and from 15 September to 15 December. The two largest political parties in Croatia are the Croatian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Croatia.
Law and judicial system
Croatia has a civil law legal system in which law arises primarily from written statutes, with judges serving merely as implementers and not creators of law. Its development was largely influenced by German and Austrian legal systems. Croatian law is divided into two principal areas—private and public law. By the time EU accession negotiations were completed on 30 June 2010, Croatian legislation was fully harmonised with the Community acquis. The main law in the county is the Constitution adopted on December 22, 1990.
The main national courts are the Constitutional Court, which oversees violations of the Constitution, and the Supreme Court, which is the highest court of appeal. In addition, there are also Administrative, Commercial, County, Misdemeanor, and Municipal courts. Cases falling within judicial jurisdiction are in the first instance decided by a single professional judge, while appeals are deliberated in mixed tribunals of professional judges. Lay magistrates also participate in trials. State's Attorney Office is the judicial body constituted of public prosecutors that is empowered to instigate prosecution of perpetrators of offences.
Law enforcement agencies are organised under the authority of the Ministry of the Interior which consist primarily of the national police force. Croatia's security service is the Security and Intelligence Agency (SOA).
Croatia has established diplomatic relations with 181 countries. As of 2017[update], Croatia maintains a network of 54 embassies, 28 consulates and eight permanent diplomatic missions abroad. Furthermore, there are 52 foreign embassies and 69 consulates in the Republic of Croatia in addition to offices of international organisations such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Organization for Migration, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO), International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), United Nations Development Programme, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, and UNICEF.
 In 2009, the Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration employed 1,381 personnel and expended 648.2 million kuna (€86.4 million). Stated aims of Croatian foreign policy include enhancing relations with neighbouring countries, developing international co-operation and promotion of the Croatian economy and Croatia itself. Since 2003, Croatian foreign policy has focused on achieving the strategic goal of becoming a member state of the European Union (EU). In December 2011, Croatia completed the EU accession negotiations and signed an EU accession treaty on 9 December 2011. Croatia joined the European Union on 1 July 2013 marking the end of a process started in 2001 by signing of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement and Croatian application for the EU membership in 2003. A recurring obstacle to the negotiations was Croatia's ICTY co-operation record and Slovenian blocking of the negotiations because of Croatia–Slovenia border disputes. The latter should be resolved through an Arbitration Agreement of 4 November 2009, approved by national parliaments and a referendum in Slovenia., but due to the events during arbitration Croatia does not accept results. As of 2019, Croatia has unsolved border issues with all neighbouring former Yugoslav countries (Slovenia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro).
Another strategic Croatian foreign policy goal for the 2000s was NATO membership. Croatia was included in the Partnership for Peace in 2000, invited to NATO membership in 2008 and formally joined the alliance on 1 April 2009. Croatia became a member of the United Nations Security Council for the 2008–2009 term, assuming presidency in December 2008. The country is preparing to join the Schengen Area.
Croatia was first subdivided into counties in the Middle Ages. The divisions changed over time to reflect losses of territory to Ottoman conquest and subsequent liberation of the same territory, changes of political status of Dalmatia, Dubrovnik, and Istria. The traditional division of the country into counties was abolished in the 1920s when the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and the subsequent Kingdom of Yugoslavia introduced oblasts and banovinas respectively.
Communist-ruled Croatia, as a constituent part of post-World War II Yugoslavia, abolished earlier divisions and introduced municipalities, subdividing Croatia into approximately one hundred municipalities. Counties were reintroduced in 1992 legislation, significantly altered in terms of territory relative to the pre-1920s subdivisions. In 1918, the Transleithanian part of Croatia was divided into eight counties with their seats in Bjelovar, Gospić, Ogulin, Osijek, Požega, Varaždin, Vukovar, and Zagreb, and the 1992 legislation established 14 counties in the same territory.
Since the counties were re-established in 1992, Croatia is divided into 20 counties and the capital city of Zagreb, the latter having the authority and legal status of a county and a city at the same time. Borders of the counties changed in some instances since, with the latest revision taking place in 2006. The counties subdivide into 127 cities and 429 municipalities. Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) division of Croatia is performed in several tiers. NUTS 1 level places the entire country in a single unit, while there are three NUTS 2 regions. Those are Northwest Croatia, Central and Eastern (Pannonian) Croatia, and Adriatic Croatia. The latter encompasses all the counties along the Adriatic coast. Northwest Croatia includes Koprivnica-Križevci, Krapina-Zagorje, Međimurje, Varaždin, the city of Zagreb, and Zagreb counties and the Central and Eastern (Pannonian) Croatia includes the remaining areas—Bjelovar-Bilogora, Brod-Posavina, Karlovac, Osijek-Baranja, Požega-Slavonia, Sisak-Moslavina, Virovitica-Podravina, and Vukovar-Syrmia counties. Individual counties and the city of Zagreb also represent NUTS 3 level subdivision units in Croatia. The NUTS Local administrative unit divisions are two-tiered. LAU 1 divisions match the counties and the city of Zagreb in effect making those the same as NUTS 3 units, while LAU 2 subdivisions correspond to the cities and municipalities of Croatia.
|County||Seat||Area (km2)||Population at|
|City of Zagreb||Zagreb||641||792,875|
The Croatian Armed Forces (CAF) consist of the Air Force, Army, and Navy branches in addition to the Education and Training Command and Support Command. The CAF is headed by the General Staff, which reports to the Defence Minister, who in turn reports to the President of Croatia. According to the constitution, the President is commander-in-chief of the armed forces and in case of immediate threat during wartime he issues orders directly to the General Staff.
Following the 1991–95 war defence spending and CAF size have been in constant decline. As of 2005[update] military spending was an estimated 2.39% of the country's GDP, which placed Croatia 64th in a ranking of all countries. Since 2005 the budget was kept below 2% of GDP, down from the record high of 11.1% in 1994. Traditionally relying on a large number of conscripts, CAF also went through a period of reforms focused on downsizing, restructuring and professionalisation in the years prior to Croatia's accession to NATO in April 2009. According to a presidential decree issued in 2006 the CAF is set to employ 18,100 active duty military personnel, 3,000 civilians and 2,000 voluntary conscripts between the ages of 18 and 30 in peacetime. Compulsory conscription was abolished in January 2008. Until 2008 military service was compulsory for men at age 18 and conscripts served six-month tours of duty, reduced in 2001 from the earlier scheme of nine-month conscription tours. Conscientious objectors could instead opt for an eight-month civilian service. As of April 2011[update] the Croatian military had 120 members stationed in foreign countries as part of United Nations-led international peacekeeping forces, including 95 serving as part of the UNDOF in the Golan Heights. As of 2011[update] an additional 350 troops serve as part of the NATO-led ISAF force in Afghanistan and another 20 with the KFOR in Kosovo.
Croatia also has a significant military industry sector which exported around US$120 million worth of military equipment and armament in 2010. Croatian-made weapons and vehicles used by CAF include the standard sidearm HS2000 manufactured by HS Produkt and the M-84D battle tank designed by the Đuro Đaković factory. Uniforms and helmets worn by CAF soldiers are also locally produced and successfully marketed to other countries.
|The largest Croatian companies by turnover in 2015|
|4||Hrvatska elektroprivreda (HEP)||1,694||260|
Croatia is classified as a high-income economy by the United Nations. International Monetary Fund data projects that Croatian nominal GDP stands at $54.758 billion, or $13,271 per capita for 2017, while purchasing power parity GDP stands at $102.113 billion, or $24,748 per capita. According to Eurostat, Croatian PPS GDP per capita stood at 62% of the EU average in 2017.
Real GDP growth in 2007 was 6.0 per cent. The average net salary of a Croatian worker in January 2017 was 5,895 HRK per month (roughly 800 EUR), and the average gross salary was 7,911 HRK per month. As of December 2018[update], the unemployment rate dropped to 9.6% from 12.2% in December 2017. The number of unemployed persons was 148.919 thousand. Unemployment Rate in Croatia in years 1996-2018 averaged 17.38%, reaching an all-time high of 23.60% in January 2002 and a record low of 8.40% in September 2018. In 2010, economic output was dominated by the service sector which accounted for 66% of GDP, followed by the industrial sector with 27.2% and agriculture accounting for 6.8% of GDP. According to 2004 data, 2.7% of the workforce were employed in agriculture, 32.8% by industry and 64.5% in services. The industrial sector is dominated by shipbuilding, food processing, pharmaceuticals, information technology, biochemical and timber industry. In 2010, Croatian exports were valued at 64.9 billion kuna (€8.65 billion) with 110.3 billion kuna (€14.7 billion) worth of imports. The largest trading partner is the rest of the European Union. More than half of Croatia's trade is with other European Union member states.
Privatization and the drive toward a market economy had barely begun under the new Croatian Government when war broke out in 1991. As a result of the war, the economic infrastructure sustained massive damage, particularly the revenue-rich tourism industry. From 1989 to 1993, the GDP fell 40.5%. The Croatian state still controls a significant part of the economy, with government expenditures accounting for as much as 40% of GDP. A backlogged judiciary system, combined with inefficient public administration, especially on issues of land ownership and corruption, are particular concerns. In the 2018 Corruption Perceptions Index, published by Transparency International, the country is ranked 60th with a score of 48, where zero denotes "highly corrupt" and 100 "very clean". In June 2013, the national debt stood at 59.5% of the nation's GDP.
Tourism dominates the Croatian service sector and accounts for up to 20% of Croatian GDP. Annual tourist industry income for 2017 was estimated at €9.5 billion. Its positive effects are felt throughout the economy of Croatia in terms of increased business volume observed in retail business, processing industry orders and summer seasonal employment. The industry is considered an export business, because it significantly reduces the country's external trade imbalance. Since the end of the Croatian War of Independence, the tourist industry has grown rapidly, recording a fourfold rise in tourist numbers, with more than 11 million tourists each year. The most numerous are tourists from Germany, Slovenia, Austria, Italy, and Poland as well as Croatia itself. Length of a tourist stay in Croatia averaged 4.9 days in 2011.
The bulk of the tourist industry is concentrated along the Adriatic Sea coast. Opatija was the first holiday resort. It first became popular in the middle of the 19th century. By the 1890s, it had become one of the most significant European health resorts. Later a number of resorts sprang up along the coast and islands, offering services catering to both mass tourism and various niche markets. The most significant are nautical tourism, as there are numerous marinas with more than 16 thousand berths, cultural tourism relying on appeal of medieval coastal cities and numerous cultural events taking place during the summer. Inland areas offer agrotourism, mountain resorts, and spas. Zagreb is also a significant tourist destination, rivalling major coastal cities and resorts.
Croatia has unpolluted marine areas reflected through numerous nature reserves and 116 Blue Flag beaches. Croatia is ranked as the 18th most popular tourist destination in the world. About 15% of these visitors, or over one million per year, are involved with naturism, an industry for which Croatia is world-famous. It was also the first European country to develop commercial naturist resorts.
The highlight of Croatia's recent infrastructure developments is its rapidly developed motorway network, largely built in the late 1990s and especially in the 2000s (decade). By September 2011, Croatia had completed more than 1,100 kilometres (680 miles) of motorways, connecting Zagreb to most other regions and following various European routes and four Pan-European corridors. The busiest motorways are the A1, connecting Zagreb to Split and the A3, passing east–west through northwest Croatia and Slavonia.
A widespread network of state roads in Croatia acts as motorway feeder roads while connecting all major settlements in the country. The high quality and safety levels of the Croatian motorway network were tested and confirmed by several EuroTAP and EuroTest programs.
Croatia has an extensive rail network spanning 2,722 kilometres (1,691 miles), including 984 kilometres (611 miles) of electrified railways and 254 kilometres (158 miles) of double track railways. The most significant railways in Croatia are found within the Pan-European transport corridors Vb and X connecting Rijeka to Budapest and Ljubljana to Belgrade, both via Zagreb. All rail services are operated by Croatian Railways. There are international airports in Dubrovnik, Osijek, Pula, Rijeka, Split, Zadar, and Zagreb. The largest and busiest is Franjo Tuđman Airport in Zagreb. As of January 2011[update], Croatia complies with International Civil Aviation Organization aviation safety standards and the Federal Aviation Administration upgraded it to Category 1 rating.
The busiest cargo seaport in Croatia is the Port of Rijeka and the busiest passenger ports are Split and Zadar. In addition to those, a large number of minor ports serve an extensive system of ferries connecting numerous islands and coastal cities in addition to ferry lines to several cities in Italy. The largest river port is Vukovar, located on the Danube, representing the nation's outlet to the Pan-European transport corridor VII.
There are 610 kilometres (380 miles) of crude oil pipelines in Croatia, connecting the Port of Rijeka oil terminal with refineries in Rijeka and Sisak, as well as several transhipment terminals. The system has a capacity of 20 million tonnes per year. The natural gas transportation system comprises 2,113 kilometres (1,313 miles) of trunk and regional natural gas pipelines, and more than 300 associated structures, connecting production rigs, the Okoli natural gas storage facility, 27 end-users and 37 distribution systems.
Croatian production of energy sources covers 85% of nationwide natural gas demand and 19% of oil demand. In 2008, 47.6% of Croatia's primary energy production structure comprised use of natural gas (47.7%), crude oil (18.0%), fuel wood (8.4%), hydro power (25.4%) and other renewable energy sources (0.5%). In 2009, net total electrical power production in Croatia reached 12,725 GWh and Croatia imported 28.5% of its electric power energy needs. The bulk of Croatian imports are supplied by the Krško Nuclear Power Plant, 50% owned by Hrvatska elektroprivreda, providing 15% of Croatia's electricity.
This article needs to be updated.December 2018)(
With its estimated population of 4.19 million in 2016, Croatia ranks 125th by population in the world. Its population density stands at 75.9 inhabitants per square kilometre. The overall life expectancy in Croatia at birth was 78.20 years in 2016.
|Most populous cities of Croatia|
|Rank||City||County||Urban population||City-governed population|
|1||Zagreb||City of Zagreb||688,163||790,017|
|Source: 2011 Census|
|As of 29 June 2011|
The total fertility rate of 1.41 children per mother, is one of the lowest in the world, below the replacement rate of 2.1, it remains considerably below the high of 6.18 children born per woman in 1885. Since 1991, Croatia's death rate has continuously exceeded its birth rate. Croatia subsequently has one of the oldest populations in the world, with the average age of 43.3 years. Since the late 1990s, there has been a positive net migration into Croatia, reaching a level of more than 7,000 net immigrants in 2006.
The Croatian Bureau of Statistics forecast that the population may shrink to 3.1 million by 2051, depending on actual birth rate and the level of net migration. The population of Croatia rose steadily from 2.1 million in 1857 until 1991, when it peaked at 4.7 million, with exception of censuses taken in 1921 and 1948, i.e. following two world wars. The natural growth rate of the population is currently negative with the demographic transition completed in the 1970s. In recent years, the Croatian government has been pressured each year to add 40% to work permit quotas for foreign workers. In accordance with its immigration policy, Croatia is trying to entice emigrants to return.
The population decrease was also a result of the Croatian War of Independence. During the war, large sections of the population were displaced and emigration increased. In 1991, in predominantly occupied areas, more than 400,000 Croats were either removed from their homes by the Croatian Serb forces or fled the violence. During the final days of the war in 1995, more than 150,000−200,000 Serbs in Croatia fled before the arrival of Croatian forces during the Operation Storm. After the war, the number of displaced persons fell to about 250,000. The Croatian government has taken care of displaced persons by the social security system, and since December 1991 through the Office of Displaced Persons and Refugees.
Most of the territories which were abandoned during the Croatian War of Independence were settled by Croat refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina, mostly from north-western Bosnia, while some of the displaced people returned to their homes.
According to the 2013 United Nations report, 17.6% of Croatia's population were foreign-born immigrants. Croatia is inhabited mostly by Croats (90.4%) and is ethnically the most homogeneous of the six countries of former Yugoslavia. Minority groups include Serbs (4.4%), Bosniaks, Italians, Albanians, Roma, Hungarians, Slovenes, Czechs, Montenegrins, Macedonians, Yugoslavs, and others (1.98%).
According to the 2011 census, 91.36% of Croatians identify as Christian; of these, Roman Catholics make up the largest group, accounting for 86.28% of the population, after which follows Eastern Orthodoxy (4.44%), Protestantism (0.34%) and other Christian (0.30%). The largest religion after Christianity is Islam (1.47%). 4.57% of the population describe themselves as non-religious.
In the Eurostat Eurobarometer Poll of 2005, 67% of the population of Croatia responded that "they believe there is a God". In a 2009 Gallup poll, 70% answered yes to the question "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" However, only 24% of the population attends religious services regularly.
Croatian is the official language of Croatia, and became the 24th official language of the European Union upon its accession in 2013. Minority languages are in official use in local government units where more than a third of population consists of national minorities or where local legislation defines so. Those languages are Czech, Hungarian, Italian, Ruthenian, Serbian, and Slovak.
According to the 2011 Census, 95.6% of citizens of Croatia declared Croatian as their native language, 1.2% declared Serbian as their native language, while no other language is represented in Croatia by more than 0.5% of native speakers among population of Croatia. Croatian is a member of the South Slavic languages of Slavic languages group, and is written using the Latin alphabet. There are three major dialects spoken on the territory of Croatia, with standard Croatian based on the Shtokavian dialect. The Chakavian and Kajkavian dialects are distinguished by their lexicon, phonology, and syntax.
Croatian replaced Latin as the official language of the Croatian government in the 19th century. In Yugoslavia, from 1972 to 1989, the language was constitutionally designated as the "Croatian literary language" and the "Croatian or Serbian language". It was the result of the resistance to "Serbo-Croatian" in the form of a Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Literary Language and Croatian Spring. Croatians are protective of their Croatian language from foreign influences and are known for Croatian linguistic purism, as the language was under constant change and threats imposed by previous rulers (i.e. Austrian German, Hungarian, Italian, and Turkish words were changed and altered to Slavic looking or sounding ones).
A 2011 survey revealed that 78% of Croatians claim knowledge of at least one foreign language. According to a survey ordered by the European Commission in 2005, 49% of Croatians speak English as the second language, 34% speak German, 14% speak Italian, and 10% speak French. Russian is spoken by 4% each, and 2% of Croatians speak Spanish. However, there are large municipalities that have minority languages that include substantial populations that speak these languages. An odd-majority of Slovenes (59%) have a certain level of knowledge of Croatian. The country is a part of various language-based international associations most notably the European Union Language Association.
Literacy in Croatia stands at 99.2 per cent. A worldwide study about the quality of living in different countries published by Newsweek in August 2010 ranked the Croatian education system at 22nd, to share the position with Austria. Primary education in Croatia starts at the age of six or seven and consists of eight grades. In 2007 a law was passed to increase free, noncompulsory education until 18 years of age. Compulsory education consists of eight grades of elementary school.
Secondary education is provided by gymnasiums and vocational schools. As of 2017[update], there are 2,049 elementary schools and 701 schools providing various forms of secondary education. Primary and secondary education are also available in languages of recognized minorities in Croatia, where classes are held in Italian, Czech, German, Hungarian, and Serbian languages.
There are 137 elementary and secondary level music and art schools, as well as 120 schools for disabled children and youth and 74 schools for adults. Nationwide leaving exams (Croatian: državna matura) were introduced for secondary education students in the school year 2009–2010. It comprises three compulsory subjects (Croatian language, mathematics, and a foreign language) and optional subjects and is a prerequisite for university education.
Croatia has eight public universities, the University of Dubrovnik, University of Osijek, University of Pula, University of Rijeka, University of Split, University of Zadar and University of Zagreb, and two private universities, Catholic University of Croatia and Dubrovnik International University. The University of Zadar, the first university in Croatia, was founded in 1396 and remained active until 1807, when other institutions of higher education took over until the foundation of the renewed University of Zadar in 2002. The University of Zagreb, founded in 1669, is the oldest continuously operating university in Southeast Europe. There are also 15 polytechnics, of which two are private, and 30 higher education institutions, of which 27 are private. In total, there are 55 institutions of higher education in Croatia, attended by more than 157 thousand students.
There are 205 companies, government or education system institutions and non-profit organisations in Croatia pursuing scientific research and development of technology. Combined, they spent more than 3 billion kuna (€400 million) and employed 10,191 full-time research staff in 2008. Among the scientific institutes operating in Croatia, the largest is the Ruđer Bošković Institute in Zagreb. The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts in Zagreb is a learned society promoting language, culture, arts and science from its inception in 1866.
Croatia has been the home of many famous inventors, including Fausto Veranzio, Giovanni Luppis, Slavoljub Eduard Penkala, Franjo Hanaman and Nikola Tesla, as well as scientists, such as Franciscus Patricius, Nikola Nalješković, Nikola Vitov Gučetić, Josip Franjo Domin, Marino Ghetaldi, Roger Joseph Boscovich, Andrija Mohorovičić, Ivan Supek, Ivan Đikić, Miroslav Radman and Marin Soljačić. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to two Croatian laureates, Lavoslav Ružička (1939) and Vladimir Prelog (1975).
Croatia has a universal health care system, whose roots can be traced back to the Hungarian-Croatian Parliament Act of 1891, providing a form of mandatory insurance of all factory workers and craftsmen. The population is covered by a basic health insurance plan provided by statute and optional insurance. In 2017, annual healthcare related expenditures reached 22.0 billion kuna (€3.0 billion). Healthcare expenditures comprise only 0.6% of private health insurance and public spending. In 2017, Croatia spent around 6.6% of its GDP on healthcare. In 2015, Croatia ranked 36th in the world in life expectancy with 74.7 years for men and 81.2 years for women, and it had a low infant mortality rate of 3 per 1,000 live births.
There are hundreds of healthcare institutions in Croatia, including 79 hospitals and clinics with 23,967 beds. The hospitals and clinics care for more than 700 thousand patients per year and employ 5,205 medical doctors, including 3,929 specialists. There are 6,379 private practice offices, and a total of 41,271 health workers in the country. There are 63 emergency medical service units, responding to more than a million calls. The principal cause of death in 2008 was cardiovascular disease at 43.5% for men and 57.2% for women, followed by tumours, at 29.4% for men and 21.4% for women. In 2009 only 13 Croatians had been infected with HIV/AIDS and six had died from the disease. In 2008 it was estimated by the WHO that 27.4% of Croatians over the age of 15 are smokers. According to 2003 WHO data, 22% of the Croatian adult population is obese.
Because of its geographical position, Croatia represents a blend of four different cultural spheres. It has been a crossroads of influences from western culture and the east—ever since the schism between the Western Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire—and also from Mitteleuropa and Mediterranean culture. The Illyrian movement was the most significant period of national cultural history, as the 19th century proved crucial to the emancipation of the Croatian language and saw unprecedented developments in all fields of art and culture, giving rise to a number of historical figures.
The Ministry of Culture is tasked with preserving the nation's cultural and natural heritage and overseeing its development. Further activities supporting the development of culture are undertaken at the local government level. The UNESCO's World Heritage List includes ten sites in Croatia. The country is also rich with intangible culture and holds 15 of UNESCO's World's intangible culture masterpieces, ranking fourth in the world. A global cultural contribution from Croatia is the necktie, derived from the cravat originally worn by the 17th-century Croatian mercenaries in France.
Croatia has 95 professional theatres, 30 professional children's theatres and 52 amateur theatres visited by more than 1.54 million viewers per year. The professional theatres employ 1,195 artists. There are 46 professional orchestras, ensembles, and choirs in the country, attracting an annual attendance of 317 thousand. There are 166 cinemas with attendance exceeding 4.814 million. Croatia has 222 museums, visited by more than 2.7 million people in 2016. Furthermore, there are 1,768 libraries in the country, containing 26.8 million volumes, and 19 state archives.
In 2010, 7,348 books and brochures were published, along with 2,676 magazines and 267 newspapers. There are also 135 radio stations and 25 TV stations operating in the country. In the past five years, film production in Croatia produced up to five feature films and 10 to 51 short films, with an additional 76 to 112 TV films. As of 2009[update], there are 784 amateur cultural and artistic associations and more than 10 thousand cultural, educational, and artistic events held annually. The book publishing market is dominated by several major publishers and the industry's centrepiece event—Interliber exhibition held annually at Zagreb Fair.
Croatia is categorised as having established a very high level of human development in the Human Development Index, with a high degree of equality in HDI achievements between women and men. It promotes disability rights. Recognition of same-sex unions in Croatia has gradually improved in the last two decades, starting with a 2003 law that recognized same-sex couples, to a Life Partnership Act in 2014 that defined same-sex couples as families, made them equal to married couples, and provided them with limited adoption rights. In December 2013 Croatians voted in a constitutional referendum and approved changes to constitution to define marriage as a union between a man and a woman. Constitutional Court of Croatia allowed the referendum as there was no legal basis not to, but explicitly said that the results must not have any limiting effects on future legal recognition of same-sex relationships.
Arts and literature
Architecture in Croatia reflects influences of bordering nations. Austrian and Hungarian influence is visible in public spaces and buildings in the north and in the central regions, architecture found along coasts of Dalmatia and Istria exhibits Venetian influence. Large squares named after culture heroes, well-groomed parks, and pedestrian-only zones, are features of these orderly towns and cities, especially where large scale Baroque urban planning took place, for instance in Osijek (Tvrđa), Varaždin, and Karlovac. Subsequent influence of the Art Nouveau was reflected in contemporary architecture. Along the coast, the architecture is Mediterranean with a strong Venetian and Renaissance influence in major urban areas exemplified in works of Giorgio da Sebenico and Niccolò Fiorentino such as the Cathedral of St. James in Šibenik. The oldest preserved examples of Croatian architecture are the 9th-century churches, with the largest and the most representative among them being Church of St. Donatus in Zadar.
Besides the architecture encompassing the oldest artworks in Croatia, there is a long history of artists in Croatia reaching the Middle Ages. In that period the stone portal of the Trogir Cathedral was made by Radovan, representing the most important monument of Romanesque sculpture from Medieval Croatia. The Renaissance had the greatest impact on the Adriatic Sea coast since the remainder of Croatia was embroiled in the Hundred Years' Croatian–Ottoman War. With the waning of the Ottoman Empire, art flourished during the Baroque and Rococo. The 19th and the 20th centuries brought about affirmation of numerous Croatian artisans, helped by several patrons of the arts such as bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer. Croatian artists of the period achieving worldwide renown were Vlaho Bukovac and Ivan Meštrović.
The Baška tablet, a stone inscribed with the glagolitic alphabet found on the Krk island and dated to 1100, is considered to be the oldest surviving prose in Croatian. The beginning of more vigorous development of Croatian literature is marked by the Renaissance and Marko Marulić. Besides Marulić, Renaissance playwright Marin Držić, Baroque poet Ivan Gundulić, Croatian national revival poet Ivan Mažuranić, novelist, playwright and poet August Šenoa, children's writer Ivana Brlić-Mažuranić, writer and journalist Marija Jurić Zagorka, poet and writer Antun Gustav Matoš, poet Antun Branko Šimić, expressionist and realist writer Miroslav Krleža, poet Tin Ujević and novelist and short story writer Ivo Andrić are often cited as the greatest figures in Croatian literature.
The freedom of the press and the freedom of speech are guaranteed by the constitution of Croatia. Croatia ranked 62nd in the 2010 Press Freedom Index report compiled by Reporters Without Borders. The state-owned news agency HINA runs a wire service in Croatian and English on politics, economics, society and culture.
Despite the provisions fixed in the constitution, freedoms of press and speech in Croatia have been classified as partly free since 2000 by Freedom House, the independent nongovernmental organisation that monitors press freedom worldwide. Namely the country has been ranked 85th (of 196 countries), and the 2011 Freedom House report noted improvement of applicable legislation reflecting Croatia's accession to the EU, yet pointed out instances of politicians' attempts to hinder investigative journalism and influence news reports contents, difficulties regarding public access to information, and that most of print media market is controlled by German-owned Hanza Media and Austrian-owned Styria Media Group. Amnesty International reports that in 2009 in Croatia there was an increase in the number of physical attacks and murders of journalists. The incidents were mainly perpetrated against journalists investigating war crimes and organised crime.
As of December 2018[update], there are fourteen nationwide free-to-air DVB-T television channels, with Croatian Radiotelevision (HRT) operating four, Nova TV and RTL Televizija operating two of the channels each, and the remaining three operated by the Croatian Olympic Committee, Kapital Net d.o.o. and Author d.o.o. companies. In addition there are 21 regional or local DVB-T television channels. The HRT is also broadcasting a satellite TV channel. In 2016, there were 135 radio stations and 25 TV stations in Croatia. Cable television and IPTV networks are gaining ground in the country, as the cable TV networks already serve 450 thousand people, 10% of the total population of the country.
There are 314 newspapers and 2,678 magazines published in Croatia. The print media market is dominated by Europapress Holding and Styria Media Group who publish their flagship dailies Jutarnji list, Večernji list and 24sata. Other influential newspapers are Novi list and Slobodna Dalmacija. In 2013, 24sata was the most widely circulated daily newspaper, followed by Večernji list and Jutarnji list.
Croatia's film industry is small and heavily subsidised by the government, mainly through grants approved by the Ministry of Culture with films often being co-produced by HRT. Pula Film Festival, the national film awards event held annually in Pula, is the most prestigious film event featuring national and international productions. The greatest accomplishment by Croatian filmmakers was achieved by Dušan Vukotić when he won the 1961 Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film for Ersatz (Croatian: Surogat).
Croatian traditional cuisine varies from one region to another. Dalmatia and Istria draw upon culinary influences of Italian and other Mediterranean cuisines which prominently feature various seafood, cooked vegetables and pasta, as well as condiments such as olive oil and garlic. The continental cuisine is heavily influenced by Austrian, Hungarian, and Turkish culinary styles. In that area, meats, freshwater fish and vegetable dishes are predominant.
There are two distinct wine-producing regions in Croatia. The continental region in the northeast of the country, especially Slavonia, is capable of producing premium wines, particularly whites. Along the north coast, Istrian and Krk wines are similar to those produced in neighbouring Italy, while further south in Dalmatia, Mediterranean-style red wines are the norm. Annual production of wine exceeds 140 million litres. Croatia was almost exclusively a wine-consuming country up until the late 18th century when a more massive production and consumption of beer started; the annual consumption of beer in 2008 was 83.3 litres per capita which placed Croatia in 15th place among the world's countries.
There are more than 400,000 active sportspeople in Croatia. Out of that number, 277,000 are members of sports associations and nearly 4,000 are members of chess and contract bridge associations. Association football is the most popular sport. The Croatian Football Federation (Croatian: Hrvatski nogometni savez), with more than 118,000 registered players, is the largest sporting association in the country. The Prva HNL football league attracts the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the country. In season 2010–11, it attracted 458,746 spectators.
Croatian athletes competing at international events since Croatian independence in 1991 won 44 Olympic medals, including 15 gold medals—at the 1996 and 2004 Summer Olympics in handball, 2000 Summer Olympics in weightlifting, 2002 and 2006 Winter Olympics in alpine skiing, 2012 Summer Olympics in discus throw, trap shooting, and water polo, and in 2016 Summer Olympics in shooting, rowing, discus throw, sailing and javelin throw. In addition, Croatian athletes won 16 gold medals at world championships, including four in athletics at the World Championships in Athletics held in 2007, 2009, 2013 and 2017, one in handball at the 2003 World Men's Handball Championship, two in water polo at the 2007 World Aquatics Championships and 2017 World Aquatics Championships, one in rowing at the 2010 World Rowing Championships, six in alpine skiing at the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships held in 2003 and 2005 and two at the World Taekwondo Championships in 2011 and 2007. Croatian athletes also won Davis cup in 2005 and 2018. The Croatian national football team came in third in 1998 and second in the 2018 FIFA World Cup.
Croatia hosted several major sport competitions, including the 2009 World Men's Handball Championship, the 2007 World Table Tennis Championships, the 2000 World Rowing Championships, the 1987 Summer Universiade, the 1979 Mediterranean Games and several European Championships. The governing sports authority in the country is the Croatian Olympic Committee (Croatian: Hrvatski olimpijski odbor), founded on 10 September 1991 and recognised by the International Olympic Committee since 17 January 1992, in time to permit the Croatian athletes to appear at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France representing the newly independent nation for the first time at the Olympic Games.
- In the recognized minority languages and the most spoken minority languages of Croatia:
- Apart from Croatian, state counties have official regional languages that are used for official government business and commercially. Istria County is Italian-speaking while select counties bordering Serbia speak standard Serbian. Other notable–albeit significantly less present–minority languages in Croatia include: Czech, Hungarian, and Slovak.
- The writing system of Croatia is legally protected by federal law. Efforts to alter the official writing system, on a local level, has drawn considerable backlash.
- IPA transcription of "Republika Hrvatska": (Croatian pronunciation: [ˈrepǔblika ˈxř̩ʋaːtskaː]).
- "Europska povelja o regionalnim ili manjinskim jezicima" (in Croatian). Ministry of Justice (Croatia). 4 November 2011. Archived from the original on 27 December 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
- "Population by Mother Tongue, by Towns/Municipalities, 2011 Census". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
- "Is Serbo-Croatian a language?". The Economist. 10 April 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
- "Population by Ethnicity, by Towns/Municipalities, 2011 Census". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
- "Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
- "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018 – Croatia". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
- "First Results". Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- "2018 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
- "Hrvatski sabor – Povijest". Archived from the original on 6 March 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
- Alemko Gluhak (1993). Hrvatski etimološki rječnik [Croatian Etymological Dictionary] (in Croatian). August Cesarec. ISBN 953-162-000-8.
- Marc L. Greenberg (April 1996). "The Role of Language in the Creation of Identity: Myths in Linguistics among the Peoples of the Former Yugoslavia" (PDF). University of Kansas. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- Fučić, Branko (September 1971). "Najstariji hrvatski glagoljski natpisi" [The Oldest Croatian Glagolitic Inscriptions]. Slovo (in Croatian). Old Church Slavonic Institute. 21: 227–254. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- Mužić 2007, p. 27.
- Mužić 2007, pp. 195–198.
- Igor Salopek (December 2010). "Krapina Neanderthal Museum as a Well of Medical Information". Acta Medico-Historica Adriatica. Hrvatsko znanstveno društvo za povijest zdravstvene kulture. 8 (2): 197–202. ISSN 1334-4366. PMID 21682056. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- Tihomila Težak-Gregl (April 2008). "Study of the Neolithic and Eneolithic as reflected in articles published over the 50 years of the journal Opuscula archaeologica". Opvscvla Archaeologica Radovi Arheološkog zavoda. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Philosophy, Archaeological Department. 30 (1): 93–122. ISSN 0473-0992. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- Jacqueline Balen (December 2005). "The Kostolac horizon at Vučedol". Opvscvla Archaeologica Radovi Arheološkog zavoda. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Philosophy, Archaeological Department. 29 (1): 25–40. ISSN 0473-0992. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- Tihomila Težak-Gregl (December 2003). "Prilog poznavanju neolitičkih obrednih predmeta u neolitiku sjeverne Hrvatske" [A Contribution to Understanding Neolithic Ritual Objects in the Northern Croatia Neolithic]. Opvscvla Archaeologica Radovi Arheološkog zavoda (in Croatian). University of Zagreb, Faculty of Philosophy, Archaeological Department. 27 (1): 43–48. ISSN 0473-0992. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- Hrvoje Potrebica; Marko Dizdar (July 2002). "Prilog poznavanju naseljenosti Vinkovaca i okolice u starijem željeznom dobu" [A Contribution to Understanding Continuous Habitation of Vinkovci and its Surroundings in the Early Iron Age]. Prilozi Instituta za arheologiju u Zagrebu (in Croatian). Institut za arheologiju. 19 (1): 79–100. ISSN 1330-0644. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- John Wilkes (1995). The Illyrians. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-631-19807-9. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
... in the early history of the colony settled in 385 BC on the island Pharos (Hvar) from the Aegean island Paros, famed for its marble. In traditional fashion they accepted the guidance of an oracle, ...
- John Wilkes (1995). The Illyrians. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-631-19807-9. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
The third Greek colony known in this central sector of the Dalmatian coast was Issa, on the north side of the island Vis.
- Edward Gibbon; John Bagnell Bury; Daniel J. Boorstin (1995). The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. New York: Modern Library. p. 335. ISBN 978-0-679-60148-7. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
- J. B. Bury (1923). History of the later Roman empire from the death of Theodosius I. to the death of Justinian. Macmillan Publishers. p. 408. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- Andrew Archibald Paton (1861). Researches on the Danube and the Adriatic. Trübner. pp. 218–219. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- Emil Heršak; Boris Nikšić (September 2007). "Hrvatska etnogeneza: pregled komponentnih etapa i interpretacija (s naglaskom na euroazijske/nomadske sadržaje)" [Croatian Ethnogenesis: A Review of Component Stages and Interpretations (with Emphasis on Eurasian/Nomadic Elements)]. Migracijske i etničke teme (in Croatian). Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies. 23 (3): 251–268. ISSN 1333-2546.
- Mužić 2007, pp. 249–293.
- Mužić 2007, pp. 157–160.
- Mužić 2007, pp. 169–170.
- Antun Ivandija (April 1968). "Pokrštenje Hrvata prema najnovijim znanstvenim rezultatima" [Christianization of Croats according to the most recent scientific results]. Bogoslovska smotra (in Croatian). University of Zagreb, Catholic Faculty of Theology. 37 (3–4): 440–444. ISSN 0352-3101.
- Vladimir Posavec (March 1998). "Povijesni zemljovidi i granice Hrvatske u Tomislavovo doba" [Historical maps and borders of Croatia in age of Tomislav]. Radovi Zavoda za hrvatsku povijest (in Croatian). 30 (1): 281–290. ISSN 0353-295X. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- Lujo Margetić (January 1997). "Regnum Croatiae et Dalmatiae u doba Stjepana II" [Regnum Croatiae et Dalmatiae in age of Stjepan II]. Radovi Zavoda za hrvatsku povijest (in Croatian). 29 (1): 11–20. ISSN 0353-295X. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- Ladislav Heka (October 2008). "Hrvatsko-ugarski odnosi od sredinjega vijeka do nagodbe iz 1868. s posebnim osvrtom na pitanja Slavonije" [Croatian-Hungarian relations from the Middle Ages to the Compromise of 1868, with a special survey of the Slavonian issue]. Scrinia Slavonica (in Croatian). Hrvatski institut za povijest – Podružnica za povijest Slavonije, Srijema i Baranje. 8 (1): 152–173. ISSN 1332-4853. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- "Povijest saborovanja" [History of parliamentarism] (in Croatian). Sabor. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
- Frucht 2005, pp. 422–423.
- Márta Font (July 2005). "Ugarsko Kraljevstvo i Hrvatska u srednjem vijeku" [Hungarian Kingdom and Croatia in the Middle Ages]. Povijesni prilozi (in Croatian). Croatian Institute of History. 28 (28): 7–22. ISSN 0351-9767. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Lane 1973, p. 409.
- "Povijest Gradišćanskih Hrvatov" [History of Burgenland Croats] (in Croatian). Croatian Cultural Association in Burgenland. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Gordana Uzelac (2006). The Development of the Croatian Nation: An Historical And Sociological Analysis. Edwin Mellen Press. p. 260. ISBN 978-0773457911. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
- Branimir Anzulovic (1999). Heavenly Serbia: From Myth to Genocide. New York University Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-8147-0671-8. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
- Stanko Guldescu (1970). The Croatian-Slavonian Kingdom: 1526–1792. The Hague, Mouton. p. 72. ISBN 978-9027905369. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
- "Hrvatski sabor".
- Adkins & Adkins 2008, pp. 359–362.
- Harold Nicolson (2000). The Congress of Vienna: A Study in Allied Unity: 1812–1822. Grove Press. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-8021-3744-9. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Nikša Stančić (February 2009). "Hrvatski narodni preporod – ciljevi i ostvarenja" [Croatian National Revival – goals and achievements]. Cris: časopis Povijesnog društva Križevci (in Croatian). 10 (1): 6–17. ISSN 1332-2567. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
- Ante Čuvalo (December 2008). "Josip Jelačić – Ban of Croatia". Review of Croatian History. Croatian Institute of History. 4 (1): 13–27. ISSN 1845-4380. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- "Constitution of Union between Croatia-Slavonia and Hungary". H-net.org. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
- Ladislav Heka (December 2007). "Hrvatsko-ugarska nagodba u zrcalu tiska" [Croatian-Hungarian compromise in light of press clips]. Zbornik Pravnog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Rijeci (in Croatian). University of Rijeka. 28 (2): 931–971. ISSN 1330-349X. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- Branko Dubravica (January 2002). "Političko-teritorijalna podjela i opseg civilne Hrvatske u godinama sjedinjenja s vojnom Hrvatskom 1871–1886" [Political and territorial division and scope of civilian Croatia in the period of unification with the Croatian military frontier 1871–1886]. Politička misao (in Croatian). University of Zagreb, Faculty of Political Sciences. 38 (3): 159–172. ISSN 0032-3241. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- Max Polatschek (1989). Franz Ferdinand: Europas verlorene Hoffnung (in German). Amalthea. p. 231. ISBN 978-3-85002-284-2. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Spencer Tucker; Priscilla Mary Roberts (2005). World War I: encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 1286. ISBN 978-1-85109-420-2. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
- "Parlamentarni izbori u Brodskom kotaru 1923. godine" [Parliamentary Elections in the Brod District in 1932]. Scrinia Slavonica (in Croatian). Croatian Institute of History – Slavonia, Syrmium and Baranya history branch. 3 (1): 452–470. November 2003. ISSN 1332-4853. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Zlatko Begonja (November 2009). "Ivan Pernar o hrvatsko-srpskim odnosima nakon atentata u Beogradu 1928. godine" [Ivan Pernar on Croatian-Serbian relations after 1928 Belgrade assassination]. Radovi Zavoda za povijesne znanosti HAZU u Zadru (in Croatian). Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts (51): 203–218. ISSN 1330-0474. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Cvijeto Job (2002). Yugoslavia's ruin: the bloody lessons of nationalism, a patriot's warning. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-7425-1784-4. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
- Klemenčič & Žagar 2004, pp. 121–123.
- Klemenčič & Žagar 2004, pp. 153–156.
- Dragutin Pavličević, Povijest Hrvatske, Naklada Pavičić, Zagreb, 2007. ISBN 978-953-6308-71-2, str. 441–442.
- Dragutin Pavličević (2007). Povijest Hrvatske. Naklada Pavičić. pp. 441–442. ISBN 978-953-6308-71-2.
- Matea Vipotnik (22 June 2011). "Josipović: Antifašizam je duhovni otac Domovinskog rata" [Josipović: Anti-Fascism is a Spiritual Forerunner of the Croatian War of Independence]. Večernji list (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- Karakaš Obradov Marica (December 2008). "Saveznički zračni napadi na Split i okolicu i djelovanje Narodne zaštite u Splitu tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata" [Allied aerial attacks on Split and its surrounding and Civil Guard activity in Split during the World War II]. Historijski zbornik (in Croatian). Društvo za hrvatsku povjesnicu. 61 (2): 323–349. ISSN 0351-2193. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- C.W. Bracewell, John R. Lampe (2012). "History of Croatia, World War II". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. Retrieved 25 March 2013.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- Marko Maurović (May 2004). "Josip protiv Josifa" [Josip vs. Iosif]. Pro tempore – časopis studenata povijesti (in Croatian). Klub studenata povijesti ISHA (1): 73–83. ISSN 1334-8302. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- "Predsjednik Sabora Luka Bebić na obilježavanju 64. obljetnice pobjede nad fašizmom i 65. obljetnice trećeg zasjedanja ZAVNOH-a u Topuskom" [Speaker of the Parliament, Luka Bebić, at celebration of the 64th anniversary of the victory over fascism and the 65th anniversary of the 3rd session of the ZAVNOH session in Topusko] (in Croatian). Sabor. 9 May 2009. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- "Nezavisna Država Hrvatska - Hrvatska enciklopedija". Retrieved 23 December 2018.
- "ustaše - Hrvatska enciklopedija". Retrieved 23 December 2018.
- "koncentracijski logor - Hrvatska enciklopedija". Retrieved 23 December 2018.
- Bogoljub Kočović (2005). Sahrana jednog mita: žrtve Drugog svetskog rata u Jugoslaviji [Burial of a Myth: World War II Victims in Yugoslavia] (in Serbian). Otkrovenje. ISBN 978-86-83353-39-2. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Philip J. Cohen; David Riesman (1996). Serbia's Secret War: Propaganda and the Deceit of History. Texas A&M University Press. pp. 106–111. ISBN 978-0-89096-760-7. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Vladimir Geiger. "Human Losses of the Croats in World War II and the Immediate Post-War Period Caused by the Chetniks (Yugoslav Army in the Fatherand) and the Partisans (People's Liberation Army and the Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia/Yugoslav Army) and the Communist Authorities: Numerical Indicators". Croatian Institute of History: 85–87.
- Yeomans, Rory (2015). The Utopia of Terror: Life and Death in Wartime Croatia. Boydell & Brewer. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-58046-545-8.
- Ramet, Sabrina P. (2006). The Three Yugoslavias: State-Building and Legitimation, 1918–2005. New York: Indiana University Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-253-34656-8.
- US Holocaust Museum, USHMM. "Jasenovac". US Holocaust Museum.
- Yad Vashem Holocaust Museum and Research Center, Yad Vashem. "Independent State of Croatia" (PDF). Yad Vashem.
- Drago Hedl (10 November 2005). "Croatia's Willingness To Tolerate Fascist Legacy Worries Many". BCR Issue 73. IWPR. Retrieved 30 November 2010.
- "Croatia probes why Hitler image was on sugar packets". Reuters. 20 February 2007.
- Ivica Šute (April 1999). "Deklaracija o nazivu i položaju hrvatskog književnog jezika – Građa za povijest Deklaracije" [Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Standard Language – Declaration History Articles]. Radovi Zavoda za hrvatsku povijest (in Croatian). 31 (1): 317–318. ISSN 0353-295X.
- Vlado Vurušić (6 August 2009). "Heroina Hrvatskog proljeća" [Heroine of the Croatian Spring]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 6 August 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- Roland Rich (1993). "Recognition of States: The Collapse of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union". European Journal of International Law. 4 (1): 36–65. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Frucht 2005, p. 433.
- "Leaders of a Republic In Yugoslavia Resign". The New York Times. Reuters. 12 January 1989. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
- Davor Pauković (1 June 2008). "Posljednji kongres Saveza komunista Jugoslavije: uzroci, tijek i posljedice raspada" [Last Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia: Causes, Consequences and Course of Dissolution] (PDF). Časopis za suvremenu povijest (in Croatian). Centar za politološka istraživanja. 1 (1): 21–33. ISSN 1847-2397. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
- Branka Magas (13 December 1999). "Obituary: Franjo Tudjman". The Independent. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Chuck Sudetic (2 October 1990). "Croatia's Serbs Declare Their Autonomy". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
- Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Routledge. 1998. pp. 272–278. ISBN 978-1-85743-058-5. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
- Chuck Sudetic (26 June 1991). "2 Yugoslav States Vote Independence To Press Demands". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
- "Ceremonial session of the Croatian Parliament on the occasion of the Day of Independence of the Republic of Croatia". Official web site of the Croatian Parliament. Sabor. 7 October 2004. Archived from the original on 7 August 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Chuck Sudetic (4 November 1991). "Army Rushes to Take a Croatian Town". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Croatia Clashes Rise; Mediators Pessimistic". The New York Times. 19 December 1991. Archived from the original on 15 November 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Charles T. Powers (1 August 1991). "Serbian Forces Press Fight for Major Chunk of Croatia". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 16 May 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Marlise Simons (10 October 2001). "Milosevic, Indicted Again, Is Charged With Crimes in Croatia". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
- Stephen Kinzer (24 December 1991). "Slovenia and Croatia Get Bonn's Nod". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 June 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Paul L. Montgomery (23 May 1992). "3 Ex-Yugoslav Republics Are Accepted Into U.N." The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 November 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Dean E. Murphy (8 August 1995). "Croats Declare Victory, End Blitz". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 12 October 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
- Janine Natalya Clark (2014). International Trials and Reconciliation: Assessing the Impact of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. London: Routledge. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-31797-475-8.
- Chris Hedges (16 January 1998). "An Ethnic Morass Is Returned to Croatia". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
- "Partnerstvo za mir – Hrvatska enciklopedija". www.enciklopedija.hr.
- "MVEP • Svjetska trgovinska organizacija (WTO)". www.mvep.hr.
- "Kronologija: Težak put od priznanja do kucanja na vrata EU".
- "Kada je i kome Republika Hrvatska podnijela zahtjev za članstvo u Europskoj uniji?". uprava.gov.hr.
- "Kako je izgledao put Republike Hrvatske ka punopravnom članstvu u Europskoj uniji?". uprava.gov.hr.
- "Evo kako je izgledao hrvatski put prema EU!".
- "History and Development of Croatian Constitutional Judicature - Constitutional Court of the Republic of Croatia". www.usud.hr.
- Ivo Goldstein, Povijest Hrvatske 1945-2011, 3. svezak, EPH Media d.o.o.
- "Hrvatska postala članica NATO saveza".
- "Et tu, Zagreb?".
- "Croatia voters back EU membership". 1 June 2018 – via www.bbc.com.
- "Croatia celebrates on joining EU". 1 July 2013 – via www.bbc.com.
- "Šenada Šelo Šabić, Croatia's response to the refugee crisis, European Expression, Issue 100, 2016" (PDF).
- "2010 – Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia" (PDF). Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
- "World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- Mate Matas (18 December 2006). "Raširenost krša u Hrvatskoj" [Presence of Karst in Croatia]. geografija.hr (in Croatian). Croatian Geographic Society. Archived from the original on 9 June 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "The best national parks of Europe". BBC. 28 June 2011. Archived from the original on 1 July 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
- Jasminka Radović; Kristijan Čivić; Ramona Topić, eds. (2006). Biodiversity of Croatia (PDF). State Institute for Nature Protection, Ministry of Culture (Croatia). ISBN 953-7169-20-0. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Venue". 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia 2015, p. 42.
- "Najviša izmjerena temperatura zraka u Hrvatskoj za razdoblje od kada postoje meteorološka motrenja". Klima.hr (in Croatian). Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service. 21 July 2017. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
- Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia 2015, p. 43.
- "Evolution in Europe; Conservatives Win in Croatia". The New York Times. 9 May 1990. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- "Croatia country profile". BBC News. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- "Political Structure". Government of Croatia. 6 May 2007. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- "Ivo Josipović – biography". Office of the President of the Republic of Croatia. Archived from the original on 24 September 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- "Members of the Government". Government of Croatia. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- "About the Parliament". Sabor. Archived from the original on 6 July 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- "Members of the 6th Parliament". Sabor. Archived from the original on 6 July 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- "Overview of EU–Croatia relations". Delegation of the European Union to the Republic of Croatia. Archived from the original on 26 March 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- "Ustavne odredbe" [Provisions of the Constitution] (in Croatian). Croatian Supreme Court. 21 May 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- "Zakon o sudovima".
- Drago Pilsel (5 May 2011). "S kojim državama nemamo diplomatske odnose?" [Which countries do we have no diplomatic relations with?] (in Croatian). t-portal. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "Diplomatic Missions and Consular Offices to Croatia". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (Croatia). Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "Izviješće o obavljenoj reviziji – Ministarstvo vanjskih poslova i europskih integracija" [Audit Report – Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration] (PDF) (in Croatian). State Audit Office (Croatia). August 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
- "Foreign Policy Aims". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (Croatia). Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- Eduard Šoštarić (17 October 2005). "Mesićeva podrška UN-u blokira ulazak Hrvatske u NATO" [Mesić's support to the UN blocks Croatian NATO accession]. Nacional (in Croatian) (517). Archived from the original on 18 April 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "Izvješća o aktivnostima saborskih dužnosnika – rujan 2005: Odbor za parlamentarnu suradnju i odnose s javnošću Skupštine Zapadnoeuropske unije posjetio Hrvatski sabor" [Report on activities of Parliament officials – September 2005: Western European Union parliamentary cooperation and public relations committee visits Croatian Parliament] (in Croatian). Sabor. 26 September 2005. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "EU closes accession negotiations with Croatia". European Commission. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "Croatia signs EU accession treaty". European Union. 9 December 2011. Archived from the original on 23 January 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- Stephen Castle (10 June 2011). "Croatia Given Conditional Approval to Join E.U. in 2013". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "EU stalls over talks with Croatia". BBC News. 10 March 2005. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
- "Slovenia unblocks Croatian EU bid". BBC News. 11 September 2009. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
- "Slovenians Seem to Favor Arbitration in Border Dispute With Croatia". The New York Times. Reuters. 6 June 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "Overview of Croatia's Border Disputes with BiH, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, Liberland". www.total-croatia-news.com. 22 January 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- Steven Lee Myers (5 April 2008). "Bush Champions Expansive Mission for NATO". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "Nato welcomes Albania and Croatia". BBC News. 1 April 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "Membership of the Republic of Croatia in the UN Security Council 2008–2009". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (Croatia). Retrieved 24 September 2011.[permanent dead link]
- Stojan de Prato (4 February 2011). "Karamarko: Granični nadzor prema EU ukidamo 2015" [Karamarko: Border control towards the EU shall be abolished in 2015]. Večernji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 2 July 2011.
- Oleg Mandić (1952). "O nekim pitanjima društvenog uređenja Hrvatske u srednjem vijeku" [On some issues of social system of Croatia in the Middle Ages] (PDF). Historijski zbornik (in Croatian). Školska knjiga. 5 (1–2): 131–138. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- Frucht 2005, p. 429.
- Biondich 2000, p. 11.
- "Zakon o područjima županija, gradova i općina u Republici Hrvatskoj" [Territories of Counties, Cities and Municipalities of the Republic of Croatia Act]. Narodne novine (in Croatian). 30 December 1992. Archived from the original on 28 August 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- "Zakon o područjima županija, gradova i općina u Republici Hrvatskoj" [Territories of Counties, Cities and Municipalities of the Republic of Croatia Act]. Narodne novine (in Croatian). 28 July 2006. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- "Nacionalno izviješće Hrvatska" [Croatia National Report] (PDF) (in Croatian). Council of Europe. January 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- "Chain of Command in the CAF". Croatian Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- "SIPRI Military Expenditure Database". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Archived from the original on 28 March 2010. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- Milan Jelovac (23 January 2001). "Vojni rok u Hrvatskoj kraći, nego drugdje u Europi i NATO-u". Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 27 January 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- "Broj pripadnika OSRH u mirovnim misijama UN-a" (in Croatian). Croatian Ministry of Defence. 16 April 2011. Archived from the original on 19 March 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- "Hrvatska šalje još vojnika u Afganistan". eZadar (in Croatian). 8 December 2010. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- "Kosorica u službenom posjetu Kosovu". Index.hr (in Croatian). 24 August 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- Franičević, Mile (6 March 2011). "Hrvatski izvoz oružja i opreme lani narastao na 650 milijuna kuna". Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 4 April 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- "500 najvećih tvrtki Srednje Europe" [500 largest Central European companies] (in Croatian). Deloitte. 2016. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- "Rang lista 500 najvećih tvrtki Srednje Europe" [Ranking of the 500 Largest Central European Companies] (PDF) (in Croatian). Deloitte. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
- "World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017" (PDF). United Nations. 2017. p. 156. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
- "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- "GDP per capita in PPS". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- "Real GDP growth rate". Eurostat. Archived from the original on 22 August 2006. Retrieved 21 May 2008.
- "Republic Of Croatia – Croatian Bureau Of Statistics". Dzs.hr. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
- "Croatia Unemployment Rate". The Global Economy.com. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
- International Financial Statistics, IMF, May 2011
- "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund. October 2007. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
- "Foreign Trade in Goods of the Republic of Croatia, 2010 Final Data". Croatian Bureau of Statistics. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- "OEC – Croatia (HRV) Exports, Imports, and Trade Partners". The Observatory of Economic Complexity. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
- "Background Note: Croatia". United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 4 December 2008.
- "Corruption Perceptions Index 2018 Executive Summary p. 12" (PDF). transparency.org. Transparency International. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- "Croatia National Debt on Country Economy". countryeconomy.com. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- "Prihodi u 2017. najbolje pokazuju napredak hrvatskog turizma" [Revenue in 2017 show best Croatian tourism's progress]. hr.n1info.com (in Croatian). N1. 30 March 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
- Tomislav Pili; Davor Verković (1 October 2011). "Iako čini gotovo petinu BDP-a, i dalje niskoprofitabilna grana domaće privrede" [Even though it comprises nearly a fifth of the GDP, it is still a low-profit branch of the national economy]. Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- 2013 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia, p. 412.
- 2013 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia, p. 415.
- "Turistički prihod porast će prvi put nakon 2008" [Tourist income to rise for the first time since 2008]. t-portal.hr (in Croatian). T-Hrvatski Telekom. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- "History of Opatija". Opatija Tourist Board. Archived from the original on 29 April 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- "Activities and attractions". Croatian National Tourist Board. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- "Croatia". Foundation for Environmental Education. Archived from the original on 2 December 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- "UNWTO World Tourism Barometer" (PDF). October 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 September 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2008.
- "Croatian highlights, Croatia". Euro-poi.com. Archived from the original on 24 February 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Tanja Poletan Jugović (11 April 2006). "The integration of the Republic of Croatia into the Pan-European transport corridor network". Pomorstvo. University of Rijeka, Faculty of Maritime Studies. 20 (1): 49–65. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
- "Odluka o razvrstavanju javnih cesta u autoceste" [Decision on classification of public roads as motorways]. Narodne Novine (in Croatian). 25 July 2007. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
- "Odluka o izmjenama i dopunama odluke o razvrstavanju javnih cesta u autoceste" [Decision on amendments and additions to the Decision on classification of public roads as motorways]. Narodne Novine (in Croatian). 30 January 2009. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
- "Traffic counting on the roadways of Croatia in 2009 – digest" (PDF). Hrvatske ceste. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 February 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
- "EuroTest". Eurotestmobility.com. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
- "Brinje Tunnel Best European Tunnel". Javno.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2009. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
- 2013 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia, p. 346.
- Tomislav Pili (10 May 2011). "Skuplje korištenje pruga uništava HŽ" [More Expensive Railway Fees Ruin Croatian Railways]. Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- "Air transport". Ministry of the Sea, Transport and Infrastructure (Croatia). Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 5 March 2016. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2018.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "FAA Raises Safety Rating for Croatia". Federal Aviation Administration. 26 January 2011. Archived from the original on 26 June 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
- "Riječka luka –jadranski "prolaz" prema Europi" [The Port of Rijeka – Adriatic "gateway" to Europe] (in Croatian). World Bank. 3 March 2006. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Luke" [Ports] (in Croatian). Ministry of the Sea, Transport and Infrastructure (Croatia). Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- "Plovidbeni red za 2011. godinu" [Sailing Schedule for Year 2011] (in Croatian). Agencija za obalni linijski pomorski promet. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
- "The JANAF system". Jadranski naftovod. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- "Transportni sustav" [Transport system] (in Croatian). Plinacro. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- "Croatia, Slovenia's nuclear plant safe: Croatian president". EU Business. 28 March 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- "WHO Life Expectancy at birth". World Health Organization. 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- "Population in major towns and municipalities, 2011 census". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
- Max Roser (2014), "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last two centuries", Our World In Data, Gapminder Foundation
- "The World FactBook - Croatia", The World Factbook, 12 July 2018 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "U Hrvatskoj dvostruko više doseljenika" [Twice as many immigrants in Croatia]. Limun.hr. 21 July 2007. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- "Projekcija stanovništva Republike Hrvatske 2004. – 2051" [Projection of Population of the Republic of Croatia 2004–2051] (PDF) (in Croatian). Croatian Bureau of Statistics. 2006. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
- Snježana Mrđen; Mladen Friganović (June 1998). "The demographic situation in Croatia". Geoadria. Hrvatsko geografsko društvo – Zadar. 3 (1): 29–56. ISSN 1331-2294.
- "Traži se 40% više kvota za strane radnike". Poslovni dnevnik. 28 November 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
- Nick Vidak (2008). "The Policy of Immigration in Croatia". Politička misao: Croatian Political Science Review. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Political Science. 35 (5): 57–75. ISSN 0032-3241. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
- "Summary of judgement for Milan Martić". United Nations. 12 June 2007. Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2008.
- Prodger, Matt (5 August 2005). "Evicted Serbs remember Storm". BBC News. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012.
- "Report of the Secretary-General Submitted Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1009 (1995)" (PDF). United Nations Security Council. 23 August 1995. p. 3.
- "Domovinski rat - Hrvatska enciklopedija". Retrieved 24 December 2018.
- "Savez udruga Hrvata iz BiH izabrao novo čelništvo" [Union of associations of Bosnia and Herzegovina Croats elects new leadership] (in Croatian). Index.hr. 28 June 2003. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- "29 06 2010 – Benkovac" (in Croatian). Office of the President of Croatia. 29 June 2010. Archived from the original on 27 November 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- "International Migration and Development".
- "4. Population by ethnicity and religion". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Croatian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
- Croatian Constitution, Article 41
- "Population by Religion, by Towns/Municipalities, 2011 Census". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
- "Special EUROBAROMETER 225 "Social values, Science & Technology"" (PDF). p. 9.
- "Gallup Global Reports". Gallup. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- "Final Topline" (PDF). Pew. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- "Ustav Republike Hrvatske" [Constitution of the Republic of Croatia]. Narodne Novine (in Croatian). 9 July 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
- Sandra Veljković; Stojan de Prato (5 November 2011). "Hrvatski postaje 24. službeni jezik Europske unije" [Croatian Becomes the 24th Official Language of the European Union]. Večernji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 11 October 2011.
- "Izviješće o provođenju ustavnog zakona o pravima nacionalnih manjina i utrošku sredstava osiguranih u državnom proračunu Republike Hrvatske za 2007. godinu za potrebe nacionalnih manjina" [Report on Implementation of Constitutional Act on National Minority Rights and Expenditure of Funds Appropriated by the 2007 State Budget for Use by the National Minorities] (in Croatian). Sabor. 28 November 2008. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
- "Organska podloga hrvatskog jezika" [Organic Base of the Croatian Language] (in Croatian). Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
- Branka Tafra (February 2007). "Značenje narodnoga preporoda za hrvatski jezik" [Significance of the National Revival for Croatian Language]. Croatica et Slavica Iadertina (in Croatian). 2: 43–55. ISSN 1845-6839. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- Mate Kapović (2009). "Položaj hrvatskoga jezika u svijetu danas" [Position of Croatian Language in the World Today]. Kolo (in Croatian). Matica hrvatska (1–2). ISSN 1331-0992. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- "Istraživanje: Tri posto visokoobrazovanih ne zna niti jedan strani jezik, Hrvati uglavnom znaju engleski" [Survey: Three per cent of higher educated people can not speak any foreign languages, Croats mostly speak English] (in Croatian). Index.hr. 5 April 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
- "Europeans and their languages – European commission special barometer FEB2006" (PDF). European Commission. February 2006. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- "Croatia". European Union. European Commission. 5 July 2016. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
- "Population aged 10 and over by sex and illiterates by age, 2011 census". Croatian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
- "Newsweek study of Health, Education, Economy and Politics ranks the globe's top nations". Newsweek. 15 August 2010. Archived from the original on 31 August 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
- 2017 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia, p. 488.
- "Državna matura" (in Croatian). Ministry of Science, Education and Sports (Croatia). Archived from the original on 26 March 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- "Institut za razvoj obrazovanja – Pregled institucija". Iro.hr. Archived from the original on 6 March 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
- "O nama" [About us] (in Croatian). University of Zadar. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- "University of Zagreb 1699–2005". University of Zagreb. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- "60. rođendan Instituta Ruđer Bošković: Svijetu je dao ciklotron, spojeve i novi katalizator" [The 60th Anniversary of the Ruđer Bošković Institute: It Presented the World with a Cyclotron, Compounds and a New Catalyst]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). 9 June 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- "The Founding of the Academy". Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Archived from the original on 6 June 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- Siniša Zrinščak (February 2003). "Socijalna politika u kontekstu korjenite društvene transformacije postkomunističkih zemalja" [Social Policy in the Context of Thorough Social Transformation of Post-Communist Countries]. Revija za socijalnu politiku (in Croatian). 10 (2): 135–159. doi:10.3935/rsp.v10i2.124. ISSN 1330-2965. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- 2017 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia, p. 549.
- Marijana Matković (27 September 2011). "Ulaskom u EU Hrvatska će imati najveću potrošnju za zdravstvo" [After the EU accession Croatia will have the maximum healthcare spending]. Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- "Puni džepovi: europski smo rekorderi potrošnje, imamo najskuplju vlast u cijeloj Europskoj uniji!". Retrieved 30 March 2018.
- "Life expectancy increases by 5 years, but inequalities persist". World Health Organization. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
- "World Population Prospects – Population Division". esa.un.org. United Nations. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
- Marija Crnjak (10 January 2008). "U Hrvatskoj se puši manje nego u EU" [Fewer smokers in Croatia than in the EU] (in Croatian). Poslovni dnevnik. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- "Croatia". World Health Organization. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- UNESCO World Heritage Centre. "Historic City of Trogir". unesco.org. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- "Culture and History". Croatian National Tourist Board. Archived from the original on 16 October 2011. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
- "Djelokrug" [Scope of authority] (in Croatian). Ministry of Culture (Croatia). Retrieved 7 October 2011.
- "Browse the Lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage and the Register of good safeguarding practices – intangible heritage". ich.unesco.org. UNESCO – Culture Sector.
- Eric P. Nash (30 July 1995). "STYLE; Dressed to Kill". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- Vladimir Huzjan (July 2008). "Pokušaj otkrivanja nastanka i razvoja kravate kao riječi i odjevnoga predmeta" [The origin and development of the tie (kravata) as a word and as a garment]. Povijesni prilozi (in Croatian). Croatian Institute of History. 34 (34): 103–120. ISSN 0351-9767. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- "Trakošćan" (in Croatian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (Croatia). Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
- 2018 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia, pp. 512–513.
- 2017 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia, pp. 520-521.
- Adriana Piteša (10 November 2010). "Interliber: Nobelovci se prodaju za 20, bestseleri za 50, remek-djela za 100 kuna" [Interliber: Nobel Laureates Sold for 20, Bestsellers for 50, Masterpieces for 100 Kuna]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Conference on the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in Croatia, with regard to the persons with intellectual disabilities". European Union. 17 June 2009. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
- "Croatia passes civil partnerships law". PinkNews. 15 July 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- Radosavljević, Zoran (1 December 2013). "Croats set constitutional bar to same-sex marriage". Reuters.com. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- Stephen Clissold; Henry Clifford Darby (1968). A short history of Yugoslavia from early times to 1966. CUP Archive. pp. 51–52. ISBN 978-0-521-09531-0. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
- MacGregor, Sandra (17 June 2013). "Varaždin: Croatia's 'little Vienna'". Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "Najljepši gradovi Sjeverne Hrvatske – Karlovac, Ozalj, Ogulin" [The Most Beautiful Cities of the Northern Croatia – Karlovac, Ozalj, Ogulin]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). 14 August 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- Darja Radović Mahečić (2006). "Sekvenca secesije – arhitekt Lav Kalda" [Sequence of the Art Nouveau – Architect Lav Kalda] (PDF). Radovi Instituta za povijest umjetnosti (in Croatian). Institute of Art History (Croatia). 30: 241–264. ISSN 0350-3437. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "Croatian Art History – Overview of Prehistory". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (Croatia). Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "Church of Saint Donat". Zadar Tourist Board. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- Pavao Nujić (September 2011). "Josip Juraj Strossmayer – Rođeni Osječanin" [Josip Juraj Strossmayer – Native of Osijek]. Essehist (in Croatian). University of Osijek – Faculty of Philosophy. 2: 70–73. ISSN 1847-6236. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "The Baška tablet". Island of Krk Tourist Board. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Hrvatska književnost u 270.000 redaka" [Croatian Literature in 270,000 Lines] (in Croatian). Miroslav Krleža Institute of Lexicography. 11 February 2011. Archived from the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Robert D. Kaplan (18 April 1993). "A Reader's Guide to the Balkans". The New York Times.
- Benfield, Richard W. "Croatia". In Quick, Amanda C. (ed.). World Press Encyclopedia. 1 (2 ed.). Detroit: Gale. ISBN 0-7876-5583-X. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
- "Press Freedom Index 2010". Reporters Without Borders. Archived from the original on 24 November 2010. Retrieved 13 November 2010.
- "About Hina". HINA. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Darko Tomorad (July 2002). "Marina Mučalo: Radio in Croatia, book review". Politička misao. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Political Sciences. 38 (5): 150–152. ISSN 0032-3241.
- "Global Press Freedom Rankings" (PDF). Freedom House. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- "Croatia". Freedom House. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- "Amnesty International report 2009". Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
- "Popis programa digitalne televizije" [List of Digital Television Programmes] (in Croatian). Odašiljači i veze. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
- "HRT broadcasting via satellite". Croatian Radiotelevision. 20 May 2008. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- 2013 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia, pp. 509.
- Sandra Babić (15 January 2007). "Prva Internet televizija u Hrvatskoj" [The First Internet Television in Croatia] (in Croatian). Lider. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Merita Arslani (6 November 2010). "Već je 450 tisuća Hrvata prešlo na kabelsku i gleda 200 TV programa" [450 thousand Croats already switched to cable, watching 200 TV channels]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Print Products". Europapress Holding. Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Daily papers". Styria Media Group. Archived from the original on 21 September 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Vozab, Dina (December 2014). "Tisak u krizi: analiza trendova u Hrvatskoj od 2008. do 2013" (PDF). Medijske studije (in Croatian). 5 (10): 141. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
- Adriana Piteša (12 September 2006). "Ministarstvo financira rekordan broj filmova" [Ministry [of Culture] funding a record number of films]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 26 January 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Potpora hrvatskim filmovima i koprodukcijama" [Supporting Croatian Films and Co-Productions] (in Croatian). Croatian Radiotelevision. 18 March 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Vedran Jerbić (12 July 2011). "Trierova trijumfalna apokalipsa" [Trier's Triumphant Apocalypse]. Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Božidar Trkulja (29 May 2011). ""Surogat" napunio pola stoljeća" ["Ersatz" celebrates half a century]. Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Gastronomy and enology". Croatian National Tourist Board. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Skenderović, Robert (2002). "Kako je pivo došlo u Hrvatsku". Hrvatska revija (in Croatian). Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- "2008 Per-Capita Beer Consumption by Country". Kirin Institute of Food and Lifestyle Report Vol. 22. Kirin Brewery Company. 21 December 2009. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- Biserka Perman (May 2011). "Is sports system fair?". JAHR. University of Rijeka. 2 (3): 159–171. ISSN 1847-6376. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- "About Croatian Football Federation". Croatian Football Federation. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- "Evo vam Lige 16: Na utakmicama HNL-a prosječno 1911" [There's league 16: Average attendance at HNL matches stands at 1911] (in Croatian). Index.hr. 24 May 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- "Olympic medalists". Croatian Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 21 January 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2011.
- "Croatian Olympic Committee". hoo.hr. Croatian Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 4 July 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2011.
- Adkins, Roy; Adkins, Lesley (2008). The War for All the Oceans. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-311392-8. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Agičić, Damir; Feletar, Dragutin; Filipčić, Anita; Jelić, Tomislav; Stiperski, Zoran (2000). Povijest i zemljopis Hrvatske: priručnik za hrvatske manjinske škole [History and Geography of Croatia: Minority School Manual] (in Croatian). ISBN 978-953-6235-40-7. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Banac, Ivo (1984). The national question in Yugoslavia: origins, history, politics. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-9493-2. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Biondich, Mark (2000). Stjepan Radić, the Croat Peasant Party, and the politics of mass mobilization, 1904–1928. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-8294-7. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Cresswell, Peterjon (10 July 2006). Time Out Croatia (First ed.). London, Berkeley & Toronto: Time Out Group Ltd & Ebury Publishing, Random House. ISBN 978-1-904978-70-1. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
- Fisher, Sharon (2006). Political change in post-Communist Slovakia and Croatia: from nationalist to Europeanist. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-7286-6. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Forbrig, Joerg; Demeš, Pavol (2007). Reclaiming democracy: civil society and electoral change in central and eastern Europe. The German Marshall Fund of the United States. ISBN 978-80-969639-0-4. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Frucht, Richard C. (2005). Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-800-6. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Kasapović, Mirjana, ed. (2001). Hrvatska Politika 1990–2000 [Croatian Politics 1990–2000] (in Croatian). University of Zagreb, Faculty of Political Science. ISBN 978-953-6457-08-3. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Klemenčič, Matjaž; Žagar, Mitja (2004). The former Yugoslavia's diverse peoples: a reference sourcebook. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-294-3. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Lane, Frederic Chapin (1973). Venice, a Maritime Republic. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-1460-0. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Midlarsky, Manus I. (20 October 2005). The Killing Trap: Genocide in the Twentieth Century (First ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-44539-9. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- Magaš, Branka (2007). Croatia Through History: The Making of a European State. Saqi Books. ISBN 978-0-86356-775-9. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Mužić, Ivan (2007). Hrvatska povijest devetoga stoljeća [Croatian Ninth Century History] (PDF) (in Croatian). Naklada Bošković. ISBN 978-953-263-034-3. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- Tomasevich, Jozo (2001). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford Univ: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-3615-2.
- "Statistički pokazatelji o provedenim izborima za zastupnike u Sabor Socijalističke Republike Hrvatske – Prilog" [Statistical Indicators on Performed Elections of Representatives in the Parliament of the Socialist Republic of Croatia – Annex] (PDF) (in Croatian). Zagreb, Croatia: Croatian State Electoral Committee. 1990. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2015.
- Ostroški, Ljiljana, ed. (December 2013). Statistički ljetopis Republike Hrvatske 2013 [2013 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia] (PDF). Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia (in Croatian and English). 45. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. ISSN 1334-0638. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- Ostroški, Ljiljana, ed. (December 2015). Statistički ljetopis Republike Hrvatske 2015 [Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia 2015] (PDF). Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia (in Croatian and English). 47. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. ISSN 1333-3305. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Government website
- "Croatia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- Croatia from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Croatia.hr Official website of the Croatian National Tourist Board
- This is Croatia
- Croatia at Curlie
- Croatia – Lonely Planet
- Visit Croatia – a travel guide
- Croatia 2019: Best of Croatia Tourism – TripAdvisor
- Croatia profile from the BBC News
- Wikimedia Atlas of Croatia
- Geographic data related to Croatia at OpenStreetMap
- Key Development Forecasts for Croatia from International Futures