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Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services).[need quotation to verify] Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit."

Having a business name does not separate the business entity from the owner, which means that the owner of the business is responsible and liable for debts incurred by the business. If the business acquires debts, the creditors can go after the owner's personal possessions. A business structure does not allow for corporate tax rates. The proprietor is personally taxed on all income from the business.

The term is also often used colloquially (but not by lawyers or by public officials) to refer to a company. A company, on the other hand, is a separate legal entity and provides for limited liability, as well as corporate tax rates. A company structure is more complicated and expensive to set up, but offers more protection and benefits for the owner. (Full article...)

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Charles Ponzi (March 3, 1882 – January 18, 1949) was one of the greatest swindlers in American history. His aliases include Charles Ponei, Charles P. Bianchi, Carl and Carlo. The term "Ponzi scheme" is a widely known description of any scam that pays early investors returns from the investments of later investors. He promised clients a 50% profit within 45 days, or 100% profit within 90 days, by buying discounted postal reply coupons in other countries and redeeming them at face value in the United States as a form of arbitrage.[1] Ponzi was probably inspired by the scheme of William F. Miller, a Brooklyn bookkeeper who in 1899 used the same pyramid scheme to take in $1 million.[2]

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The Financial Tower in Ho Chi Minh City.
Photo credit: Genghiskhanviet

Bitexco Financial Tower is a skyscraper in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, owned by Bitexco Group, a Vietnamese company. With 68 floors above ground and three basements, the building has a height of 262.5 metres (861 ft), making it the 124th tallest building in the world. The tower was made by the French company AREP and architects J.M. Duthilleul, E. Tricaud and Carlos Zapata. World renowned Ecuadorian architect Carlos Zapata, who was behind Bitexco Financial Tower, drew inspiration for this skyscraper’s unique shape from Vietnam’s national flower, the Lotus. The tower was the tallest building in Vietnam from 2010 to early 2011 when Keangnam Hanoi Landmark Tower topped out on 24 January 2011. The tower was officially inaugurated on October 31, 2010.

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"Two fundamental questions that must be answered in controlling the inventory of any physical good are when to replenish the inventory and how much to order for replenishment. In this book we shall attempt to show how these questions can be answered under a variety of circumstances. Essentially every decision which is made in controlling inventoried in any organization, regardless of how complicated the inventory supply system may be, is in one way or another associated with the questions of when to order and how much to order. There are certain types of inventory problems, such as those concerned with the storage of water within dams, in which one has no control over the replenishment industry. (In other words, the ressuply of the inventory of water within the dam depends on the rainfall, and the organization operating the dam has no control over this.) We shall not consider this type of problem here. The only problems with which we shall concern ourselves are those in which the organization controlling the inventory has some freedom in determining when, and in what quantity, the inventory should be replaced. On other hand, we shall assume that, in general, the inventory system has no control over the demands which occur for the item, or items, which it stocks. Again, this is just the opposite of what one encounters in dealing with inventory problems such as storage of water within dams, since the efflux of water through the dam is completely within the control of the organization operating the dam. In short, we are going to consider the type of inventory problem encountered in business, industry, and the military.

We shall concentrate on showing how mathematical analysis can be used to help develop operating rules for controlling inventory systems. When mathematics is applied to the solution of inventory problems, it is necessary to describe mathematically the system to be studied. Such a description is often referred to as a mathematical model. The procedure is to construct a mathematical model of the system of interest and then to study the properties of the model. Because it is never possible to represent the real world with complete accuracy, certain approximations and simplifications must be made when constructing a mathematical model. There are many reasons on this. One is that it is essentially impossible to find out what the real world is like. Another is that a very accurate model the real world can become impossibly difficult to work with mathematically. A final reason is that accurate models often cannot be justified on economic grounds. Simple approximate ones will yield results which are good enough so that the additional improvement obtained from a better model is not sufficient to justify its additional cost."

Thomson McLintock Whitin and George F. Hadley, Analysis Of Inventory Systems, 1963


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  • ...the term petrodollars was coined by Ibrahim Oweiss to describe dollars that did not circulate inside the United States, and therefore were not part of the normal money supply, and instead were received by petroleum exporting countries (OPEC) in exchange for oil?


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  1. ^ "Ponzi Payment". Time magazine. January 5, 1931. Retrieved 2008-12-21. In 1920 thousands of gullibles had a more ornate picture of him. He was then the shrewd, straight-eyed miracle man of Boston's Hanover Street. He promised his clients a 50% profit in 45 days. ... The essence of his scheme was to buy postal reply coupons in countries with depreciated exchange, redeem them at face value for U. S.
  2. ^ "In Ponzi We Trust". Smithsonian magazine. December 1998. Retrieved 2008-12-21. Ponzi himself was probably inspired by the remarkable success of William “520 percent” Miller, a young Brooklyn bookkeeper who in 1899 fleeced gullible investors to the tune of more than $1 million.