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Introduction

Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services).[need quotation to verify] Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit. It does not mean it is a company, a corporation, partnership, or have any such formal organization, but it can range from a street peddler to General Motors."

Having a business name does not separate the business entity from the owner, which means that the owner of the business is responsible and liable for debts incurred by the business. If the business acquires debts, the creditors can go after the owner's personal possessions. A business structure does not allow for corporate tax rates. The proprietor is personally taxed on all income from the business.

The term is also often used colloquially (but not by lawyers or by public officials) to refer to a company. A company, on the other hand, is a separate legal entity and provides for limited liability, as well as corporate tax rates. A company structure is more complicated and expensive to set up, but offers more protection and benefits for the owner.

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1959 CPA 2341.jpg

During the Khrushchev era, from 1956 through 1962, the Soviet Union attempted to implement major wage reforms intended to move Soviet industrial workers away from the mindset of overfulfilling quotas that had characterised the Soviet economy during the preceding Stalinist period and toward a more efficient financial incentive.

Throughout the Stalinist period, most Soviet workers had been paid for their work based on a piece-rate system. Thus their individual wages were directly tied to the amount of work they produced. This policy was intended to encourage workers to toil and therefore increase production as much as possible. The piece-rate system led to the growth of bureaucracy and contributed to significant inefficiencies in Soviet industry. In addition, factory managers frequently manipulated the personal production quotas given to workers to prevent workers' wages from falling too low.

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Roman soldiers building a fortress, Trajan's Column, 113 AD
Photo credit: Genghiskhanviet

Project management is the process and activity of planning, organizing, motivating, and controlling resources, procedures and protocols to achieve specific goals in scientific or daily problems. A project is a temporary endeavor designed to produce a unique product, service or result with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and often constrained by funding or deliverables), undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring about beneficial change or added value. The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast with business as usual (or operations), which are repetitive, permanent, or semi-permanent functional activities to produce products or services. In practice, the management of these two systems is often quite different, and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills and management strategies.)

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The chart displays the make up of Irish GDP
...The economy of the Republic of Ireland is modern, relatively small, and trade-dependent with growth averaging a robust 10% in 19952000 (a more modest growth of 4.9% in 2005 est.). Agriculture, once the most important sector, is now dwarfed by industry, which accounts for 46% of GDP, about 80% of exports, and employs 29% of the labour force. Although exports remain the primary engine for the Republic's robust growth, the economy is also benefiting from a rise in consumer spending and recovery in both construction and business investment. Inflation stands at 2.3% as of 2005, but this is only a recent recovery from rates of between 4% and 5%. House price inflation has been a particular economic concern (average house price was €255,776 in February 2005 [1]) as well as service charges (utilities, insurance, healthcare, legal representation, etc.). Dublin, the nation's capital, was ranked 22nd in a worldwide cost of living survey in 2004 [2] - a rise of two places on 2003. Ireland has been reported to be the Second richest country in the EU (if not Europe) next to Luxembourg.
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Every manufacturer is confronted with the problem of finding the most economical quantity to manufacture in putting through an order. This is a general problem and admits of a general solution, and, however much it may be advisable to exercise judgment in a particular case, such exercise of judgment will be assisted by a knowledge of the general solution.

The writer has seen the practical workings of a first-class stock system and does not wish to be understood as claiming that any mere mathematical formula should be depended upon entirely for determining the amount of stock that should be carried or put through on an order. This is a matter that calls, in each case, for a trained judgment, for which there is no substitute.

There are many other factors of even more importance than those given in this discussion. But in deciding on the best size of order, the man responsible should consider all the factors that are mentioned. While it is perfectly possible to estimate closely enough what effect these factors will have, the chances are many mistakes costing money will be made. Hence, using the formula as a check, is at least warranted. Given the theoretically correct result, it is easy to apply such correction factors as may be deemed necessary.

Ford Whitman Harris, How many parts to make at once, 1913

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  • ... that Italy is the third largest producer of wine in the world?
  • ...that Calouste Gulbenkian was known as Mr. Five Percent because he retained 5% of the shares of Royal Dutch/Shell, the second-largest corporation in the world by revenue, which he participated in the formation of in 1907?

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