) is the scientific study of money
and its history
in all its varied forms. While numismatists are often characterized as studying coins
, the discipline also includes a much larger study of payment
media used to resolve debts
and the exchange of goods
Exonumia is the study of coin-like objects such as token coins and medals, and other items used in place of legal currency or for commemoration. Notaphily is the study of paper money or banknotes. Scripophily is the study and collection of stocks and Bonds. Numismatics is an ancient discipline, reaching as far back as Julius Caesar, who is often credited with writing the first book on numismatics. It can include the study of many different aspects relating to coins, including history, geography, economics, metallurgy, usage, and manufacturing processes.
Economic and historical studies of money's use and development are separate to the numismatists' study of money's physical embodiment (although the fields are related; economic theories of money's origin depend upon numismatics, for example).