The Numismatics Portal

Electrum coin from Ephesus, 520-500 BCE. Obverse: Forepart of stag. Reverse: Square incuse punch

Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, medals and related objects.

Specialists, known as numismatists, are often characterized as students or collectors of coins, but the discipline also includes the broader study of money and other means of payment used to resolve debts and exchange goods.

The earliest forms of money used by people are categorised by collectors as "odd and curious", but the use of other goods in barter exchange is excluded, even where used as a circulating currency (e.g., cigarettes or instant noodles in prison). As an example, the Kyrgyz people used horses as the principal currency unit, and gave small change in lambskins; the lambskins may be suitable for numismatic study, but the horses are not.[dubious ] Many objects have been used for centuries, such as cowry shells, precious metals, cocoa beans, large stones, and gems. (Full article...)

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Ten Dollar Bill (also referred to as The Dollar Bill) is a 1956 proto-pop art lithographic drawing by Roy Lichtenstein. Considered to be a combination of Americana art and cubism, the work is referred to as the beginning of Lichtenstein's work on pop art. Twenty-five editions of the lithograph were made by Lichtenstein, which were exhibited at several galleries. The piece is based on the design for the ten-dollar bill and has influenced several of Lichtenstein's later works. The picture has received generally favorable reception from critics, and is considered to be one of the best artistic portrayals of currency. (Full article...)
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Credit: Yom & Sniff.
Coin of King Ebana of Aksum.

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Newfoundland 2 dollar coin
Reverse, Newfounland two dollars

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The Thailand one-satang coin is a currency unit equivalent to one-hundredth of a Thai baht. It is rare in circulation but used in banking transactions.

The first satang coin was issued from 1908 to 1937, and featured a hole through the middle. It was made of bronze and measured 22mm in diameter, weighing 4.6g. It bore the name of King Rama VI. A coin in the same design was minted in 1939 with name of King Rama VIII, and had a mintage of 24.4 million. In 1941 the design of the coin changed, although it was still bronze with a hole. The diameter changed to 20mm and the weight to 3.5g. (Full article...)

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Credit: commons:User:Red devil 666.
Face of the famous 1896 $2 "Educational Series" silver certificate.

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Numismatic terminology

  • Bullion – Precious metals (platinum, gold and silver) in the form of bars, ingots or plate.
  • Error – Usually a mis-made coin not intended for circulation, but can also refer to an engraving or die-cutting error not discovered until the coins are released to circulation. This may result is two or more varieties of the coin in the same year.
  • Exonumia – The study of coin-like objects such as token coins and medals, and other items used in place of legal currency or for commemoration.
  • Fineness – Purity of precious metal content expressed in terms of one thousand parts. 90% is expressed as .900 fine.
  • Notaphily – The study of paper money or banknotes.
  • Scripophily – The study and collection of stocks and Bonds.

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Central banks • Currencies • Circulating currencies • Historical currencies • US community currencies • Canadian community currencies • Mints • Motifs on banknotes • Most expensive coins

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Most traded currencies

Most traded currencies by value
Currency distribution of global foreign exchange market turnover[1]
Rank Currency ISO 4217
code
Symbol or
abbreviation
Proportion of daily volume Growth rate (2019-2022)
April 2019 April 2022
1 U.S. dollar USD US$ 88.3% 88.5% Increase 0.2%
2 Euro EUR 32.3% 30.5% Decrease 5.5%
3 Japanese yen JPY ¥ / 16.8% 16.7% Decrease 0.6%
4 Sterling GBP £ 12.8% 12.9% Increase 0.7%
5 Renminbi CNY ¥ / 4.3% 7.0% Increase 62.7%
6 Australian dollar AUD A$ 6.8% 6.4% Decrease 5.8%
7 Canadian dollar CAD C$ 5.0% 6.2% Increase 24%
8 Swiss franc CHF CHF 4.9% 5.2% Increase 6.1%
9 Hong Kong dollar HKD HK$ 3.5% 2.6% Decrease 25.7%
10 Singapore dollar SGD S$ 1.8% 2.4% Increase 33.3%
11 Swedish krona SEK kr 2.0% 2.2% Increase 10%
12 South Korean won KRW ₩ / 2.0% 1.9% Decrease 5%
13 Norwegian krone NOK kr 1.8% 1.7% Decrease 5.5%
14 New Zealand dollar NZD NZ$ 2.1% 1.7% Decrease 19%
15 Indian rupee INR 1.7% 1.6% Decrease 5.8%
16 Mexican peso MXN $ 1.7% 1.5% Decrease 11.7%
17 New Taiwan dollar TWD NT$ 0.9% 1.1% Increase 22.2%
18 South African rand ZAR R 1.1% 1.0% Decrease 9%
19 Brazilian real BRL R$ 1.1% 0.9% Decrease 18.1%
20 Danish krone DKK kr 0.6% 0.7% Increase 16.6%
21 Polish złoty PLN 0.6% 0.7% Increase 16.6%
22 Thai baht THB ฿ 0.5% 0.4% Decrease 20%
23 Israeli new shekel ILS 0.3% 0.4% Increase 33.3%
24 Indonesian rupiah IDR Rp 0.4% 0.4% Steady 0%
25 Czech koruna CZK 0.4% 0.4% Steady 0%
26 UAE dirham AED د.إ 0.2% 0.4% Increase 100%
27 Turkish lira TRY 1.1% 0.4% Decrease 63.6%
28 Hungarian forint HUF Ft 0.4% 0.3% Decrease 25%
29 Chilean peso CLP CLP$ 0.3% 0.3% Steady 0%
30 Saudi riyal SAR 0.2% 0.2% Steady 0%
31 Philippine peso PHP 0.3% 0.2% Decrease 33.3%
32 Malaysian ringgit MYR RM 0.2% 0.2% Steady 0%
33 Colombian peso COP COL$ 0.2% 0.2% Steady 0%
34 Russian ruble RUB 1.1% 0.2% Decrease 81.8%
35 Romanian leu RON L 0.1% 0.1% Steady 0%
36 Peruvian sol PEN S/ 0.1% 0.1% Steady 0%
37 Bahraini dinar BHD .د.ب 0.0% 0.0% Steady 0%
38 Bulgarian lev BGN BGN 0.0% 0.0% Steady 0%
39 Argentine peso ARS ARG$ 0.1% 0.0% Decrease 100%
Other 1.8% 2.3% Increase 27.7%
Total[note 1] 200.0% 200.0%

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Sources

  1. ^ The total sum is 200% because each currency trade is counted twice: once for the currency being bought and once for the one being sold. The percentages above represent the proportion of all trades involving a given currency, regardless of which side of the transaction it is on. For example, the US dollar is bought or sold in 88% of all currency trades, while the euro is bought or sold in 31% of all trades.
  1. ^ "Triennial Central Bank Survey Foreign exchange turnover in April 2022" (PDF). Bank for International Settlements. 27 October 2022. p. 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-10-27. Retrieved 2022-10-29.
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