Portland (//, PORT-lənd) is a port city in the Pacific Northwest and the largest city in the U.S. state of Oregon. Situated at the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers, Portland is the county seat of Multnomah County, the most populous county in Oregon. As of 2020,[update] Portland had a population of 652,503, making it the 26th-most populated city in the United States, the sixth-most populous on the West Coast, and the second-most populous in the Pacific Northwest, after Seattle. Approximately 2.5 million people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area, making it the 25th most populous in the United States. About half of Oregon's population resides within the Portland metropolitan area.[a]
|City of Portland|
"Rose City"; "Stumptown"; "PDX"; see Nicknames of Portland, Oregon for a complete list.
|Incorporated||February 8, 1851|
|Named for||Portland, Maine|
|• Mayor||Ted Wheeler (D)|
|• Auditor||Mary Hull Caballero|
|• City||145.00 sq mi (375.55 km2)|
|• Land||133.49 sq mi (345.73 km2)|
|• Water||11.51 sq mi (29.82 km2)|
|• Urban||519.30 sq mi (1,345.0 km2)|
|Elevation||50 ft (15.2 m)|
|Highest elevation||1,188 ft (362 m)|
|Lowest elevation||0.62 ft (0.19 m)|
|• Rank||26th in the United States|
1st in Oregon
|• Density||4,888.10/sq mi (1,887.30/km2)|
|• Urban||2,104,238 (US: 23rd)|
|• Urban density||4,052.1/sq mi (1,564.5/km2)|
|• Metro||2,511,612 (US: 25th)|
|Time zone||UTC−08:00 (PST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−07:00 (PDT)|
|Area codes||503 and 971|
|GNIS feature ID||1136645|
Named after Portland, Maine, the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1840s, near the end of the Oregon Trail. Its water access provided convenient transportation of goods, and the timber industry was a major force in the city's early economy. At the turn of the 20th century, the city had a reputation as one of the most dangerous port cities in the world, a hub for organized crime and racketeering. After the city's economy experienced an industrial boom during World War II, its hard-edged reputation began to dissipate. Beginning in the 1960s, Portland became noted for its growing liberal and progressive political values, earning it a reputation as a bastion of counterculture.
The city operates with a commission-based government, guided by a mayor and four commissioners, as well as Metro, the only directly elected metropolitan planning organization in the United States. Its climate is marked by warm, dry summers and cool, rainy winters. This climate is ideal for growing roses, and Portland has been called the "City of Roses" for over a century.
During the prehistoric period, the land that would become Portland was flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from Lake Missoula, in what would later become Montana. These massive floods occurred during the last ice age and filled the Willamette Valley with 300 to 400 feet (91 to 122 m) of water.
Before American settlers began arriving in the 1800s, the land was inhabited for many centuries by two bands of indigenous Chinook people – the Multnomah and the Clackamas. The Chinook people occupying the land were first documented in 1805 by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Before its European settlement, the Portland Basin of the lower Columbia River and Willamette River valleys had been one of the most densely populated regions on the Pacific Coast.
Large numbers of pioneer settlers began arriving in the Willamette Valley in the 1840s via the Oregon Trail, with many arriving in nearby Oregon City. A new settlement then emerged ten miles from the mouth of the Willamette River, roughly halfway between Oregon City and Hudson’s Bay Company’s Fort Vancouver. This community was initially referred to as "Stumptown" and "The Clearing" because of the many trees cut down to allow for its growth. In 1843 William Overton saw potential in the new settlement but lacked the funds to file an official land claim. For 25 cents, Overton agreed to share half of the 640-acre (2.6 km2) site with Asa Lovejoy of Boston.
In 1845, Overton sold his remaining half of the claim to Francis W. Pettygrove of Portland, Maine. Both Pettygrove and Lovejoy wished to rename "The Clearing" after their respective hometowns (Lovejoy's being Boston, and Pettygrove's, Portland). This controversy was settled with a coin toss that Pettygrove won in a series of two out of three tosses, thereby providing Portland with its namesake. The coin used for this decision, now known as the Portland Penny, is on display in the headquarters of the Oregon Historical Society. At the time of its incorporation on February 8, 1851, Portland had over 800 inhabitants, a steam sawmill, a log cabin hotel, and a newspaper, the Weekly Oregonian. A major fire swept through downtown in August 1873, destroying twenty blocks on the west side of the Willamette along Yamhill and Morrison Streets, and causing $1.3 million in damage, roughly equivalent to $29.4 million today. By 1879, the population had grown to 17,500 and by 1890 it had grown to 46,385. In 1888, the first steel bridge on the West Coast was opened in Portland, the predecessor of the 1912 namesake Steel Bridge that survives today. In 1889, Henry Pittock's wife, Georgiana, established the Portland Rose Society. The movement to make Portland a "Rose City" started as the city was preparing for the 1905 Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition.
Portland's access to the Pacific Ocean via the Willamette and Columbia rivers, as well as its easy access to the agricultural Tualatin Valley via the "Great Plank Road" (the route of current-day U.S. Route 26), provided the pioneer city with an advantage over other nearby ports, and it grew very quickly. Portland remained the major port in the Pacific Northwest for much of the 19th century, until the 1890s, when Seattle's deepwater harbor was connected to the rest of the mainland by rail, affording an inland route without the treacherous navigation of the Columbia River. The city had its own Japantown, for one, and the lumber industry also became a prominent economic presence, due to the area's large population of Douglas fir, western hemlock, red cedar, and big leaf maple trees.
Portland developed a reputation early in its history as a hard-edged and gritty port town. Some historians have described the city's early establishment as being a "scion of New England; an ends-of-the-earth home for the exiled spawn of the eastern established elite." In 1889, The Oregonian called Portland "the most filthy city in the Northern States", due to the unsanitary sewers and gutters, and, at the turn of the 20th century, it was considered one of the most dangerous port cities in the world. The city housed a large number of saloons, bordellos, gambling dens, and boardinghouses which were populated with miners after the California Gold Rush, as well as the multitude of sailors passing through the port. By the early 20th century, the city had lost its reputation as a "sober frontier city" and garnered a reputation for being violent and dangerous.
Between 1900 and 1930, the city's population tripled from nearly 100,000 to 301,815. During World War II, it housed an "assembly center" from which up to 3,676 people of Japanese descent were dispatched to internment camps in the heartland. It was the first American city to have residents report thus, and the Pacific International Livestock Exposition operated from May through September 10, 1942, processing people from the city, northern Oregon, and central Washington. General John DeWitt called the city the first "Jap-free city on the West Coast."
At the same time, Portland became a notorious hub for underground criminal activity and organized crime in the 1940s and 1950s. In 1957, Life magazine published an article detailing the city's history of government corruption and crime, specifically its gambling rackets and illegal nightclubs. The article, which focused on crime boss Jim Elkins, became the basis of a fictionalized film titled Portland Exposé (1957). In spite of the city's seedier undercurrent of criminal activity, Portland enjoyed an economic and industrial surge during World War II. Ship builder Henry J. Kaiser had been awarded contracts to build Liberty ships and aircraft carrier escorts, and chose sites in Portland and Vancouver, Washington, for work yards. During this time, Portland's population rose by over 150,000, largely attributed to recruited laborers.
During the 1960s, an influx of hippie subculture began to take root in the city in the wake of San Francisco's burgeoning countercultural scene. The city's Crystal Ballroom became a hub for the city's psychedelic culture, while food cooperatives and listener-funded media and radio stations were established. A large social activist presence evolved during this time as well, specifically concerning Native American rights, environmentalist causes, and gay rights. By the 1970s, Portland had well established itself as a progressive city, and experienced an economic boom for the majority of the decade; however, the slowing of the housing market in 1979 caused demand for the city and state timber industries to drop significantly.
1990s to presentEdit
In the 1990s, the technology industry began to emerge in Portland, specifically with the establishment of companies like Intel, which brought more than $10 billion in investments in 1995 alone. After 2000, Portland experienced significant growth, with a population rise of over 90,000 between the years 2000 and 2014. The city's increased presence within the cultural lexicon has established it as a popular city for young people, and it was second only to Louisville, Kentucky as one of the cities to attract and retain the highest number of college-educated people in the United States. Between 2001 and 2012, Portland's gross domestic product per person grew fifty percent, more than any other city in the country.
The city has acquired a diverse range of nicknames throughout its history, though it is most often called "Rose City" or "The City of Roses", the latter of which has been its unofficial nickname since 1888 and its official nickname since 2003. Another widely used nickname by local residents in everyday speech is "PDX", which is also the airport code for Portland International Airport. Other nicknames include Bridgetown, Stumptown, Rip City, Soccer City, P-Town, Portlandia, and the more antiquated Little Beirut.
2020 George Floyd protestsEdit
Starting May 28, 2020, and extending into spring 2021, daily protests occurred regarding the murder of George Floyd by police and racial injustice. There were instances of looting, vandalism, and police actions causing injuries. There was the fatality of one protestor at the hands of another. Local businesses reported losses totaling millions of dollars as the result of vandalism and looting, according to Oregon Public Broadcasting. Some protests involved confrontations with law enforcement involving injury to protesters and police. In July, federal officers were deployed to safeguard federal property, whose presence and tactics were criticized by Oregon officials who demanded they leave, while lawsuits were filed against local and federal law enforcement alleging wrongful actions by them.
Portland lies on top of a dormant volcanic field known as the Boring Lava Field, named after the nearby bedroom community of Boring. The Boring Lava Field has at least 32 cinder cones such as Mount Tabor, and its center lies in southeast Portland. Mount St. Helens, a highly active volcano 50 miles (80 km) northeast of the city in Washington state, is easily visible on clear days and is close enough to have dusted the city with volcanic ash after its eruption on May 18, 1980. The rocks of the Portland area range in age from late Eocene to more recent eras.
Multiple shallow, active fault lines traverse the Portland metropolitan area. Among them are the Portland Hills Fault on the city's west side, and the East Bank Fault on the east side. According to a 2017 survey, several of these faults were characterized as "probably more of a hazard" than the Cascadia subduction zone due to their proximities to population centers, with the potential of producing magnitude 7 earthquakes. Notable earthquakes that have impacted the Portland area in recent history include the 6.8-magnitude Nisqually earthquake in 2001, and a 5.6-magnitude earthquake that struck on March 25, 1993.
Per a 2014 report, over 7,000 locations within the Portland area are at high-risk for landslides and soil liquefaction in the event of a major earthquake, including much of the city's west side (such as Washington Park) and sections of Clackamas County.
Portland is 60 miles (97 km) east of the Pacific Ocean at the northern end of Oregon's most populated region, the Willamette Valley. Downtown Portland straddles the banks of the Willamette River, which flows north through the city center and separates the city's east and west neighborhoods. Less than 10 miles (16 km) from downtown, the Willamette River flows into the Columbia River, the fourth-largest river in the United States, which divides Oregon from Washington state. Portland is approximately 100 miles (160 km) upriver from the Pacific Ocean on the Columbia.
Though much of downtown Portland is relatively flat, the foothills of the Tualatin Mountains, more commonly referred to locally as the "West Hills", pierce through the northwest and southwest reaches of the city. Council Crest Park at 1,073 feet (327 m) is often quoted as the highest point in Portland; however, the highest point in Portland is on a section of NW Skyline Blvd just north of Willamette Stone Heritage site. The highest point east of the river is Mt. Tabor, an extinct volcanic cinder cone, which rises to 636 feet (194 m). Nearby Powell Butte and Rocky Butte rise to 614 feet (187 m) and 612 feet (187 m), respectively. To the west of the Tualatin Mountains lies the Oregon Coast Range, and to the east lies the actively volcanic Cascade Range. On clear days, Mt. Hood and Mt. St. Helens dominate the horizon, while Mt. Adams and Mt. Rainier can also be seen in the distance.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 145.09 square miles (375.78 km2), of which 133.43 square miles (345.58 km2) is land and 11.66 square miles (30.20 km2) is water. Although almost all of Portland is within Multnomah County, small portions of the city are within Clackamas and Washington Counties, with populations estimated at 785 and 1,455, respectively.
Portland has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb) falling just short of a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa) with cool and rainy winters, and warm and dry summers. This climate is characterized by having overcast, wet, and changing weather conditions in fall, winter, and spring, as Portland lies in the direct path of the stormy westerly flow, and mild and dry summers when the North Pacific High reaches its northernmost point in mid-summer. Portland's USDA Plant Hardiness Zone is 8b, with parts of the Downtown area falling into zone 9a.
Winters are cool, cloudy, and rainy. The coldest month is December with an average daily high of 46.9 °F (8.3 °C), although overnight lows usually remain above freezing by a few degrees. Evening temperatures fall to or below freezing 32 nights per year on average, but very rarely to or below 18 °F (−8 °C). There are only 2.1 days per year where the daytime high temperature fails to rise above freezing. The infrequency of cold waves renders the mean for the coldest high to be at the exact freezing point of 32 °F (0 °C). The lowest overnight temperature ever recorded was −3 °F (−19 °C), on February 2, 1950, while the coldest daytime high temperature ever recorded was 14 °F (−10 °C) on December 30, 1968. The average window for freezing temperatures to potentially occur is between November 15 and March 19, allowing a growing season of 240 days.
Annual snowfall in Portland is 4.3 inches (10.9 cm), which usually falls during the December-to-March time frame. The city of Portland avoids snow more frequently than its suburbs, due in part to its low elevation and urban heat island effect. Neighborhoods outside of the downtown core, especially in slightly higher elevations near the West Hills and Mount Tabor, can experience a dusting of snow while downtown receives no accumulation at all. The city has experienced a few major snow and ice storms in its past with extreme totals having reached 44.5 in (113 cm) at the airport in 1949–50 and 60.9 in (155 cm) at downtown in 1892–93.
Summers in Portland are warm, dry, and sunny, though the sunny warm weather is short lived from mid June through early September. The months of June, July, August and September account for a combined 4.19 inches (106 mm) of total rainfall – only 11% of the 36.91 in (938 mm) of the precipitation that falls throughout the year. The warmest month is August, with an average high temperature of 82.3 °F (27.9 °C). Because of its inland location 70 miles (110 km) from the coast, as well as the protective nature of the Oregon Coast Range to its west, Portland summers are less susceptible to the moderating influence of the nearby Pacific Ocean. Consequently, Portland experiences heat waves on rare occasion, with temperatures rising into the 90 °F (32 °C) for a few days. However, on average, temperatures reach or exceed 80 °F (27 °C) on only 61 days per year, of which 15 days will reach 90 °F (32 °C) and only 1.3 days will reach 100 °F (38 °C). The most 90-degree days ever recorded in one year is 31, which happened in 2018.
On June 28, 2021, Portland recorded its all-time record high of 116 °F (47 °C) and its warmest daily low temperature of 75 °F (24 °C),[non-primary source needed] during the 2021 Western North America heat wave. A temperature of 100 °F (38 °C) has been recorded in all five months from May through September. The warmest night of the year averages 68 °F (20 °C).
Spring and fall can bring variable weather including high-pressure ridging that sends temperatures surging above 80 °F (27 °C) and cold fronts that plunge daytime temperatures into the 40s °F (4–9 °C). However, lengthy stretches of overcast days beginning in mid-fall and continuing into mid-spring are most common. Rain often falls as a light drizzle for several consecutive days at a time, contributing to 155 days on average with measurable (≥0.01 in or 0.25 mm) precipitation annually. Temperatures have reached 90 °F (32 °C) as early as April 30 and as late as October 5, while 80 °F (27 °C) has been reached as early as April 1 and as late as October 21. Thunderstorms are uncommon and tornadoes are exceptionally rare, although not impossible.
|Climate data for Portland, Oregon (PDX), 1991–2020 normals,[b] snow days 1981-2010, extremes 1940–present[c]|
|Record high °F (°C)||66
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||58.1
|Average high °F (°C)||47.5
|Average low °F (°C)||36.2
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||25.1
|Record low °F (°C)||−2
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||5.03
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||1.7
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||18.6||15.5||17.7||17.2||13.0||9.1||3.6||3.6||6.6||13.5||18.3||19.2||155.8|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||0.7||1.5||0.2||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.5||1.5||4.4|
|Average relative humidity (%)||80.9||78.0||74.6||71.6||68.7||65.8||62.8||64.8||69.4||77.9||81.5||82.7||73.2|
|Average dew point °F (°C)||33.6
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||85.6||116.4||191.1||221.1||276.1||290.2||331.9||298.1||235.7||151.7||79.3||63.7||2,340.9|
|Percent possible sunshine||30||40||52||54||60||62||70||68||63||45||28||23||52|
|Average ultraviolet index||1||2||3||5||6||7||8||7||5||3||2||1||4|
|Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity, dewpoint and sun 1961–1990)|
|Source 2: Weather Atlas  (UV index)|
Portland's cityscape derives much of its character from the many bridges that span the Willamette River downtown, several of which are historic landmarks, and Portland has been nicknamed "Bridgetown" for many decades as a result. Three of downtown's most heavily used bridges are more than 100 years old and are designated historic landmarks: Hawthorne Bridge (1910), Steel Bridge (1912), and Broadway Bridge (1913). Portland's newest bridge in the downtown area, Tilikum Crossing, opened in 2015 and is the first new bridge to span the Willamette in Portland since the 1973 opening of the double-decker Fremont Bridge.
Other bridges that span the Willamette River in the downtown area include the Burnside Bridge, the Ross Island Bridge (both built 1926), and the double-decker Marquam Bridge (built 1966). Other bridges outside the downtown area include the Sellwood Bridge (built 2016) to the south; and the St. Johns Bridge, a Gothic revival suspension bridge built in 1931, to the north. The Glenn L. Jackson Memorial Bridge and the Interstate Bridge provide access from Portland across the Columbia River into Washington state.
The Willamette River, which flows north through downtown, serves as the natural boundary between East and West Portland. The denser and earlier-developed west side extends into the lap of the West Hills, while the flatter east side extends for roughly 180 blocks until it meets the suburb of Gresham. In 1891 the cities of Portland, Albina, and East Portland were consolidated, creating inconsistent patterns of street names and addresses. It was not unusual for a street name to be duplicated in disparate areas. The "Great Renumbering" on September 2, 1931, standardized street naming patterns and divided Portland into five "general districts." It also changed house numbers from 20 per block to 100 per block and adopted a single street name on a grid. For example, the 200 block north of Burnside is either NW Davis Street or NE Davis Street throughout the entire city.
The six previous addressing sections of Portland, which were colloquially known as quadrants despite there being six, have developed distinctive identities, with mild cultural differences and friendly rivalries between their residents, especially between those who live east of the Willamette River versus west of the river. Portland's addressing sections are North, Northwest, Northeast, South, Southeast, and Southwest (which includes downtown Portland). The Willamette River divides the city into east and west while Burnside Street, which traverses the entire city lengthwise, divides the north and south. North Portland consists of the peninsula formed by the Willamette and Columbia Rivers, with N Williams Ave serving as its eastern boundary. All addresses and streets within the city are prefixed by N, NW, NE, S, SW or SE with the exception of Burnside Street, which is prefixed with W or E. Starting on May 1, 2020, former Southwest prefix addresses with house numbers on east–west streets leading with zero dropped the zero and the street prefix on all streets (including north–south streets) converted from Southwest to South. For example, the current address of 246 S California St. was changed from 0246 SW California St. and the current address of 4310 S Macadam Ave. was converted from 4310 SW Macadam Ave.
The new South Portland addressing section was approved by the Portland City Council on June 6, 2018 and is bounded by SW Naito Parkway, SW View Point Terrace and the Tryon Creek State Natural Area to the west, SW Clay Street to the north, the Willamette River to the east, and city limits to the south. It includes the Lair Hill, Johns Landing and South Waterfront districts and Lewis & Clark College as well as the Riverdale area of unincorporated Multnomah County south of the Portland city limits. In 2018, the city's Bureau of Transportation finalized a plan to transition this part of Portland into South Portland, beginning on May 1, 2020, to reduce confusion by 9-1-1 dispatchers and delivery services. With the addition of South Portland, all six addressing sectors (N, NE, NW, S, SE and SW) are now officially known as sextants.
The Pearl District in Northwest Portland, which was largely occupied by warehouses, light industry and railroad classification yards in the early to mid-20th century, now houses upscale art galleries, restaurants, and retail stores, and is one of the wealthiest neighborhoods in the city. Areas further west of the Pearl District include neighborhoods known as Uptown and Nob Hill, as well as the Alphabet District and NW 23rd Ave., a major shopping street lined with clothing boutiques and other upscale retail, mixed with cafes and restaurants.
North Portland is largely residential and industrial. It contains Kelley Point Park, the northernmost point of the city. It also contains the St. Johns neighborhood, which is historically one of the most ethnically diverse and poorest neighborhoods in the city.
Old Town Chinatown is next to the Pearl District in Northwest Portland. In 1890 it was the second largest Chinese community in the United States. In 2017, the crime rate was several times above the city average. This neighborhood has been called Portland's skid row. Southwest Portland is largely residential. Downtown district, made up of commercial businesses, museums, skyscrapers, and public landmarks represents a small area within the southwest address section. Portland's South Waterfront area has been developing into a dense neighborhood of shops, condominiums, and apartments starting in the mid-2000s. Development in this area is ongoing. The area is served by the Portland Streetcar, the MAX Orange Line and four TriMet bus lines. This former industrial area sat as a brownfield prior to development in the mid-2000s.
Southeast Portland is largely residential, and consists of several neighborhoods, including Hawthorne District, Belmont, Brooklyn, and Mount Tabor. Reed College, a private liberal arts college that was founded in 1908, is located within the confines of Southeast Portland as is Mount Tabor, a volcanic landform.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
|Black or African American||5.8%||6.3%||7.7%||5.6%||0.6%|
|Hispanic or Latino||9.7%||9.4%||3.2%||1.7%[d]||—|
The 2010 census reported the city as 76.1% White (444,254 people), 7.1% Asian (41,448), 6.3% Black or African American (36,778), 1.0% Native American (5,838), 0.5% Pacific Islander (2,919), 4.7% belonging to two or more racial groups (24,437) and 5.0% from other races (28,987). 9.4% were Hispanic or Latino, of any race (54,840). Whites not of Hispanic origin made up 72.2% of the total population.
In 1940, Portland's African-American population was approximately 2,000 and largely consisted of railroad employees and their families. During the war-time Liberty Ship construction boom, the need for workers drew many blacks to the city. The new influx of blacks settled in specific neighborhoods, such as the Albina district and Vanport. The May 1948 flood which destroyed Vanport eliminated the only integrated neighborhood, and an influx of blacks into the northeast quadrant of the city continued. Portland's longshoremen racial mix was described as being "lily-white" in the 1960s when the local International Longshore and Warehouse Union declined to represent grain handlers since some were black.
Over two-thirds of Oregon's African-American residents live in Portland. As of the 2000 census, three of its high schools (Cleveland, Lincoln and Wilson) were over 70% White, reflecting the overall population, while Jefferson High School was 87% non-White. The remaining six schools have a higher number of non-Whites, including Blacks and Asians. Hispanic students average from 3.3% at Wilson to 31% at Roosevelt.
Portland residents identifying solely as Asian Americans account for 7.1% of the population; an additional 1.8% is partially of Asian heritage. Vietnamese Americans make up 2.2% of Portland's population, and make up the largest Asian ethnic group in the city, followed by Chinese (1.7%), Filipinos (0.6%), Japanese (0.5%), Koreans (0.4%), Laotians (0.4%), Hmong (0.2%), and Cambodians (0.1%). A small population of Iu Mien live in Portland. Portland has two Chinatowns, with New Chinatown in the 'Jade District' along SE 82nd Avenue with Chinese supermarkets, Hong Kong style noodle houses, dim sum, and Vietnamese phở restaurants.
With about 12,000 Vietnamese residing in the city proper, Portland has one of the largest Vietnamese populations in America per capita. According to statistics, there are over 4,500 Pacific Islanders in Portland, making up 0.7% of the city's population. There is a Tongan community in Portland, who arrived in the area in the 1970s, and Tongans and Pacific Islanders as a whole are one of the fastest-growing ethnic groups in the Portland area.
Portland's population has been and remains predominantly White. In 1940, Whites were over 98% of the city's population. In 2009, Portland had the fifth-highest percentage of White residents among the 40 largest U.S. metropolitan areas. A 2007 survey of the 40 largest cities in the U.S. concluded Portland's urban core has the highest percentage of White residents. Some scholars have noted the Pacific Northwest as a whole is "one of the last Caucasian bastions of the United States". While Portland's diversity was historically comparable to metro Seattle and Salt Lake City, those areas grew more diverse in the late 1990s and 2000s. Portland not only remains White, but migration to Portland is disproportionately White.
The Oregon Territory banned African American settlement in 1849. In the 19th century, certain laws allowed the immigration of Chinese laborers but prohibited them from owning property or bringing their families. The early 1920s saw the rapid growth of the Ku Klux Klan, which became very influential in Oregon politics, culminating in the election of Walter M. Pierce as governor.
The largest influxes of minority populations occurred during World War II, as the African American population grew by a factor of 10 for wartime work. After World War II, the Vanport flood in 1948 displaced many African Americans. As they resettled, redlining directed the displaced workers from the wartime settlement to neighboring Albina. There and elsewhere in Portland, they experienced police hostility, lack of employment, and mortgage discrimination, leading to half the black population leaving after the war.
In the 1980s and 1990s, radical skinhead groups flourished in Portland. In 1988, Mulugeta Seraw, an Ethiopian immigrant, was killed by three skinheads. The response to his murder involved a community-driven series of rallies, campaigns, nonprofits and events designed to address Portland's racial history, leading to a city considered significantly more tolerant than in 1988 at Seraw's death.
As of the 2010 census, there were 583,776 people living in the city, organized into 235,508 households. The population density was 4,375.2 people per square mile. There were 265,439 housing units at an average density of 1989.4 per square mile (1,236.3/km2). Population growth in Portland increased 10.3% between 2000 and 2010. Population growth in the Portland metropolitan area has outpaced the national average during the last decade, and this is expected to continue over the next 50 years.
Out of 223,737 households, 24.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.1% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 47.1% were non-families. 34.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.3 and the average family size was 3. The age distribution was 21.1% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 34.7% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, and 11.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.9 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $40,146, and the median income for a family was $50,271. Males had a reported median income of $35,279 versus $29,344 reported for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,643. 13.1% of the population and 8.5% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 15.7% of those under the age of 18 and 10.4% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Figures delineating the income levels based on race are not available at this time. According to the Modern Language Association, in 2010 80.9% (539,885) percent of Multnomah County residents ages 5 and over spoke English as their primary language at home. 8.1% of the population spoke Spanish (54,036), with Vietnamese speakers making up 1.9%, and Russian 1.5%.
The Portland metropolitan area has historically had a significant LGBT population throughout the late 20th and early 21st century. In 2015, the city metro had the second highest percentage of LGBT residents in the United States with 5.4% of residents identifying as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender, second only to San Francisco. In 2006, it was reported to have the seventh highest LGBT population in the country, with 8.8% of residents identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual, and the metro ranking fourth in the nation at 6.1%. The city held its first pride festival in 1975 on the Portland State University campus.
Portland has been cited as the least religious city in the United States with over 42% of residents identifying as religiously "unaffiliated", according to the nonpartisan and nonprofit Public Religion Research Institute's American Values Atlas.
A 2019 survey by the city's budget office showed that homelessness is perceived as the top challenge facing Portland, and was cited as a reason people move and do not participate in park programs. Calls to 911 concerning "unwanted persons" have significantly increased between 2013 and 2018, and the police are increasingly dealing with homeless and mentally ill. It is taking a toll on sense of safety among visitors and residents and business owners are adversely impacted. Even though homeless services and shelter beds have increased, as of 2020 homelessness is considered an intractable problem in Portland.
The proposed budget for 2022–23 includes $5.8MM to buy land for affordable housing, and $36MM to equip and operate "safe rest villages". A 2022 initiative approved by the Portland city council makes homeless camping illegal, eventually requiring houseless individuals to move into mass shelters.
According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Report in 2009, Portland ranked 53rd in violent crime out of the top 75 U.S. cities with a population greater than 250,000. The murder rate in Portland in 2013 averaged 2.3 murders per 100,000 people per year, which was lower than the national average. In 2011, 72% of arrested male subjects tested positive for illegal drugs and the city was dubbed the "deadliest drug market in the Pacific Northwest" due to drug related deaths. In 2010, ABC's Nightline reported that Portland is one of the largest hubs for child sex trafficking.
In the Portland Metropolitan statistical area which includes Clackamas, Columbia, Multnomah, Washington, and Yamhill Counties, OR and Clark and Skamania Counties, WA for 2017, the murder rate was 2.6, violent crime was 283.2 per 100,000 people per year. In 2017, the population within the city of Portland was 649,408 and there were 24 murders and 3,349 violent crimes.
For the entire 2021 year, Portland recorded 90 homicides, compared with 20 in 2016, and 27 in 2017
Below is a sortable table containing violent crime data from each Portland neighborhood during the calendar year of 2014.
|Violent Crime by Neighborhood in Portland (2014)|
|Totals||Per 100,000 residents|
|Neighborhood||Population||Aggravated Assault||Homicide||Rape||Robbery||Aggravated Assault||Homicide||Rape||Robbery|
|Rose City Park||8,982||6||0||0||8||66.8||0.0||0.0||89.1|
|West Portland Park||3,921||6||0||0||1||153.0||0.0||0.0||25.5|
Portland's location is beneficial for several industries. Relatively low energy cost, accessible resources, north–south and east–west Interstates, international air terminals, large marine shipping facilities, and both west coast intercontinental railroads are all economic advantages.
The city's marine terminals alone handle over 13 million tons of cargo per year, and the port is home to one of the largest commercial dry docks in the country. The Port of Portland is the third-largest export tonnage port on the west coast of the U.S., and being about 80 miles (130 km) upriver, it is the largest fresh-water port.
The scrap steel industry's history in Portland predates World War II. By the 1950s, the scrap steel industry became the city's number one industry for employment. The scrap steel industry thrives in the region, with Schnitzer Steel Industries, a prominent scrap steel company, shipping a record 1.15 billion tons of scrap metal to Asia during 2003. Other heavy industry companies include ESCO Corporation and Oregon Steel Mills.
Technology is a major component of the city's economy, with more than 1,200 technology companies existing within the metro. This high density of technology companies has led to the nickname Silicon Forest being used to describe the Portland area, a reference to the abundance of trees in the region and to the Silicon Valley region in Northern California. The area also hosts facilities for software companies and online startup companies, some supported by local seed funding organizations and business incubators. Computer components manufacturer Intel is the Portland area's largest employer, providing jobs for more than 15,000 people, with several campuses to the west of central Portland in the city of Hillsboro.
The Portland metro area has become a business cluster for athletic/outdoor gear and footwear manufacturer's headquarters. Shoes are not manufactured in Portland. The area is home to the global, North American or U.S. headquarters of Nike (the only Fortune 500 company headquartered in Oregon), Adidas, Columbia Sportswear, LaCrosse Footwear, Dr. Martens, Li-Ning, Keen, and Hi-Tec Sports. While headquartered elsewhere, Merrell, Amer Sports and Under Armour have design studios and local offices in the Portland area.
Other notable Portland-based companies include industrial goods and metal fabrication company Precision Castparts, film animation studio Laika; commercial vehicle manufacturer Daimler Trucks North America; advertising firm Wieden+Kennedy; bankers Umpqua Holdings; child care and early childhood education provider KinderCare Learning Centers; and retailers Fred Meyer, New Seasons Market, and Storables.
Breweries are another major industry in Portland, which is home to 139 breweries/microbreweries, the 7th most in the nation, as of December 2018. Additionally, the city boasts a robust coffee culture that now rivals Seattle and hosts over 20 coffee roasters.
In 2016, home prices in Portland grew faster than in any other city in the United States. Apartment rental costs in Portland reported in November 2019 was $1,337 for two bedroom and $1,133 for one bedroom.
In 2017, developers projected an additional 6,500 apartments to be built in the Portland Metro Area over the next year. However, as of December 2019, the number of homes available for rent or purchase in Portland continues to shrink. Over the past year, housing prices in Portland have risen 2.5%. Housing prices in Portland continue to rise, the median price rising from $391,400 in November 2018 to $415,000 in November 2019. There has been a rise of people from out of state moving to Portland, which impacts housing availability. Because of the demand for affordable housing and influx of new residents, more Portlanders in their 20s and 30s are still living in their parents' homes.
Arts and cultureEdit
Music, film, and performing artsEdit
Portland is home to a range of classical performing arts institutions including the Portland Opera, Portland Baroque Orchestra, Oregon Symphony and Portland Youth Philharmonic; the last of these, established in 1924, was the first youth orchestra established in the United States. The city is also home to several theaters and performing arts institutions including the Oregon Ballet Theatre, Northwest Children's Theatre, Portland Center Stage, Artists Repertory Theatre and Miracle Theatre.
In 2013, The Guardian named the city's music scene as one of the "most vibrant" in the United States. Portland is home to famous bands such as the Kingsmen and Paul Revere & the Raiders, both famous for their association with the song "Louie Louie" (1963). Other widely known musical groups include the Dandy Warhols, Quarterflash, Everclear, Pink Martini, Sleater-Kinney, Blitzen Trapper, the Decemberists, and the late Elliott Smith. More recently, Portugal. The Man, Modest Mouse, and the Shins have made their home in Portland. In the 1980s, the city was home to a burgeoning punk scene, which included bands such as the Wipers and Dead Moon. The city's now-demolished Satyricon nightclub was a punk venue notorious for being the place where Nirvana frontman Kurt Cobain first encountered his future wife and Hole frontwoman Courtney Love in 1990. Love was then a resident of Portland and started several bands there with Kat Bjelland, later of Babes in Toyland. Multi-Grammy award-winning jazz artist Esperanza Spalding is from Portland and performed with the Chamber Music Society of Oregon at a young age.
A wide range of films have been shot in Portland, from various independent features to major big-budget productions. Director Gus Van Sant has notably set and shot many of his films in the city. The city has also been featured in various television programs, notably the IFC sketch comedy series Portlandia. The series, which ran for eight seasons from 2011 to 2018, was shot on location in Portland, and satirized the city as a hub of liberal politics, organic food, alternative lifestyles, and anti-establishment attitudes. MTV's long-time running reality show The Real World was also shot in Portland for the show's 29th season: The Real World: Portland premiered on MTV in 2013. Other television series shot in the city include Leverage, The Librarians, Under Suspicion, Grimm, and Nowhere Man.
An unusual feature of Portland entertainment is the large number of movie theaters serving beer, often with second-run or revival films. Notable examples of these "brew and view" theaters include the Bagdad Theater and Pub, a former vaudeville theater built in 1927 by Universal Studios; Cinema 21; and the Laurelhurst Theater, in operation since 1923. Portland hosts the world's longest-running H. P. Lovecraft Film Festival at the Hollywood Theatre.
Museums and recreationEdit
Portland is home to numerous museums and educational institutions, ranging from art museums to institutions devoted to science and wildlife. Among the science-oriented institutions are the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI), which consists of five main halls and other ticketed attractions, such as the USS Blueback submarine, the ultra-large-screen Empirical Theater (which replaced an OMNIMAX theater in 2013), and the Kendall Planetarium. The World Forestry Center Discovery Museum, located in the city's Washington Park area, offers educational exhibits on forests and forest-related subjects. Also located in Washington Park are the Hoyt Arboretum, the International Rose Test Garden, the Japanese Garden, and the Oregon Zoo.
The Portland Art Museum owns the city's largest art collection and presents a variety of touring exhibitions each year and, with the recent addition of the Modern and Contemporary Art wing, it became one of the United States' 25 largest museums. The Oregon Historical Society Museum, founded in 1898, which has a variety of books, film, pictures, artifacts, and maps dating back throughout Oregon's history. It houses permanent and temporary exhibits about Oregon history, and hosts traveling exhibits about the history of the United States.
Oaks Amusement Park, in the Sellwood district of Southeast Portland, is the city's only amusement park and is also one of the country's longest-running amusement parks. It has operated since 1905 and was known as the "Coney Island of the Northwest" upon its opening.
Cuisine and breweriesEdit
Portland has 58 active breweries within city limits, and 70+ within the surrounding metro area. and data compiled by the Brewers Association ranks Portland seventh in the United States as of 2018.
Portland hosts a number of festivals throughout the year that celebrate beer and brewing, including the Oregon Brewers Festival, held in Tom McCall Waterfront Park. Held each summer during the last full weekend of July, it is the largest outdoor craft beer festival in North America, with over 70,000 attendees in 2008. Other major beer festivals throughout the calendar year include the Spring Beer and Wine Festival in April, the North American Organic Brewers Festival in June, the Portland International Beerfest in July, and the Holiday Ale Festival in December.
The city became a pioneer of state-directed metropolitan planning, a program which was instituted statewide in 1969 to compact the urban growth boundaries of the city. Portland was the first city to enact a comprehensive plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
Free speech and public nudityEdit
Strong free speech protections of the Oregon Constitution upheld by the Oregon Supreme Court in State v. Henry, specifically found that full nudity and lap dances in strip clubs are protected speech. Portland has the highest number of strip clubs per-capita in a city in the United States, and Oregon ranks as the highest state for per-capita strip clubs.
In November 2008, a Multnomah County judge dismissed charges against a nude bicyclist arrested on June 26, 2008. The judge stated that the city's annual World Naked Bike Ride – held each year in June since 2004 – has created a "well-established tradition" in Portland where cyclists may ride naked as a form of protest against cars and fossil fuel dependence. The defendant was not riding in the official World Naked Bike Ride at the time of his arrest as it had occurred 12 days earlier that year, on June 14.
From November 10 to 12, 2016, protests in Portland turned into a riot, when a group broke off from a larger group of peaceful protesters who were opposed to the election of Donald Trump as president of the United States.
Portland is home to three major league sports franchises: the Portland Trail Blazers of the NBA, the Portland Timbers of Major League Soccer (MLS), and the Portland Thorns FC of the National Women's Soccer League. In 2015, the Timbers won the MLS Cup, which was the first male professional sports championship for a team from Portland since the Trail Blazers won the NBA championship in 1977. Despite being the 19th most populated metro area in the United States, Portland contains only one franchise from the NFL, NBA, NHL, or MLB, making it United States second most populated metro area with that distinction, behind San Antonio. The city has been often rumored to receive an additional franchise, although efforts to acquire a team have failed due to stadium funding issues. An organization known as the Portland Diamond Project (PDP) has worked with the MLB and local government, and there are plans to have an MLB stadium constructed in the industrial district of Portland. The PDP has not yet received the funding for this project.
Portland sports fans are characterized by their passionate support. The Trail Blazers sold out every home game between 1977 and 1995, a span of 814 consecutive games, the second-longest streak in American sports history. The Timbers joined MLS in 2011 and have sold out every home match since joining the league, a streak that has now reached 70+ matches. The Timbers season ticket waiting list has reached 10,000+, the longest waiting list in MLS. In 2015, they became the first team in the Northwest to win the MLS Cup. Player Diego Valeri marked a new record for fastest goal in MLS Cup history at 27 seconds into the game.
The annual Cambia Portland Classic women's golf tournament in September, now in its 50th year, is the longest-running non-major tournament on the LPGA Tour, plays in the southern suburb of West Linn.
Two rival universities exist within Portland city limits: the University of Portland Pilots and the Portland State University Vikings, both of whom field teams in popular spectator sports including soccer, baseball, and basketball. Portland State also has a football team. Additionally, the University of Oregon Ducks and the Oregon State University Beavers both receive substantial attention and support from many Portland residents, despite their campuses being 110 and 84 miles from the city, respectively.
Running is a popular activity in Portland, and every year the city hosts the Portland Marathon as well as parts of the Hood to Coast Relay, the world's largest long-distance relay race (by number of participants). Portland served as the center to an elite running group, the Nike Oregon Project until its 2019 disbandment following coach Alberto Salazar's ban due to doping violations  and is the residence of elite runners including American record holder at 10,000m Galen Rupp.
Portland also hosts numerous cycling events and has become an elite bicycle racing destination. The Oregon Bicycle Racing Association supports hundreds of official bicycling events every year. Weekly events at Alpenrose Velodrome and Portland International Raceway allow for racing nearly every night of the week from March through September. Cyclocross races, such as the Cross Crusade, can attract over 1,000 riders and spectators.
On December 4, 2019, the Vancouver Riptide of the American Ultimate Disc League announced that they ceased team operations in Vancouver in 2017 and are moving down to Portland Oregon for the 2020 AUDL season.
|Portland Trail Blazers||Basketball||NBA||1 (1977)||Moda Center||1970|
|Portland Thorns FC||Soccer||NWSL||3 (2013, 2017, 2022)||Providence Park||2012|
|Portland Timbers||Soccer||MLS||1 (2015)||Providence Park||2009|
|Portland Timbers 2||Soccer||MLS Next Pro||0||Hillsboro Stadium||2014|
|Hillsboro Hops||Baseball||Northwest League||3 (2014, 2015, 2019)||Ron Tonkin Field||2013|
|Portland Winterhawks||Hockey||WHL||3 (1981–82, 1997–98, 2012–13)||Veterans Memorial Coliseum||1976|
Parks and recreationEdit
Parks and greenspace planning date back to John Charles Olmsted's 1903 Report to the Portland Park Board. In 1995, voters in the Portland metropolitan region passed a regional bond measure to acquire valuable natural areas for fish, wildlife, and people. Ten years later, more than 8,100 acres (33 km2) of ecologically valuable natural areas had been purchased and permanently protected from development.
Portland is one of only four cities in the U.S. with extinct volcanoes within its boundaries (along with Pilot Butte in Bend, Oregon, Jackson Volcano in Jackson, Mississippi, and Diamond Head in Honolulu, Hawaii). Mount Tabor Park is known for its scenic views and historic reservoirs.
Forest Park is the largest wilderness park within city limits in the United States, covering more than 5,000 acres (2,023 ha). Portland is also home to Mill Ends Park, the world's smallest park (a two-foot-diameter circle, the park's area is only about 0.3 m2). Washington Park is just west of downtown and is home to the Oregon Zoo, Hoyt Arboretum, the Portland Japanese Garden, and the International Rose Test Garden. Portland is also home to Lan Su Chinese Garden (formerly the Portland Classical Chinese Garden), an authentic representation of a Suzhou-style walled garden. Portland's east side has several formal public gardens: the historic Peninsula Park Rose Garden, the rose gardens of Ladd's Addition, the Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden, the Leach Botanical Garden, and The Grotto.
Portland's downtown features two groups of contiguous city blocks dedicated for park space: the North and South Park Blocks. The 37-acre (15 ha) Tom McCall Waterfront Park was built in 1974 along the length of the downtown waterfront after Harbor Drive was removed; it now hosts large events throughout the year. The nearby historically significant Burnside Skatepark and five indoor skateparks give Portland a reputation as possibly "the most skateboard-friendly town in America."
Tryon Creek State Natural Area is one of three Oregon State Parks in Portland and the most popular; its creek has a run of steelhead. The other two State Parks are Willamette Stone State Heritage Site, in the West Hills, and the Government Island State Recreation Area in the Columbia River near Portland International Airport.
Portland's city park system has been proclaimed one of the best in America. In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, the Trust for Public Land reported Portland had the seventh-best park system among the 50 most populous U.S. cities. In February 2015, the City Council approved a total ban on smoking in all city parks and natural areas and the ban has been in force since July 1, 2015. The ban includes cigarettes, vaping, as well as marijuana.
The city of Portland is governed by the Portland City Council, which includes a mayor, four commissioners, and an auditor. Each is elected citywide to serve a four-year term. Each commissioner oversees one or more bureaus responsible for the day-to-day operation of the city. The mayor serves as chairman of the council and is principally responsible for allocating department assignments to his fellow commissioners. The auditor provides checks and balances in the commission form of government and accountability for the use of public resources. In addition, the auditor provides access to information and reports on various matters of city government. Portland is the only large city left in the United States with the commission form of government.
The city's Community & Civic Life (formerly Office of Neighborhood Involvement) serves as a conduit between city government and Portland's 95 officially recognized neighborhoods. Each neighborhood is represented by a volunteer-based neighborhood association which serves as a liaison between residents of the neighborhood and the city government. The city provides funding to neighborhood associations through seven district coalitions, each of which is a geographical grouping of several neighborhood associations. Most (but not all) neighborhood associations belong to one of these district coalitions.
Portland and its surrounding metropolitan area are served by Metro, the United States' only directly elected metropolitan planning organization. Metro's charter gives it responsibility for land use and transportation planning, solid waste management, and map development. Metro also owns and operates the Oregon Convention Center, Oregon Zoo, Portland Center for the Performing Arts, and Portland Metropolitan Exposition Center.
Fire and emergency services are provided by Portland Fire & Rescue.
On November 8, 2022, Portland residents approved a charter reform ballot measure to replace the commission form of government with a 12-member council elected in four districts using single transferable vote, with a professional city manager appointed by a directly-elected mayor. The city expects to hold the first election for this new system in 2024.
Courts and law enforcementEdit
State and national politicsEdit
Portland strongly favors the Democratic Party. All city offices are non-partisan. However, a Republican has not been elected as mayor since Fred L. Peterson in 1952, and has not served as mayor even on an interim basis since Connie McCready held the post from 1979 to 1980.
Portland's delegation to the Oregon Legislative Assembly is entirely Democratic. In the 76th Oregon Legislative Assembly, which first convened in 2011, four state Senators represent Portland in the state Senate: Diane Rosenbaum (District 21), Chip Shields (District 22), Jackie Dingfelder (District 23), and Rod Monroe (District 24). Portland sends six Representatives to the state House of Representatives: Rob Nosse (District 42), Tawna Sanchez (District 43), Tina Kotek (District 44), Barbara Smith Warner (District 45), Alissa Keny-Guyer (District 46), and Diego Hernandez (District 47).
Portland is split among three U.S. congressional districts. Most of the city is in the 3rd District, represented by Earl Blumenauer (D-Portland), who served on the city council from 1986 until his election to Congress in 1996. Most of the city west of the Willamette River is part of the 1st District, represented by Suzanne Bonamici (D-Beaverton). A small portion of southeastern Portland is in the 5th District, formerly represented by Kurt Schrader (D-Canby) prior to losing his Democratic primary election to a more progressive candidate, but currently represented by the former mayor of Happy Valley, Republican Lori Chavez-DeRemer, who will be the first Republican to represent a significant portion of the city, where registered Democrats (51.2%) outnumber Republicans (10.5%) nearly 5 to 1, in the U.S. House of Representatives since 1975. Both of Oregon's senators, Ron Wyden and Jeff Merkley, are from Portland and are progressive Democrats.
In the 2008 presidential election, Democratic candidate Barack Obama easily carried Portland, winning 245,464 votes from city residents to 50,614 for his Republican rival, John McCain. In the 2012 presidential election, Democratic candidate Barack Obama again easily carried Portland, winning 256,925 votes from Multnomah county residents to 70,958 for his Republican rival, Mitt Romney.
Sam Adams, the former mayor of Portland, became the city's first openly gay mayor in 2009. In 2004, 59.7 percent of Multnomah County voters cast ballots against Oregon Ballot Measure 36, which amended the Oregon Constitution to prohibit recognition of same-sex marriages. The measure passed with 56.6% of the statewide vote. Multnomah County is one of two counties where a majority voted against the initiative; the other is Benton County, which includes Corvallis, home of Oregon State University. On April 28, 2005, Portland became the only city in the nation to withdraw from a Joint Terrorism Task Force. As of February 19, 2015, the Portland city council approved permanently staffing the JTTF with two of its city's police officers.
|Voter registration and party enrollment as of January 2022[update]|
|Party||Number of voters||Percentage|
City planning and developmentEdit
The city consulted with urban planners as far back as 1904, resulting in the development of Washington Park and the 40-Mile Loop greenway, which connects many of the city's parks. Portland is often cited as an example of a city with strong land use planning controls. This is largely the result of statewide land conservation policies adopted in 1973 under Governor Tom McCall, in particular the requirement for an urban growth boundary (UGB) for every city and metropolitan area. The opposite extreme, a city with few or no controls, is typically illustrated by Houston.
Oregon's 1973 "urban growth boundary" law limits the boundaries for large-scale development in each metropolitan area in Oregon. This limits access to utilities such as sewage, water and telecommunications, as well as coverage by fire, police and schools. Portland's urban growth boundary, adopted in 1979, separates urban areas (where high-density development is encouraged and focused) from traditional farm land (where restrictions on non-agricultural development are very strict). This was atypical in an era when automobile use led many areas to neglect their core cities in favor of development along interstate highways, in suburbs, and satellite cities.
The original state rules included a provision for expanding urban growth boundaries, but critics felt this wasn't being accomplished. In 1995, the State passed a law requiring cities to expand UGBs to provide enough undeveloped land for a 20-year supply of future housing at projected growth levels. In 2007, the legislature changed the law to require the maintenance of an estimated 50 years of growth within the boundary, as well as the protection of accompanying farm and rural lands. The growth boundary, along with efforts of the Portland Development Commission to create economic development zones, has led to the development of a large portion of downtown, a large number of mid- and high-rise developments, and an overall increase in housing and business density.
Prosper Portland (formerly the Portland Development Commission) is a semi-public agency that plays a major role in downtown development; city voters created it in 1958 to serve as the city's urban renewal agency. It provides housing and economic development programs within the city and works behind the scenes with major local developers to create large projects. In the early 1960s, the Portland Development Commission led the razing of a large Italian-Jewish neighborhood downtown, bounded roughly by I-405, the Willamette River, 4th Avenue and Market street. Mayor Neil Goldschmidt took office in 1972 as a proponent of bringing housing and the associated vitality back to the downtown area, which was seen as emptying out after 5 pm. The effort has had dramatic effects in the 30 years since, with many thousands of new housing units clustered in three areas: north of Portland State University (between I-405, SW Broadway, and SW Taylor St.); the RiverPlace development along the waterfront under the Marquam (I-5) bridge; and most notably in the Pearl District (between I-405, Burnside St., NW Northrup St., and NW 9th Ave.).
Historically, environmental consciousness has weighed significantly in the city's planning and development efforts. Portland was one of the first cities in the United States to promote and integrate alternative forms of transportation, such as the MAX Light Rail and extensive bike paths. The Urban Greenspaces Institute, housed in Portland State University Geography Department's Center for Mapping Research, promotes better integration of the built and natural environments. The institute works on urban park, trail, and natural areas planning issues, both at the local and regional levels. In October 2009, the Portland City Council unanimously adopted a climate action plan that will cut the city's greenhouse gas emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050.
As of 2012, Portland was the largest city in the United States that did not add fluoride to its public water supply, and fluoridation has historically been a subject of controversy in the city. Portland voters have four times voted against fluoridation, in 1956, 1962, 1980 (repealing a 1978 vote in favor), and 2013. In 2012 the city council, responding to advocacy from public health organizations and others, voted unanimously to begin fluoridation by 2014. Fluoridation opponents forced a public vote on the issue, and on May 21, 2013, city voters again rejected fluoridation.
Primary and secondary educationEdit
Nine public school districts and many private schools serve Portland. Portland Public Schools is the largest school district, operating 85 public schools. David Douglas High School, in the Powellhurst neighborhood, has the largest enrollment of any public high school in the city. Other high schools include Benson, Cleveland, Franklin, Grant, Jefferson, Madison, Parkrose, Roosevelt, and Ida B Wells-Barnett (formerly Woodrow Wilson), and several suburban high schools which serve the city's outer areas. Established in 1869, Lincoln High School (formerly Portland High School) is the city's oldest public education institution, and is one of two of the oldest high schools west of the Mississippi River (after San Francisco's Lowell High School).
The area's private schools include The Northwest Academy, Portland Jewish Academy, Rosemary Anderson High School, Portland Adventist Academy, Portland Lutheran School, Trinity Academy, Catlin Gabel School, and Oregon Episcopal School.
The city and surrounding metropolitan area are also home to a large number of Roman Catholic-affiliated private schools, including St. Mary's Academy, an all-girls school; De La Salle North Catholic High School; the co-educational Jesuit High School; La Salle High School; and Central Catholic High School, the only archdiocesan high school in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Portland.
Portland State University has the second-largest enrollment rate of any university in the state (after Oregon State University), with a student body of nearly 30,000. It has been named among the top fifteen percentile of American regional universities by The Princeton Review for undergraduate education, and has been internationally recognized for its degrees in Master of Business Administration and urban planning. The city is also home to the Oregon Health & Science University, as well as Portland Community College.
Notable private universities include the University of Portland, a Roman Catholic university affiliated with the Congregation of Holy Cross; Reed College, a liberal arts college, and Lewis & Clark College.
Other institutions of higher learning within the city are:
Smaller local newspapers, distributed free of charge in newspaper boxes and at venues around the city, include the Portland Tribune (general-interest paper published on Wednesdays), Willamette Week (general-interest alternative weekly published on Wednesdays), and The Portland Mercury (another alt-weekly, targeted at younger urban readers and published every other Thursday). The Portland area also has newspapers that are published for specific communities, including The Asian Reporter (a weekly covering Asian news, both international and local) and The Skanner (a weekly African-American newspaper covering both local and national news). The Portland Business Journal covers business-related news on a weekly basis, as does The Daily Journal of Commerce, its main competitor. Portland Monthly is a monthly news and culture magazine. The Bee, over 105 years old, is another neighborhood newspaper serving the inner southeast neighborhoods.
Legacy Health, a non-profit healthcare system in Portland, operates multiple facilities in the city and surrounding suburbs. These include Legacy Emanuel, founded in 1912, in Northeast Portland; and Legacy Good Samaritan, founded in 1875, and in Northwest Portland. Randall's Children's Hospital operates at the Legacy Emanuel Campus. Good Samaritan has centers for breast health, cancer, and stroke, and is home to the Legacy Devers Eye Institute, the Legacy Obesity and Diabetes Institute, the Legacy Diabetes and Endocrinology Center, the Legacy Rehabilitation Clinic of Oregon, and the Linfield-Good Samaritan School of Nursing.
The Catholic-affiliated Providence Health & Services operates Providence Portland Medical Center in the North Tabor neighborhood of the city. Oregon Health & Science University is a university hospital formed in 1974. The Veterans Affairs Medical Center operates next to the Oregon Health & Science University main campus. Adventist Medical Center also serves the city. Shriners Hospital for Children is a small children's hospital established in 1923.
The Portland metropolitan area has transportation services common to major U.S. cities, though Oregon's emphasis on proactive land-use planning and transit-oriented development within the urban growth boundary means commuters have multiple well-developed options.
In 2008, 12.6% of all commutes in Portland were on public transit. TriMet operates most of the region's buses and the MAX (short for Metropolitan Area Express) light rail system, which connects the city and suburbs. The 1986-opened MAX system has expanded to five lines, with the latest being the Orange Line to Milwaukie, in service as of September 2015. WES Commuter Rail opened in February 2009 in Portland's western suburbs, linking Beaverton and Wilsonville.
The city-owned Portland Streetcar serves two routes in the Central City – downtown and adjacent districts. The first line, which opened in 2001 and was extended in 2005–07, operates from the South Waterfront District through Portland State University and north through the West End of downtown, to shopping areas and dense residential districts north and northwest of downtown. The second line that opened in 2012 added 3.3 miles (5.3 km) of tracks on the east side of the Willamette River and across the Broadway Bridge to a connection with the original line. The east-side line completed a loop to the tracks on the west side of the river upon completion of the new Tilikum Crossing in 2015, and, in anticipation of that, had been named the Central Loop line in 2012. However, it was renamed the Loop Service, with an A Loop (clockwise) and B Loop (counterclockwise), when it became a complete loop with the opening of the Tilikum Crossing bridge.
Fifth and Sixth avenues within downtown comprise the Portland Transit Mall, two streets devoted primarily to bus and light rail traffic with limited automobile access. Opened in 1977 for buses, the transit mall was renovated and rebuilt in 2007–09, with light rail added. Starting in 1975 and lasting nearly four decades, all transit service within downtown Portland was free, the area being known by TriMet as Fareless Square, but a need for minor budget cuts and funding needed for expansion prompted the agency to limit free rides to rail service only in 2010, and subsequently to discontinue the fare-free zone entirely in 2012.
I-5 connects Portland with the Willamette Valley, Southern Oregon, and California to the south and with Washington to the north. I-405 forms a loop with I-5 around the central downtown area of the city and I-205 is a loop freeway route on the east side which connects to the Portland International Airport. U.S. 26 supports commuting within the metro area and continues to the Pacific Ocean westward and Mount Hood and Central Oregon eastward. U.S. 30 has a main, bypass, and business route through the city extending to Astoria to the west; through Gresham, Oregon, and the eastern exurbs, and connects to I-84, traveling towards Boise, Idaho.
Portland's main airport is Portland International Airport, about 20 minutes by car (40 minutes by MAX) northeast of downtown. Portland's airport has been named the best US airport for seven consecutive years (2013–2019). Portland is also home to Oregon's only public use heliport, the Portland Downtown Heliport. Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Portland at Union Station on three routes. Long-haul train routes include the Coast Starlight (with service from Los Angeles to Seattle) and the Empire Builder (with service to Chicago). The Amtrak Cascades state-supported trains operate between Vancouver, B.C., and Eugene, Oregon, and serve Portland several times daily. The city is also served by Greyhound Lines intercity bus service, which also operates BoltBus, an express bus service. The city's first airport was the Swan Island Municipal Airport, which was closed in the 1940s.
Portland is the only city in the United States that owns operating mainline steam locomotives, donated to the city in 1958 by the railroads that ran them. Spokane, Portland & Seattle 700 and the world-famous Southern Pacific 4449 can be seen several times a year pulling a special excursion train, either locally or on an extended trip. The "Holiday Express", pulled over the tracks of the Oregon Pacific Railroad on weekends in December, has become a Portland tradition over its several years running. These trains and others are operated by volunteers of the Oregon Rail Heritage Foundation, an amalgamation of rail preservation groups which collaborated on the finance and construction of the Oregon Rail Heritage Center, a permanent and publicly accessible home for the locomotives, which opened in 2012 adjacent to OMSI.
In Portland, cycling is a significant mode of transportation. As the city has been particularly supportive of urban bicycling it now ranks highly among the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world. Bicycles accounted for 6.3% of commuting in 2017. For its achievements in promoting cycling as an everyday means of transportation, Portland has been recognized by the League of American Bicyclists and other cycling organizations for its network of on-street bicycling facilities and other bicycle-friendly services, being one of only three U.S. cities to have earned a Platinum-level rating. A new bicycle-sharing system, Biketown, launched on July 19, 2016, with 100 stations in the city's central and eastside neighborhoods. The bikes were provided by Social Bicycles, and the system is operated by Motivate.
Car sharing through Zipcar, Getaround, and Uhaul Car Share is available to residents of the city and some inner suburbs. Portland has a commuter aerial cableway, the Portland Aerial Tram, which connects the South Waterfront district on the Willamette River to the Oregon Health & Science University campus on Marquam Hill above.
- Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan (1959)
- Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico (1983)
- Ashkelon, Southern District, Israel (1987)
- Ulsan, South Korea (1987)
- Suzhou, Jiangsu, China (1988)
- Khabarovsk, Khabarovsk Krai, Russia (1988)
- Kaohsiung, Taiwan (1988)
- Mutare, Manicaland, Zimbabwe (1991)
- Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy (2003)
Portland also has a friendship city agreement with:
- According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Oregon's population, as of 2019, was 4,217,737; the portion of the MSA that lies in Oregon has a population of 1,992,088, which leaves 47% of Oregon's population residing within the metro.
- Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
- Official records for Portland have been kept at PDX since October 13, 1940. In January 1996, snow measurements for PDX were moved to the NWS Portland office 4 mi (6.4 km) to the east at 5241 NE 122nd Avenue, Portland, OR 97230-1089.
- From 15% sample
- "Portland: The Town that was Almost Boston". National Association of Scientific Materials Managers. Archived from the original on July 27, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- "City Home". City of Portland, Oregon. 2017. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
- "ArcGIS REST Services Directory". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 12, 2022.
- The highest elevation is at 9936 NW Wind Ridge Dr., "City of Portland Urban Services Area". Bureau of Planning and Sustainability. Retrieved October 30, 2015. .
- The lowest elevation historically occurred at low water on January 17, 1937, at the confluence of the Columbia and Willamette Rivers "Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service: Portland: Columbia River at Vancouver". Water.weather.gov. Retrieved September 6, 2013. .
- "Census Population API". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 12, 2022.
- "2020 Population and Housing State Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 22, 2021.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "QuickFacts: Portland city, Oregon". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 21, 2021.
- Danver, Steven L., ed. (2013). Encyclopedia of Politics of the American West. CQ Press. pp. 533–34. ISBN 978-1-506-35491-0.
- Baker, Emerson W. (2005). "Portland as a Contested Frontier in the Seventeenth Century". In Conforti, Joseph A. (ed.). Creating Portland: History and Place in Northern New England. Lebanon, NH: University of New Hampshire Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-1584654490. Retrieved April 21, 2018.
- Olsen, Polina (2012). Portland in the 1960s: Stories from the Counterculture. Charleston, South Carolina: The History Press. ISBN 978-1-60949-471-1.
- Weber, Peter (January 13, 2015). "Don't let Portlandia ruin Portland". The Week. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- Berg, Nate (March 1, 2012). "The Only Elected Regional Government in the U.S." CityLab. Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved February 25, 2015.
- Ramakrishnan, Ramakrishnan (April 22, 2022). "Metro Council president faces challenge from longtime urban planner". oregonlive. Retrieved October 26, 2022.
- Swindler, Samantha (May 31, 2020). "Though the rose show and garden contest are canceled, the City of Roses is in full bloom". The Oregonian. Retrieved October 19, 2020.
- Allen, Burns & Sargent 2009, pp. 175–89.
- Marschner 2008, p. 187.
- Anderson, Susan (2009). "East Portland Historical Overview & Historic Preservation Study". City of Portland Bureau of Planning and Sustainability. Archived from the original on January 1, 2016. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- "First Year in Oregon, 1840-1869: A Narrative History (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved August 25, 2022.
- Scott 1890, p. 61.
- Orloff, Chet (2004). "Maintaining Eden: John Charles Olmsted and the Portland Park System". Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers. 66: 114–19. doi:10.1353/pcg.2004.0006. S2CID 129896123.
- "Overton Cabin". Oregon History Project. Archived from the original on November 17, 2015. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
- Gibson, Campbell (June 1998). Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990. U.S. Bureau of the Census – Population Division.
- Scott 1890, p. 160.
- 1634–1699: McCusker, J. J. (1997). How Much Is That in Real Money? A Historical Price Index for Use as a Deflator of Money Values in the Economy of the United States: Addenda et Corrigenda (PDF). American Antiquarian Society. 1700–1799: McCusker, J. J. (1992). How Much Is That in Real Money? A Historical Price Index for Use as a Deflator of Money Values in the Economy of the United States (PDF). American Antiquarian Society. 1800–present: Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Retrieved April 16, 2022.
- Loy, William G.; Stuart Allan; Aileen R. Buckley; James E. Meacham (2001). Atlas of Oregon. University of Oregon Press. pp. 32–33. ISBN 978-0-87114-101-9.
- "Historical Timeline". Portland Online. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- "City keeps lively pulse". (Spencer Heinz, The Oregonian, January 23, 2001)
- "Portland's Japantown".
- Roos, Roy E. (January 8, 2010). "The White Eagle Saloon". Eliot Neighborhood. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- John 2012, p. 16.
- John 2012, p. 10.
- MacColl, E. Kimbark (November 1976). The Shaping of a City: Business and Politics in Portland, Oregon 1885 to 1915. Portland, Oregon: The Georgian Press Company. OCLC 2645815.
- Kennedy, Sarah. "The Shanghai Tunnels". The New York Times. Retrieved September 26, 2014.
- Chandler 2013.
- "Population of Portland, OR".
- "'Return & Remembrance': In Commemoration of the 75th Anniversary of E.O. 9066," Pacific Citizen, June 2–15, 2017, p. 4
- "Portland (detention facility)". Densho Encyclopedia.
- Ellis, Janey. "Portland's Dirty Little Secret: How Vice and Corruption Held the Rose City In Its Clutches" (PDF). Oregon History. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 18, 2016. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- Toll, William (2003). "Home Front Boom". Oregon Historical Society. Archived from the original on June 9, 2011. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- "The 1960s". Oregon Live. An Oregon Century. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- "The 1970s". Oregon Live. An Oregon Century. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- "The 1990s". An Oregon Century. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Archived from the original on May 23, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- Miller, Clair Cane (September 16, 2014). "Will Portland Always Be a Retirement Community for the Young?". The New York Times. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
- "City Flower". City of Portland Auditor's Office – City Recorder Division. Archived from the original on April 23, 2009.
- Stern, Henry (June 19, 2003). "Name comes up roses for P-town: City Council sees no thorns in picking 'City of Roses' as Portland's moniker". The Oregonian
- "The Water". Portland State University. Archived from the original on October 31, 2006. Retrieved November 7, 2006.
- "From Robin's Nest to Stumptown". End of the Oregon Trail Interpretive Center. February 1, 2013. Archived from the original on May 12, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- Baker, Nena (May 21, 1991). "R.I.P. FOR 'Rip City' Ruckus". The Oregonian. pp. A01.
- "Portland is new Soccer City, USA". Eugene Register-Guard. Eugene, Oregon. United Press International. August 13, 1975. Retrieved June 22, 2010.[permanent dead link]
- Sandomir, Richard (November 6, 2008). "Seeking Help to Bring an M.L.S. Team to Portland". The New York Times. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- Dure, Beau (August 26, 2009). "Portland Timbers show bark, bite as they prepare to join MLS". USA Today. McLean, Virginia. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- Hagestedt, Andre (April 7, 2009). "The Missing Oregon Coast: Waves After Dark". Retrieved April 30, 2009.
I'm used to seeing that hint of dawn back in P-town, with my wretched habit of playing video games until 6 a.m
- McCall, William (August 19, 2003). "'Little Beirut' nickname has stuck". Associated Press. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
- Baker, Mike (April 27, 2021). "After Nearly a Year of Unrest, Portland Leaders Pursue a Crackdown". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 28, 2021. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
- Vice, Staff (September 23, 2020). "Man Linked to Killing at a Portland Protest Says He Acted in Self-Defense". Vice. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
- Evans, Robert (July 20, 2020). "What You Need To Know About The Battle of Portland". Bellingcat. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
- Hughes, Trevor (July 26, 2020). "Portland police declare riot as demonstrators attack fence outside federal courthouse". USA Today. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
- Kavanaugh, Shane (July 30, 2020). "Man knifed in back at Portland protest: 'I was stabbed for being a conservative journalist'". The Oregonian. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
- VanderHart, Dirk; Levinson, Jonathan; Ellis, Rebecca; Orr, Donald (May 31, 2020). "As Protests Continue, Civic Leaders Confront Crowds And Oregon's Racist History". Oregon Public Broadcasting. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Green, Aimee (June 10, 2020). "Portland now faces 8 lawsuits seeking an end to tear gas, rubber bullets, explosives at protests". The Oregonian. Archived from the original on August 1, 2020. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
- Ellis, Rebecca (July 17, 2020). "ACLU Adds Federal Agencies To Lawsuit Against Portland Police". Oregon Public Broadcasting. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
- "Oregon AG files lawsuit against federal agencies for violating Oregonians' civil rights". KGW. July 17, 2020. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
- Flanigan, Kaitlin (July 27, 2020). "Lawsuit: Trump using feds in Portland to create national police force". Koin.com. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
- "Police declare riot in Portland as protesters mark 1 year since George Floyd's death". ABC News. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
- "Riot declared in downtown Portland, police arrest 5 people". KPTV.com. Archived from the original on November 1, 2021. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
- "The Boring Lava Field, Portland, Oregon". USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory. Retrieved November 7, 2006.
- "Mount Tabor Cinder Cone, Portland, Oregon". USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory. Retrieved April 20, 2007.
- Nokes, R. Gregory (December 4, 2000). "History, relived saved from St. Helens by a six-pack of Fresca". The Oregonian. p. 17.
- Trimble, Donald (1963). Geology of Portland, Oregon and Adjacent Areas (PDF). Geological Survey Bulletin. pp. 1–2.
- Banse, Tom (November 21, 2017). "Geologists Keep Finding More Northwest Earthquake Faults". Oregon Public Broadcasting. Archived from the original on May 10, 2018. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
- Rojas-Burke, Joe (February 23, 2011). "Comparing Portland's quake risk to that of devastated Christchurch, New Zealand". The Oregonian. Retrieved May 9, 2018.
- Mesh, Aaron (January 26, 2010). "Quake-Up Call". Willamette Week. Retrieved May 9, 2018.
- Bott, Jacqueline D.J.; Wong, Ivan G. (September 1993). "Historical Earthquakes in and around Portland, Oregon". Oregon Geology. 55 (5): 116.
- McDonough, P. W., ed. (2002). The Nisqually, Washington, Earthquake of February 28, 2001. Open-File Report 2002-346. American Society of Civil Engineers. pp. 28, 29. ISBN 978-0-7844-7516-4.
- Cassuto, Dan (March 24, 2014). "7,000 high-risk landslide zones in Portland area; check if you live in one". KATU. Archived from the original on February 7, 2017. Retrieved May 9, 2018.
- Hale, Jamie (April 28, 2016). "Council Crest hike is well worth the extra effort". The Oregonian. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 2, 2012. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
- Anderson 2014, p. 138.
- "Global Ecological Zoning for the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000". Forestry Department of the Food and Agriculture Organization. 2001. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- "Portland Airport (Oregon): Normals, means, and extremes". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
- "Has The Snow Finally Stopped?". fivethirtyeight.com. March 10, 2015.
- "AIRPORT Portland: Monthly and Seasonal Snowfall (inches)" (PDF). NWS Portland, OR. Retrieved June 22, 2014.
- "Downtown Portland: Monthly and Seasonal Snowfall (inches)" (PDF). NWS Portland, Oregon. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 19, 2016. Retrieved June 22, 2014.
- "Best Times to Visit Portland, OR". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- "Portland weather hits 90 degrees for record 31st day in 2018". The Oregonian. September 6, 2018. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
- National Weather Service, Portland (June 28, 2021). "The Portland Airport officially hit 116°F shortly after 5pm this evening, making this the warmest temperature on record. This breaks yesterday's warmest temperature on record of 112°F. 3 days ago the warmest temperature on record was 107°F, set twice in Aug '81 & once in Jul '65". NWS, Portland office. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
- "Portland hits 116 degrees, setting new all-time high record". June 26, 2021.
- "SYNOP/BUFR observations. Month summary". meteomanz.com. Retrieved August 23, 2021.
- Mass 2008, p. 138.
- "Why Doesn't the West Coast See Thunderstorms?". Archived from the original on April 27, 2016. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
- "Station Name: OR PORTLAND INTL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- "WMO Climate Normals for PORTLAND OR 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
- "Portland, Oregon, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- Newcomb, Tim (August 20, 2015). "You Can't Drive Across This Gorgeous Bridge". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved January 14, 2021.
- Ordinance 61325: Street re-numbering report. Providing for renumbering of buildings and renaming of streets., Auditor of the City of Portland, February 28, 1933, retrieved August 9, 2017
- "Murmurs: Portland Is Getting a Sixth Quadrant". Willamette Week. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
- "A Quick Peek at Portland's Neighborhoods". Portland Mercury. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
- Reed, Jackson (July 16, 2012). "Perceptions of Portland's east side changing". DJCOregon.com. Retrieved March 2, 2015.
- Templeton, Amelia. "South Portland Becomes City's Newest Address Area". opb.org. Retrieved June 25, 2018.
- "Efiles - 188995 Eliminate leading zero addressing in the portion of SW Portland east of SW Naito Parkway amend Ordinance No. 61325 and PCC 24.75.10 ordinance (D/82139)". Efiles.portlandoregon.gov. June 6, 2018. Retrieved June 22, 2022.
- Amy Frazier and KOIN staff (March 1, 2018). "'South Portland' may be newest city destination". KOIN. Archived from the original on March 2, 2018. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
- Swindler, Samantha (May 1, 2020). "South Portland is officially a sextant, but city says you can call it a 'sixth quadrant'". The Oregonian. Retrieved September 21, 2020.
- Hottman, Sara (May 17, 2013). "New Pearl District affordable apartment highlights misperception of neighborhood's wealth". Oregon Live. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
- Butler, Grant (September 1, 2011). "Rediscover the north end of NW 23rd Avenue, where the vibe is more quirky than trendy". Oregon Live. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
- Roth, Sara. "The Changing Face of St. Johns". KGW. Archived from the original on September 6, 2015. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- O’Donnell, Terence (1976). Portland: A Historical Sketch and Guide. Portland, Oregon: Oregon Historical Society. p. 104.
- Hewitt, Lyndsey. "New homeless shelter in Old Town/Chinatown sparks old debate". Retrieved March 4, 2019.
- Schmidt, Brad (June 24, 2015). "Portland approves 'make or break' South Waterfront deal with Zidell". The Oregonian. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
- De Sousa, Christopher; D'Souza, Lily-Ann (2010). "South Waterfront District, Portland, OR: A Sustainable Brownfield Revitalization Best Practice". Sustainable Brownfields Consortium. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.593.1545.
- "City and Town Population Totals: 2020-2021". United States Census Bureau. May 29, 2022. Retrieved May 31, 2022.
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
- "Portland (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Quickfacts.census.gov. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- "Oregon – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
- "State & County QuickFacts". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2006.
- "B03002 HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY RACE - Portland - 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. July 1, 2019. Retrieved May 28, 2021.
- MacColl, E. Kimbark (1979). The Growth of a City: Power and Politics in Portland, Oregon 1915–1950. Portland, Oregon: The Georgian Press. ISBN 978-0-9603408-1-1.
- Levinson, Marc (2008). The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-13640-0. Related sources noted by Levinson: Journal of Negro History 65, no. 1 (1980): 27; Clyde W. Summers, "Admission Policies of Labor Unions", Quarterly Journal of Economics 61, no. 1 (1946): 98; Wilson, Dockers, p. 29. The Portland grain workers' case is mentioned in Charles P. Larrowe, Harry Bridges: The Rise and Fall of Radical Labor in the United States (New York, 1972), p. 368. 16. On Portland, see Pilcher, The Portland Longshoremen, p. 17;
- Management Information Services (2002). "Abernethy Elementary School: Recent Enrollment Trends, 1995–96 through 2002–03" (PDF). Portland Public Schools. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 7, 2012. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
- "Community Facts: Portland, Oregon". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- Swart, Cornelius (January 20, 2012). "Asian American community in east Portland's New Chinatown ponders the future". The Oregonian. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- "Vietnamese population by region: top metropolitan areas" Archived August 18, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Vietnamese American Population. Retrieved January 7, 2011.
- "QuickFacts". U.S. Census.
- "Portland's Fastest Ethnic Group Struggles to Be Counted". Oregon Public Broadcasting.
- "Oregon – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
- Hammond, Betsy (September 30, 2009). "In a changing world, Portland remains overwhelmingly White". The Oregonian. Retrieved March 11, 2011.
- Wilson, Ernest J (2004). "page 55". Diversity and U.S. Foreign Policy: A Reader. Routledge. p. 55. ISBN 978-1135956998.
- Templeton, Amelia. "History Hinders Diversification of Portland, Oregon : NPR". NPR. Retrieved March 11, 2011.
- Dresbeck, Rachel (March 2011). Insiders' Guide to Portland, Oregon (7th ed.). p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7627-6475-4.
- Frazier, John W.; Tettey-Fio, Eugene L. (2006). Race, Ethnicity, and Place in a Changing America. Global Academic Publishing. ISBN 978-1-58684-264-2.
- Levitas, Daniel (2002). The Terrorist Next Door: The Militia Movement and the Radical Right. New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-29105-1.
- Foster, Laura O. (March 22, 2005). Portland Hill Walks: Twenty Explorations in Parks and Neighborhoods. Timber Press, Incorporated. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-88192-692-7.
- Baker, Jeff (August 31, 2003). "Our Homegrown Hitlers". The Oregonian. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
- As It Was: Roma, Also Known as Gypsies, Reach Oregon in 1890s
- https://www.portlandonline.com/portlandplan/index.cfm?a=297947&c=52639[bare URL]
- "US Census Bureau State & County". Quickfacts.census.gov. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- Law, Steve (May 29, 2008). "Metro takes long view of growth". Portland Tribune. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
- "Data Center Results: Multnomah County, Oregon". Modern Language Association. 2010.
- "LGBT history in Portland". Travel Portland. August 20, 2013. Archived from the original on September 26, 2015. Retrieved September 25, 2015.
- "Oregon Gay History Timeline". GLAPN. Retrieved September 25, 2015.
- Leonhardt, David; Cain Miller, Claire (March 20, 2015). "The Metro Areas With the Largest, and Smallest, Gay Populations". The New York Times. Retrieved September 25, 2015.
- Gary J. Gates "Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Survey" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 9, 2013. Retrieved June 28, 2012. (2.07 MB). The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation Law and Public Policy, UCLA School of Law, October 2006. Retrieved April 20, 2007.
- Ritchie, Rachel (May 26, 2015). "Looking Back on 40 Years of Portland Pride". PDX Monthly. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- "The Religion Of People Living In Portland, Oregon". Dwellics.
- Binder, Melissa (March 18, 2015). "Yes, Portland is America's most religiously unaffiliated metro. But who exactly are the 'nones'?". Oregon Live. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- Fottrell, Quentin (March 28, 2015). "This is the most godless city in America". Market Watch. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- "2019 Portland Insights Survey". City of Portland, Oregon. 2019.
- Shepard, Katie. "Portlanders Call 911 to Report "Unwanted" People More Than Any Other Reason. We Listened In". Willamette Week. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
- Chakraborty, Barnini (August 12, 2019). "Portland residents, business owners want city officials to 'fix' homeless problem". Fox News. Retrieved October 4, 2020.
- "A community activist challenges Portland's incumbent mayor amid protests, COVID-19 and a racial reckoning". opb. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
- Hammond, Betsy (May 4, 2022). "Portland's next budget, flush with federal cash and business taxes, would expand and add programs, cut almost nothing". The Oregonian. Retrieved May 6, 2022.
- "Portland leaders approve plan to ban homeless camping, create large government-sponsored shelters". opb.org. November 3, 2022. Retrieved December 9, 2022.
- "Crime in the United States by Metropolitan Statistical Area, 2009 (Table 6)". FBI. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
- "Dope-landia". Drugs, Inc. Season 5. Episode 4. July 23, 2014. 44 minutes in. National Geographic.
- KATU News (September 23, 2010). "Is Portland 'Pornland?' Nightline highlights city sex trade". KATU. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
- "2017 crime in the United States – Table 6".
- https://www.koin.com/news/2017-in-review-homicides-in-portland/amp/[bare URL]
- "2010 Census Data for Portland Neighborhoods". City of Portland. Archived from the original on July 19, 2017. Retrieved April 1, 2018.
- "Portland: Economy – Major Industries and Commercial Activity". Retrieved June 4, 2008.
- "Cascade General, Inc". Answers.com. Retrieved June 4, 2008.
- "Portfolio" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 15, 2013. Retrieved June 4, 2008.
- "Profile". Schnitzer Steel Industries. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
- "About Us". ESCO Corporation. Archived from the original on February 13, 2021. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
- Rogoway, Mike (April 9, 2006). Bizz blog: Silicon Forest. The Oregonian.
- Gage, Deborah (January 23, 2012). "Portland Makes Bid To Become Budding Techlandia". Venture Capital Dispatch.
- Korfhage, Matthew (January 26, 2016). "Everything You Need to Know About the Portland Shoe Industry". Willamette Week. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
- Gregory, Roger (January 21, 2008). "Top Chinese shoemaker opens U.S. headquarters in Portland" (January 21, 2008). The Oregonian. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
- Duxbury, Sarah (November 13, 2005). "Footwear firm gives Bay Area the boot". San Francisco Business Times. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
- Brettman, Allan (October 10, 2010). "Hi-Tec moving U.S. headquarters to Portland". October 10, 2010. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
- "Chicago is home to more breweries than any other US city". Chicago Sun-Times. December 13, 2018. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
- "Coffee made in Portland, Oregon". MadeInPortland.org. Retrieved September 10, 2017.
- "Zillow: Portland area leads nation in home-price increases, second in rent hikes". The Oregonian. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
- Eastman, Janet (November 17, 2019). "Portland rents are holding steady with two-bedroom units at $1,337 a month". The Oregonian. Retrieved October 23, 2020.
- "Sick of Portland Changing? Too Bad. Here Are 7 Places Where This City Could Soon Go Big".
- "Portland-area homebuyers face even fewer choices as prices rise 2.5% over last year". December 23, 2019.
- "Portland's Housing Crisis Would be a Lot Worse if So Many 20- and 30- Somethings Weren't Living with Their Parents".
- "Latest 'Oregon Experience' chronicles a violin teacher's legacy". The Oregonian. November 6, 2009. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
- Rayburn, Aaron; Vickery, Ben (May 24, 2013). "Top 10 live music venues in Portland, Oregon". The Guardian. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- Ely, Jack. "The Kingsmen Homepage". The Kingsmen Online. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- Hann, Michael (January 20, 2015). "Cult heroes: Wipers – the sound of emptiness and dread". The Guardian. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- "Kurt Cobain". Biography.com. Retrieved May 17, 2010.
- Kennedy, Dana (August 12, 1994). "The Power of Love". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on July 9, 2016. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- "Courtney Love". The E! True Hollywood Story. October 5, 2003. E!.
- Hughley, Marty (February 11, 2011). "Esperanza Spalding didn't come out of the blue to beat Justin Bieber at the Grammys – she came from Portland's jazz community". Oregon Live. Retrieved November 3, 2015.
- Falsetto 2015, pp. 1–29.
- Scott, Aaron (January 18, 2018). "'Portlandia' Is Ending, And Portlanders Are OK With That". NPR. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- Mike Hsu (September 28, 2012). "Talking Portlandia With Fred Armisen". WAAF Radio. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- Turnquist, Kristi (March 21, 2013). "MTV goes 'Real World' retro in run-up to 'The Real World: Portland'". The Oregonian. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
- "TNT cancels Portland-filmed series, 'The Librarians'". The Oregonian. March 8, 2018. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
- Turnquist, Kristi (November 22, 2017). "23 TV series set in Oregon, ranked: Most memorable to totally forgettable". The Oregonian.
- "Portland brew 'n' view theaters". Travel Portland. July 26, 2013. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- Palahniuk 2003, pp. 63–64.
- Ogden, Tom (2010). Haunted Hotels: Eerie Inns, Ghoulish Guests, and Creepy Caretakers. Globe Pequot Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0762756599.
- "Lovecraft Film Festival Official site". Retrieved November 25, 2007.
- Pitawanich, Christine (December 19, 2017). "Fond memories aboard USS Blueback submarine featured at OMSI". KGW. Archived from the original on April 2, 2018. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- Mohan, Marc (September 5, 2013). "Omnimax says goodbye; Bagdad goes first-run: Indie theater news". The Oregonian. Retrieved April 1, 2018.
- Anderson, John Gottberg (August 20, 2017). "Observatories and planetariums within a day's drive of Bend". The Bulletin. Bend, Oregon. Retrieved April 1, 2018.
- Hale, Jamie (May 11, 2016). "Portland hiking guide: The 20 best places to hike in the city". The Oregonian. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- "Oregon Historical Society Museum". Smithsonian. Archived from the original on April 2, 2018. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
- Beck, Dana (December 20, 2012). "Oaks Amusement Park, and its beginnings". The Bee. Pamplin Media Group. Retrieved July 3, 2017.
- "A Few Favorite Portland Food Carts". The Denver Post. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
- Brett Burmeister (August 25, 2011). "Food carts for dessert". PortlandPulp. Archived from the original on September 11, 2015. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- Strand, Oliver (September 16, 2009). "A Seductive Cup". The New York Times. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
- "Facts – Oregon Craft Beer". OregonCraftBeer.org. Archived from the original on February 27, 2015. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
- "Brewery Growth is Both Urban and Rural". Brewers Association. December 10, 2018. Retrieved July 25, 2019.
- Foyston, John (July 29, 2008). "2008 OBF biggest ever". The Oregonian. Archived from the original on September 22, 2013.
- Distefano, Anne Marie (July 8, 2005). "Brewers, beer lovers get many reasons to raise a glass". Portland Tribune. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
- Freilich, Sitkowski & Mennilo 2010, p. 134.
- Kate Sheppard (July 19, 2007). "15 Green Cities". Environmental News and Commentary. Retrieved June 23, 2010.
- State v. Henry, 732 P.2d 9 (Or. 1987).
- Busse, Phil (November 7, 2002). "Cover Yourself!". The Portland Mercury. Retrieved February 1, 2007.
- Crockett, Zachary (June 17, 2015). "Why Does Portland Have so Many Strip Clubs?". Priceonomics. Retrieved April 1, 2018.
- "Judge: riding in the buff is 'tradition,' man cleared". KATU. Associated Press. November 21, 2008. Archived from the original on January 22, 2009. Retrieved December 8, 2008.
- "Pedalpalooza". 2008. Archived from the original on May 7, 2016. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
- Camila Domonoske (November 11, 2016). "Anti-Trump Protest in Portland, Ore., Turns Destructive, Declared a Riot". NPR. Retrieved November 12, 2016.
Later in the evening, what appeared to be a small subgroup of self-described anarchists began to damage cars at a Toyota dealership and ignite fireworks, before moving through the Pearl District and damaging several businesses.
- Pattiz, Will (October 5, 2022). "Portland Protests Photos: What's Really Going on from a Local Portlander". EMBRACE SOMEPLACE. Retrieved October 26, 2022.
- "Columbus Crew SC 1, Portland Timbers 2 MLS Cup Match Recap". mlssoccer.com. December 6, 2015. Archived from the original on December 11, 2015. Retrieved December 12, 2015.
- Neyer, Rob (August 21, 2003). "Though not perfect, Portland is a viable city for baseball". ESPN. Retrieved January 6, 2009.
Portland is the largest metropolitan area with just one major professional sports team (the Trail Blazers).
- "Portland Diamond Project, looking to build baseball stadium buzz, opens pop-up store". December 7, 2018.
- November 29, Elliot Njus | The Oregonian/OregonLive | Posted; November 29, 2018 at 12:28 PM | Updated; PM, 2018 at 05:11 (November 29, 2018). "Portland Diamond Project has agreement for ballpark at NW Portland marine terminal (renderings)". The Oregonian. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
- "History of Portland Trail Blazers". fundinguniverse.com. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
- "2014 MLS Ambition Rankings". Sports Illustrated. March 14, 2014. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
- "For the Portland Timbers, home field is a real advantage". The Oregonion. November 5, 2013. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- Merz, Craig (December 6, 2015). "Champs! Timbers beat Columbus, win first-ever MLS Cup". KOIN. Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 8, 2016. Retrieved February 12, 2016.
- "Cambia Portland Classic". portlandclassic.com. Retrieved September 19, 2021.
- "Dome backers saddened but note idea gaining". The Oregonian. November 5, 1964. p. 1.
- Sgobba, C (2019). "After Salazar Ban, Nike Shuts Down Oregon Project". Runner's World.
- "Galen Rupp". Team USA.
- "Normandale Park – Erv Lind Stadium". portlandoregon.gov. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
- Maus, Jonathan (August 3, 2022). "Bike racing will return to downtown Portland, thanks to Mayor Wheeler". Bike Portland. Retrieved November 8, 2022.
- Morical, Mark (October 29, 2019). "Cyclocross draws a crowd". The Bulletin (Bend). Retrieved January 15, 2021.
- "Parks and nature investments". OregonMetro.Gov. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
- Houck, Mike. "Metropolitan Greenspaces: A Grassroots Perspective". Audubon Society of Portland. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved November 7, 2006.
- "Mount Tabor Park". Portland Parks & Recreation. Retrieved November 7, 2006.
- Korn, Peter (July 18, 2006). "Forest Park Fallacy: Boosters' Claim of 'Largest Forested City Park' Is Long Outdated". Portland Tribune. Pamplin Media Group.
- "North Park Blocks". The City of Portland, Oregon. Retrieved May 11, 2016.
- "South Park Blocks". The City of Portland, Oregon. Retrieved May 11, 2016.
- "Waterfront Park Master Plan" (PDF). Portland, Oregon. p. 54. Retrieved May 11, 2016.
- Dougherty, Conor (July 30, 2009). "Skateboarding Capital of the World". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
- Belz, Kristin. "New York Parks Rank No. 2 in a Survey of 50 U.S. cities". June 12, 2013. Portland Monthly Magazine. Retrieved July 18, 2013.
- Andrew Theen | The Oregonian/OregonLive (February 19, 2015). "No smoking allowed: Portland City Council approves smoking ban for city parks, nature areas". The Oregonian. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
- "City Government Structure". City of Portland. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
The City of Portland has the last remaining Commission form of government among large cities in the United States.
- "Pioneer courthouse's bare earth will soon sprout native plants". The Oregonian. October 12, 2006. Archived from the original on November 10, 2006. Retrieved January 21, 2007.
- "Inside Civic Life | The City of Portland, Oregon". www.portlandoregon.gov. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
- "Portland voters approve charter reform, city launches transition | Portland.gov". www.portland.gov. November 9, 2022. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
- Caballero, Mary Hull. "City Government Structure". Portland Online. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- "Oregon 2012 Election Results for Multnomah County". The Oregonian. Archived from the original on December 29, 2013. Retrieved April 1, 2018.
- Mary Judetz, "Portland: Largest U.S. city with openly gay mayor Archived January 17, 2013, at the Wayback Machine" (January 2, 2009). Associated Press. The Seattle Times. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- "Oregon Measure 36 Results by County". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved October 16, 2010.
- "FBI's Joint Terrorism Task Force". ACLU Oregon. April 28, 2005. Archived from the original on October 25, 2010.
- "Politically correct Portland rejected feds who saved city from terrorist attack". San Francisco Examiner. November 28, 2010. Archived from the original on May 22, 2013.
- Schmidt, Brad (February 19, 2015). "After 10-year hiatus, Portland OKs cops for FBI's Joint Terrorism Task Force". The Oregonian. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
- "District Voter Counts". Multnomah County. January 6, 2022. Retrieved November 22, 2022.
- "The 40-Mile Loop: More than a bike trail, and more than 40 miles". The Oregonian. September 30, 2009. Retrieved April 1, 2018.
- "The 'Smart Growth' Debate Continues". Urban Mobility Corporation. May–June 2003. Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2006.
- "How Houston gets along without zoning – BusinessWeek". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Retrieved October 20, 2008.
- Thomas, Sherry (October 30, 2003). "Houston: A city without zoning". USA Today. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- Reinhold, Robert (August 17, 1986). "Focus Houston; A Fresh Approach To Zoning". The New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 2008.
- Schadewald, Bill (April 9, 2006). "The only major U.S. city without zoning". Houston Business Journal. Retrieved October 20, 2008.
- "Urban growth boundary". Metro. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
- "Statewide Planning Goals". Oregon Department of Land Conservation and Development. Retrieved April 1, 2018.
- "Comprehensive Land Use Planning Coordination". Legislative Counsel Committee of the Oregon Legislative Assembly. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
- "Portland – SkyscraperPage". Retrieved June 4, 2008.
- Korfhage, Matthew (August 22, 2017). "Portland Once Had a Thriving Little Italy – What the Hell Happened?". Willamette Week. Retrieved April 1, 2018.
- Hogdson, Beth (March 1, 2010). "Top 5 greenest cities in the world". Reuters. Archived from the original on March 4, 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2018 – via GlobalPost.
- Platt 2006, p. 43.
- Law, Steve (October 27, 2009). "Council adopts aggressive Climate Action Plan". Portland Tribune. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- Muskal, Michael (September 12, 2012). "Portland joins fluoride bandwagon, will add it to water supply". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 1, 2018.
- Williams, Heidi (September 12, 2012). "Portland's fluoride debate: History, timeline and official positions". The Oregonian. Retrieved April 1, 2018.
- Blumgart, Jake (May 17, 2013). "What's the Matter With Portland? The city has been fighting fluoridation for 50 years. Will facts trump fear this month?". Slate. Retrieved April 1, 2018.
- Slovic, Beth (September 12, 2012). "Portland votes to add fluoride to its drinking water as opponents vow to stop the effort". The Oregonian. Retrieved April 1, 2018.
- Kost, Ryan (May 21, 2013). "Portland fluoride: For the fourth time since 1956, Portland voters reject fluoridation". The Oregonian. Retrieved April 1, 2018.
- Portland Public Schools Enrollment Summary [permanent dead link], page 3
- "Search for Public Schools – School Detail for David Douglas High School". nces.ed.gov.
- Geddes, Ryan (September 22, 2005). "Public school notebook: The Count". The Oregonian. Portland, Oregon: Oregonian Publishing. pp. A7.
- "Profile". Portland State University. Archived from the original on January 12, 2015. Retrieved December 2, 2014.
- "The Princeton Review Best Regional Colleges". Retrieved November 3, 2011.
- "Princeton Review Top 100 MBA Rankings". Archived from the original on April 25, 2012. Retrieved November 3, 2011.
- Human Rights Campaign 2013, p. 82.
- "Our Hospitals". Legacy Health System. August 15, 2007. Archived from the original on May 5, 2008. Retrieved August 26, 2008.
- "Means of Transportation to Work by Selected Characteristics: 2006 American Community Survey". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- "Fall 2015 Service Improvements". TriMet. TriMet. Archived from the original on September 27, 2015. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
- Rose, Joseph (September 22, 2012). "Portland Streetcar's eastside loop gets off to hobbled start Saturday". The Oregonian. p. 1. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
- "Portland-Milwaukie Light Rail Bridge to bring new options for transit, cyclists and pedestrians" (PDF). Portland-Milwaukie Light Rail Transit Project. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 17, 2012.
- Rivera, Dylan (August 12, 2009). "The days of a free bus ride are over". The Oregonian. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- Bailey, Everton Jr. (August 31, 2012). "TriMet boosts most fares starting Saturday; some routes changing". The Oregonian. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
- Rose, Joseph (July 16, 2009). "TriMet's open source heaven: The 5 best transit-rider apps". The Oregonian. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- Rogoway, Mike (June 8, 2011). "Google Maps adds live TriMet arrival and departure times". The Oregonian. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- Nate Hanson (July 10, 2019). "PDX named best airport in the US for 7th straight year". KGW. Retrieved July 17, 2019.
- "Capital Campaign". Oregon Rail Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on December 30, 2011. Retrieved December 31, 2011.
- Ashton, David F. (December 20, 2011). ""Holiday Express" delights families, benefits new S.E. museum". The Sellwood Bee. Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
- Tims, Dana (September 20, 2012). "Oregon Rail Heritage Center ready for grand opening Saturday, Sunday". The Oregonian. p. B1. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
- "11 Most Bike Friendly Cities in the World – Bicycle friendly cities". Virgin Vacations. Virgin Airlines. Archived from the original on July 29, 2012. Retrieved June 18, 2009.
- "Bike commute numbers ebb nationwide; in Portland, they're flat". BikePortland.org. September 25, 2018. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
- "League of American Bicyclists * Press Releases". Bikeleague.org. Archived from the original on May 30, 2013. Retrieved October 6, 2008.
- Njus, Elliot (July 19, 2016). "Biketown bike-share program launches with inaugural Tilikum Crossing ride". The Oregonian. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- Njus, Elliot (June 13, 2016). "Biketown bike-share launch date, pricing, station locations announced". The Oregonian. Retrieved July 8, 2016.
- "About Sister Cities". portlandoregon.gov. City of Portland. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
- Allen, John Elliott; Burns, Marjorie; Sargent, Sam C. (2009). Cataclysms on the Columbia. Ooligan Press. ISBN 978-1-93201-031-2.
- Anderson, Heather Arndt (2014). Portland: A Food Biography. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-1-44222-738-5.
- Barth, Jack (1991). Roadside Hollywood:The Movie Lover's State-By-State Guide to Film Locations, Celebrity Hangouts, Celluloid Tourist Attractions, and More. Contemporary Books.
- Chandler, J.D. (2013). Hidden History of Portland, Oregon. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-1-62619-198-3.
- Falsetto, Mario (2015). Conversations with Gus Van Sant. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-44224-766-6.
- Freilich, Robert H; Sitkowski, Robert J.; Mennilo, Seth D. (2010). From Sprawl to Sustainability: Smart Growth, New Urbanism, Green Development. Amer-Bar-Asso.
- Human Rights Campaign (2013). Healthcare Equality Index 2013. HRC. ISBN 978-1-934765-27-2.
- John, Finn (2012). Wicked Portland: The Wild and Lusty Underworld of a Frontier Seaport Town. History Press. ISBN 978-1-60949-578-7.
- Marschner, Janice (2008). Oregon 1859: A Snapshot in Time. Timber Press. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-88192-873-0.
- Mass, Clifford (2008). The Weather of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-29598-847-4.
- Palahniuk, Chuck (2003). Fugitives and Refugees: A Walk in Portland, Oregon. Crown. ISBN 978-1-40004-783-3.
- Platt, Rutherford (2006). The Humane Metropolis: People and Nature in the 21st-Century City. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 978-1-55849-554-8.
- Scott, H.W. (1890). History of Portland Oregon with Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Prominent Citizens and Pioneers. D. Mason & Co.
- Wilson III, Ernest J.; Wilson, Ernest J. (2004). Diversity and US Foreign Policy: A Reader. New York: Routledge. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-415-92884-7.
- Abbott, C. (2001). Greater Portland: Urban Life and Landscape in the Pacific Northwest. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1779-9.; full text online
- Abbott, Carl. Portland in Three Centuries: The Place and the People (Oregon State University Press; 2011) 192 pages; scholarly history online
- Abbott, Carl. Portland : gateway to the Northwest (1985) online
- Abbott, C. (2001). Greater Portland: Urban Life and Landscape in the Pacific Northwest. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1779-9.; full text online
- Hodges, Adam J. World War I and Urban Order: The Local Class Politics of National Mobilization. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.
- Holbrook, Stewart (1986) [Reprint of 1952 edition]. Far Corner: A Personal View of the Pacific Northwest. Sausalito, California: Comstock Editions. ISBN 978-0-89174-043-8.
- Lansing, Jewel (2003). Portland: People, Politics, and Power, 1851–2001. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press. ISBN 978-0-87071-559-4.
- MacColl, E. Kimbark (1976). The Shaping of a City: Business and Politics in Portland, Oregon 1885 to 1915. Portland, Oregon: Georgian Press. OCLC 2645815. online
- MacColl, E. Kimbark (1979). The Growth of a City: Power and Politics in Portland, Oregon 1915 to 1950. Portland, Oregon: Georgian Press. ISBN 978-0-9603408-1-1.
- MacGibbon, Elma (1904). Leaves of knowledge. Spokane: Shaw & Borden Co. OCLC 3877939. Retrieved June 22, 2013. Contents: "Elma MacGibbon reminiscences of her travels in the United States starting in 1898, which were mainly in Oregon and Washington." Includes chapter "Portland, the Western Hub."
- O'Toole, Randal (July 9, 2007). "Debunking Portland: The City That Doesn't Work" (PDF). Policy Analysis. 596. OCLC 164599623. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- Ozawa, Connie P., ed. (2004). The Portland Edge: Challenges and Successes in Growing Communities. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. ISBN 978-1-55963-695-7.