Austin (// ( listen)) is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties. It is the 11th-most populous city in the United States and the 4th-most populous city in Texas. It is the fastest growing large city in the United States, the second most populous state capital after Phoenix, Arizona, and the southernmost state capital in the contiguous 48 states. As of the Census Bureau's July 1, 2016 estimate, Austin had a population of 947,890, up from 790,491 at the 2010 census. Located in Central Texas within the greater Texas Hill Country, the city is home to numerous lakes, rivers, and waterways, including Lady Bird Lake, Barton Springs, McKinney Falls, the Colorado River, Lake Travis, and Lake Walter E. Long. It is the cultural and economic center of the Austin–Round Rock metropolitan statistical area, which had an estimated population of 2,056,405 as of July 1, 2016.
|City of Austin|
Downtown Austin's skyline as seen from Lady Bird Lake in August 2014
|Nickname(s): "Live Music Capital of the World", "Silicon Hills", "ATX", "City of the Violet Crown", "Keep Austin Weird"|
Location in the U.S. state of Texas
|Counties||Hays, Travis, Williamson|
|Incorporated||December 27, 1839|
|Named for||Stephen F. Austin|
|• Mayor||Steve Adler (D)|
|• City manager||Spencer Cronk |
|• City||305.1 sq mi (790.1 km2)|
|• Land||297.9 sq mi (771.5 km2)|
|• Water||7.2 sq mi (18.6 km2)|
|• Metro||4,285.70 sq mi (11,099.91 km2)|
|Elevation||489 ft (149 m)|
|• Estimate (2016)||947,890 (11th)|
|• Density||3,182/sq mi (1,228.6/km2)|
|• Metro||2,056,405 (31st)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|ZIP codes||78701–78705, 78708–78739, 78741–78742, 78744–78769|
|Area code(s)||512 & 737|
|GNIS feature ID||1384879|
In the 1830s, pioneers began to settle the area in central Austin along the Colorado River. In 1839, the site was chosen to replace Houston as the capital of the Republic of Texas and was incorporated under the name "Waterloo". Shortly afterward, the name was changed to Austin in honor of Stephen F. Austin, the "Father of Texas" and the republic's first secretary of state. The city grew throughout the 19th century and became a center for government and education with the construction of the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas at Austin. After a lull in growth from the Great Depression, Austin resumed its development into a major city, and by the 1980s it emerged as a center for technology and business. A number of Fortune 500 companies have headquarters or regional offices in Austin, including Amazon.com, Apple Inc., Cisco, eBay, General Motors, Google, IBM, Intel, Oracle Corporation, Paypal, Texas Instruments, 3M, and Whole Foods Market. Dell's worldwide headquarters is located in nearby Round Rock, a suburb of Austin.
Residents of Austin are known as Austinites. They include a diverse mix of government employees, college students, musicians, high-tech workers, and blue-collar workers. The city's official slogan promotes Austin as "The Live Music Capital of the World", a reference to the city's many musicians and live music venues, as well as the long-running PBS TV concert series Austin City Limits. The city also adopted "Silicon Hills" as a nickname in the 1990s due to a rapid influx of technology and development companies. In recent years, some Austinites have adopted the unofficial slogan "Keep Austin Weird", which refers to the desire to protect small, unique, and local businesses from being overrun by large corporations. In the late 19th century, Austin was known as the "City of the Violet Crown", because of the colorful glow of light across the hills just after sunset. Even today, many Austin businesses use the term "Violet Crown" in their name. Austin is known as a "clean-air city" for its stringent no-smoking ordinances that apply to all public places and buildings, including restaurants and bars.
U.S. News & World Report named Austin the #1 place to live in the U.S. for 2017 and 2018. In 2016, Forbes ranked Austin #1 on its "Cities of the Future" list, then in 2017 placed Austin #1 on its list for the "Next Biggest Boom Town in the U.S." Also in 2017, Forbes awarded the South River City neighborhood of Austin its #2 ranking for "Best Cities and Neighborhoods for Millennials". WalletHub named Austin the #6 best place in the country to live for 2017. The FBI ranked Austin as the #2 safest major city in the U.S. for 2012.
Austin, Travis County and Williamson County have been the site of human habitation since at least 9200 BC. The area's earliest known inhabitants lived during the late Pleistocene (Ice Age) and are linked to the Clovis culture around 9200 BC (11,200 years ago), based on evidence found throughout the area and documented at the much-studied Gault Site, midway between Georgetown and Fort Hood.
When settlers arrived from Europe, the Tonkawa tribe inhabited the area. The Comanches and Lipan Apaches were also known to travel through the area. Spanish colonists, including the Espinosa-Olivares-Aguirre expedition, traveled through the area for centuries, though few permanent settlements were created for some time. In 1730, three missions from East Texas were combined and reestablished as one mission on the south side of the Colorado River, in what is now Zilker Park, in Austin. The mission was in this area for only about seven months, and then was moved to San Antonio de Béxar and split into three missions.
Early in the 19th century, Spanish forts were established in what are now Bastrop and San Marcos. Following Mexico's independence, new settlements were established in Central Texas, but growth in the region was stagnant because of conflicts with the regional Native Americans.
In 1835–1836, Texans fought and won independence from Mexico. Texas thus became an independent country with its own president, congress, and monetary system. After Vice President Mirabeau B. Lamar visited the area during a buffalo-hunting expedition between 1837 and 1838, he proposed that the republic's capital, then in Houston, be relocated to the area situated on the north bank of the Colorado River (near the present-day Congress Avenue Bridge). In 1839, the Texas Congress formed a commission to seek a site for a new capital to be named for Stephen F. Austin. Mirabeau B. Lamar, second president of the newly formed Republic of Texas, advised the commissioners to investigate the area named Waterloo, noting the area's hills, waterways, and pleasant surroundings. Waterloo was selected, and "Austin" was chosen as the town's new name. The location was seen as a convenient crossroads for trade routes between Santa Fe and Galveston Bay, as well as routes between northern Mexico and the Red River.
Edwin Waller was picked by Lamar to survey the village and draft a plan laying out the new capital. The original site was narrowed to 640 acres (260 ha) that fronted the Colorado River between two creeks, Shoal Creek and Waller Creek, which was later named in his honor. The 14-block grid plan was bisected by a broad north-south thoroughfare, Congress Avenue, running up from the river to Capital Square, where the new Texas State Capitol was to be constructed. A temporary one-story capitol was erected on the corner of Colorado and 8th Streets. On August 1, 1839, the first auction of 217 out of 306 lots total was held. The grid plan Waller designed and surveyed now forms the basis of downtown Austin.
In 1840, a series of conflicts between the Texas Rangers and the Comanches, known as the Council House Fight and the Battle of Plum Creek, pushed the Comanches westward, mostly ending conflicts in Central Texas. Settlement in the area began to expand quickly. Travis County was established in 1840, and the surrounding counties were mostly established within the next two decades.
Initially, the new capital thrived. But Lamar's political enemy, Sam Houston, used two Mexican army incursions to San Antonio as an excuse to move the government. Sam Houston fought bitterly against Lamar's decision to establish the capital in such a remote wilderness. The men and women who traveled mainly from Houston to conduct government business were intensely disappointed as well. By 1840, the population had risen to 856, of whom nearly half fled from Austin when Congress recessed. The resident African American population listed in January of this same year was 176. The fear of Austin's proximity to the Indians and Mexico, which still considered Texas a part of their land, created an immense motive for Sam Houston, the first and third President of the Republic of Texas, to relocate the capital once again in 1841. Upon threats of Mexican troops in Texas, Houston raided the Land Office to transfer all official documents to Houston for safe keeping in what was later known as the Archive War, but the people of Austin would not allow this unaccompanied decision to be executed. The documents stayed, but the capital would temporarily move from Austin to Houston to Washington-on-the-Brazos. Without the governmental body, Austin's population declined to a low of only a few hundred people throughout the early 1840s. The voting by the fourth President of the Republic, Anson Jones, and Congress, who reconvened in Austin in 1845, settled the issue to keep Austin the seat of government, as well as annex the Republic of Texas into the United States.
In 1860, 38% of Travis County residents were slaves. In 1861, with the outbreak of the American Civil War, voters in Austin and other Central Texas communities voted against secession. However, as the war progressed and fears of attack by Union forces increased, Austin contributed hundreds of men to the Confederate forces. The African American population of Austin swelled dramatically after the enforcement of the Emancipation Proclamation in Texas by Union General Gordon Granger at Galveston, in an event commemorated as Juneteenth. Black communities such as Wheatville, Pleasant Hill, and Clarksville were established, with Clarksville being the oldest surviving freedomtown ‒ the original post-Civil War settlements founded by former African-American slaves ‒ west of the Mississippi River. In 1870, blacks made up 36.5% of Austin's population.
The postwar period saw dramatic population and economic growth. The opening of the Houston and Texas Central Railway (H&TC) in 1871 turned Austin into the major trading center for the region, with the ability to transport both cotton and cattle. The Missouri, Kansas & Texas (MKT) line followed close behind. Austin was also the terminus of the southernmost leg of the Chisholm Trail, and "drovers" pushed cattle north to the railroad. Cotton was one of the few crops produced locally for export, and a cotton gin engine was located downtown near the trains for "ginning" cotton of its seeds and turning the product into bales for shipment. However, as other new railroads were built through the region in the 1870s, Austin began to lose its primacy in trade to the surrounding communities. In addition, the areas east of Austin took over cattle and cotton production from Austin, especially in towns like Hutto and Taylor that sit over the blackland prairie, with its deep, rich soils for producing cotton and hay.
In September 1881, Austin public schools held their first classes. The same year, Tillotson Collegiate and Normal Institute (now part of Huston–Tillotson University) opened its doors. The University of Texas held its first classes in 1883, although classes had been held in the original wooden state capitol for four years before.
During the 1880s, Austin gained new prominence as the state capitol building was completed in 1888 and claimed as the seventh largest building in the world. In the late 19th century, Austin expanded its city limits to more than three times its former area, and the first granite dam was built on the Colorado River to power a new street car line and the new "moon towers". Unfortunately, the first dam washed away in a flood on April 7, 1900.
In the 1920s and 1930s, Austin launched a series of civic development and beautification projects that created much of the city's infrastructure and many of its parks. In addition, the state legislature established the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) that, along with the city of Austin, created the system of dams along the Colorado River to form the Highland Lakes. These projects were enabled in large part because the Public Works Administration provided Austin with greater funding for municipal construction projects than other Texas cities.
During the early twentieth century, a three-way system of social segregation emerged in Austin, with Anglos, African Americans and Mexicans being separated by custom or law in most aspects of life, including housing, health care, and education. Many of the municipal improvement programs initiated during this period—such as the construction of new roads, schools, and hospitals—were deliberately designed to institutionalize this system of segregation. Deed restrictions also played an important role in residential segregation. After 1935 most housing deeds prohibited African Americans (and sometimes other nonwhite groups) from using land. Combined with the system of segregated public services, racial segregation increased in Austin during the first half of the twentieth century, with African Americans and Mexicans experiencing high levels of discrimination and social marginalization.
In 1940, the destroyed granite dam on the Colorado River was finally replaced by a hollow concrete dam that formed Lake McDonald (now called Lake Austin) and which has withstood all floods since. In addition, the much larger Mansfield Dam was built by the LCRA upstream of Austin to form Lake Travis, a flood-control reservoir. In the early 20th century, the Texas Oil Boom took hold, creating tremendous economic opportunities in Southeast Texas and North Texas. The growth generated by this boom largely passed by Austin at first, with the city slipping from fourth largest to 10th largest in Texas between 1880 and 1920.
After the mid-20th century, Austin became established as one of Texas' major metropolitan centers. In 1970, the U.S. Census Bureau reported Austin's population as 14.5% Hispanic, 11.9% black, and 73.4% non-Hispanic white. In the late 20th century, Austin emerged as an important high tech center for semiconductors and software. The University of Texas at Austin emerged as a major university.
The 1970s saw Austin's emergence in the national music scene, with local artists such as Willie Nelson, Asleep at the Wheel, and Stevie Ray Vaughan and iconic music venues such as the Armadillo World Headquarters. Over time, the long-running television program Austin City Limits, its namesake Austin City Limits Festival, and the South by Southwest music festival solidified the city's place in the music industry.
Austin, the southernmost state capital of the contiguous 48 states, is located in Central Texas. Austin is 160 miles (260 km) northwest of Houston, 195 miles (310 km) south of Dallas and 80 miles (130 km) northeast of San Antonio.
In 2010, the city occupied a total area of 305.4 square miles (791.1 km2). Approximately 7.2 square miles (18.6 km2) of this area is water.
Austin is situated at the foot of the Balcones Escarpment, on the Colorado River, with three artificial lakes within the city limits: Lady Bird Lake (formerly known as Town Lake), Lake Austin (both created by dams along the Colorado River), and Lake Walter E. Long that is partly used for cooling water for the Decker Power Plant. Mansfield Dam and the foot of Lake Travis are located within the city's limits. Lady Bird Lake, Lake Austin, and Lake Travis are each on the Colorado River.
The elevation of Austin varies from 425 feet (130 m) to approximately 1,000 feet (305 m) above sea level. As a result of its straddling the Balcones Fault, much of the eastern part of the city is flat, with heavy clay and loam soils, whereas the western part and western suburbs consist of rolling hills on the edge of the Texas Hill Country. Because the hills to the west are primarily limestone rock with a thin covering of topsoil, portions of the city are frequently subjected to flash floods from the runoff caused by thunderstorms. To help control this runoff and to generate hydroelectric power, the Lower Colorado River Authority operates a series of dams that form the Texas Highland Lakes. The lakes also provide venues for boating, swimming, and other forms of recreation within several parks on the lake shores.
Austin is located at the intersection of four major ecological regions, and is consequently a temperate-to-hot green oasis with a highly variable climate having some characteristics of the desert, the tropics, and a wetter climate. The area is very diverse ecologically and biologically, and is home to a variety of animals and plants. Notably, the area is home to many types of wildflowers that blossom throughout the year but especially in the spring, including the popular bluebonnets, some planted in an effort by "Lady Bird" Johnson, wife of former President Lyndon B. Johnson.
A popular point of prominence in Austin is Mount Bonnell. At about 780 feet (238 m) above sea level, it is a natural limestone formation overlooking Lake Austin on the Colorado River, with an observation deck at its summit.
The soils of Austin range from shallow, gravelly clay loams over limestone in the western outskirts to deep, fine sandy loams, silty clay loams, silty clays or clays in the city's eastern part. Some of the clays have pronounced shrink-swell properties and are difficult to work under most moisture conditions. Many of Austin's soils, especially the clay-rich types, are slightly to moderately alkaline and have free calcium carbonate.
Austin has several rock climbing locations. Rock climbing can be found at three Austin parks: Barton Creek Greenbelt, Bull Creek Park and McKinney Falls State Park. The sport-climbing routes at Barton Creek Greenbelt–with its many vertical to overhanging walls–offer challenges to both the beginner and advanced climber.
Austin's skyline historically was modest, dominated by the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas Main Building. However, many new high-rise towers have been constructed since 2000—Austin's ten tallest buildings were completed after 2003. The city's tallest building, The Austonian, was topped out on September 17, 2009. Austin is currently undergoing a skyscraper boom, which includes recent construction on the now complete 360 Condominiums at 563 feet (172 m), Spring (condominiums), the Austonian at 683 feet (208 m), and several other office, hotel and residential buildings. Downtown's buildings are somewhat spread out, partly due to a set of zoning restrictions that preserve the view of the Texas State Capitol from various locations around Austin, known as the Capitol View Corridors.
At night, parts of Austin are lit by "artificial moonlight" from Moonlight Towers built to illuminate the central part of the city. The 165-foot (50 m) moonlight towers were built in the late 19th century and are now recognized as historic landmarks. Only 15 of the 31 original innovative towers remain standing in Austin, and none remain in any of the other cities where they were installed. The towers are featured in the 1993 film Dazed and Confused.
The central business district of Austin is home to the tallest condo towers in the state, with the Independent (58 stories and 690 feet (210 metres). tall) and The Austonian (topping out at 56 floors and 685 feet (209 metres). tall). The Independent will replace The Austonian as the tallest all-residential building in the U.S. west of the Mississippi River when completed in 2018.
In 2005, then-Mayor Will Wynn set out a goal of having 25,000 people living Downtown by 2015. Although Downtown's growth did not meet this goal, Downtown's residential population did surge from an estimated 5,000 in 2005 to 12,000 in 2015. The skyline has drastically changed in recent years, and the residential real estate market has remained relatively strong. As of December 2016, there are 31 high-rise projects either under construction, approved or planned to be completed in Austin's downtown core between 2017 and 2020. Sixteen of those are set to rise above 400 feet (120 metres). tall, including four above 600', and eight above 500'. An additional 15 towers are slated to stand between 300' and 399' tall.
Downtown growth has been aided by the presence of a popular live music and nightlife scene, museums, restaurants, and Lady Bird Lake, considered one of the city's best recreational spots. The 2nd Street District consists of several new residential projects, restaurants, upscale boutiques and other entertainment venues, as well as Austin's City Hall. Across 2nd Street from Austin's City Hall is the new ACL Live @ the Moody Theatre where the long-running PBS program Austin City Limits, is filmed. It is located at the base of the new 478 feet (146 m) W Hotel. The South by Southwest is a music, film and interactive festival that occurs over five days each March in downtown Austin, and includes one of the world's largest music festivals; with more than 3,000 acts playing in more than 100 venues.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Austin is located within the middle of a unique and narrow transitional zone between the dry deserts of the American Southwest and the lush, green, more humid regions of the American Southeast. Its climate, topography, and vegetation share characteristics of both. Officially, Austin has a humid subtropical climate under the Köppen climate classification. This climate is typified by very long, hot summers; short, mild winters; and warm transitional seasons in between. Austin averages 34.32 inches (872 mm) of annual rainfall and it is distributed mostly evenly throughout the year, though spring and fall are the wettest seasons. Sunshine is abundant during all seasons, with 2,650 hours, or 60.3% of the possible total, of bright sunshine per year.
The summer season in Austin is very hot, and average July and August highs frequently reach the high-90s (34–36 °C) or above. Highs reach 90 °F (32 °C) on 116 days per year, of which 18 days reach 100 °F (38 °C). On average, the daytime high reaches 70 °F (21 °C) or warmer every day between March 6 and November 20, rising to 80 °F (27 °C) or warmer between April 14 and October 24. The highest ever recorded temperature was 112 °F (44 °C) occurring on September 5, 2000, and August 28, 2011. An uncommon characteristic of Austin's climate is its highly variable humidity, which fluctuates frequently depending on the shifting patterns of air flow and wind direction. It is common for a lengthy series of warm, dry, low-humidity days to be occasionally interrupted by very warm and humid days, and vice versa. Humidity rises when the air drifts inland from the Gulf of Mexico, but decreases significantly when the air is channeled through the Chihuahuan Desert of West Texas.
Winters in Austin are mild with cool nights. January is the coolest month with an average daytime high of 61 °F (16 °C). The overnight low reaches or exceeds freezing 19 times per year, and sinks below 45 °F (7 °C) during 88 evenings per year, including most nights between mid-December and mid-February. Lows in the upper 30s also occur commonly during the winter. Conversely, winter months are also capable of occasionally producing warm days. On average, eight days in January reach or exceed 70 °F (21 °C) and one day reaches 80 °F (27 °C). The lowest ever recorded temperature in the city was −2 °F (−19 °C) on January 31, 1949. Roughly every two years Austin experiences an ice storm that freezes roads over and cripples travel in the city for 24 to 48 hours. When Austin received 0.04 inches (1 mm) of ice on January 24, 2014, there were 278 vehicular collisions. Similarly, snowfall is rare in Austin. A snow event of 0.9 inches (2 cm) on February 4, 2011, caused more than 300 car crashes and a 13-inch (33 cm) snowstorm brought the city to a near standstill in 1985. The most recent major snow event occurred on December 7, 2017, when 1.3 inches was recorded at Austin-Bergstrom International Airport.
Typical of Central Texas, severe weather in Austin is a threat that can strike during any season. However, it is most common during the spring. According to most classifications, Austin lies within the extreme southern periphery of Tornado Alley, although many sources place Austin outside of Tornado Alley altogether. Consequently, tornadoes strike Austin less frequently than areas farther to the north. However, severe weather and/or supercell thunderstorms can occur multiple times per year, bringing damaging winds, lightning, heavy rain, and occasional flash flooding to the city. The deadliest storm to ever strike city limits was the twin tornadoes storm of May 4, 1922, while the deadliest tornado outbreak to ever strike the metro area was the Central Texas tornado outbreak of May 27, 1997.
|Climate data for Camp Mabry, Austin, Texas (1981–2010 normals,[a] extremes 1891–present)[b]|
|Record high °F (°C)||90
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||79.3
|Average high °F (°C)||61.5
|Average low °F (°C)||41.5
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||26.7
|Record low °F (°C)||−2
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||2.22
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||0.4
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||7.4||7.4||9.2||7.1||8.9||7.7||5.4||4.9||6.7||7.5||7.5||7.8||87.5|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||0.3||0.2||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.5|
|Average relative humidity (%)||67.2||66.0||64.2||66.4||71.4||69.5||65.1||63.8||68.4||67.1||68.7||67.6||67.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||163.8||169.3||205.9||205.8||227.1||285.5||317.2||297.9||233.8||215.6||168.3||153.5||2,643.7|
|Percent possible sunshine||51||54||55||53||54||68||74||73||63||61||53||48||60|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990), Weather.com |
From October 2010 through September 2011, both major reporting stations in Austin, Camp Mabry and Bergstrom Int'l, had the least rainfall of a water year on record, receiving less than a third of normal precipitation. This was a result of La Niña conditions in the eastern Pacific Ocean where water was significantly cooler than normal. David Brown, a regional official with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, has explained that "these kinds of droughts will have effects that are even more extreme in the future, given a warming and drying regional climate."
|U.S. Decennial Census|
|Black or African American||8.1%||12.4%||11.8%||13.3%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||35.1%||23.0%||14.5%||n/a|
- White: 68.3% (Non-Hispanic Whites: 48.7%)
- Hispanic or Latino: 35.1% (29.1% Mexican, 0.5% Puerto Rican, 0.4% Cuban, 5.1% Other)
- African American: 8.1%
- Asian: 6.3% (1.9% Indian, 1.5% Chinese, 1.0% Vietnamese, 0.7% Korean, 0.3% Filipino, 0.2% Japanese, 0.8% Other)
- American Indian: 0.9%
- Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0.1%
- Two or More Races: 3.4%
At the 2000 United States Census, there were 656,562 people, 265,649 households, and 141,590 families residing in the city (roughly comparable in size to San Francisco, Leeds, UK; and Ottawa, Ontario, Canada). The population density was 2,610.4 inhabitants per square mile (1,007.9/km2). There were 276,842 housing units at an average density of 1,100.7 per square mile (425.0/km2). There were 265,648 households out of which 26.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.1% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 46.7% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.14.
In the city, the population was spread out with 22.5% under the age of 18, 16.6% from 18 to 24, 37.1% from 25 to 44, 17.1% from 45 to 64, and 6.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 105.8 males.
The median income for a household in the city was US$42,689, and the median income for a family was $54,091. Males had a median income of $35,545 vs. $30,046 for females. The per capita income for the city was $24,163. About 9.1% of families and 14.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.5% of those under age 18 and 8.7% of those age 65 or over. The median house price was $185,906 in 2009, and it has increased every year since 2004.[needs update] The median value of a house in which the owner occupies it was $227,800 in 2014, which is higher than the average American home value of $175,700. [Census]
A 2014 University of Texas study stated that Austin was the only U.S. city with a fast growth rate between 2000 and 2010 with a net loss in African-Americans. As of 2014[update], Austin's African-American and Non-Hispanic White percentage share of the total population is declining despite the absolute number of both ethnic groups increasing. Austin's Non-Hispanic White population first dropped below 50% in 2005. The rapid growth of the Hispanic and Asian population has outpaced all other ethnic groups in the city.
According to one survey completed in 2014, it is estimated that 5.3% of residents in the Austin Metropolitan area identify as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, or Transgender. The Austin metropolitan area had the third highest rate in the nation.
The Greater Austin metropolitan statistical area had a Gross Domestic Product of $86 billion in 2010. Austin is considered to be a major center for high tech. Thousands of graduates each year from the engineering and computer science programs at the University of Texas at Austin provide a steady source of employees that help to fuel Austin's technology and defense industry sectors. The region's rapid growth has led Forbes to rank the Austin metropolitan area number one among all big cities for jobs for 2012 in their annual survey and WSJ Marketwatch to rank the area number one for growing businesses. By 2013, Austin ranked No. 14 on Forbes' list of the Best Places for Business and Careers (directly below Dallas, No. 13 on the list). As a result of the high concentration of high-tech companies in the region, Austin was strongly affected by the dot-com boom in the late 1990s and subsequent bust. Austin's largest employers include the Austin Independent School District, the City of Austin, Dell, the U.S. Federal Government, NXP Semiconductors, IBM, St. David's Healthcare Partnership, Seton Family of Hospitals, the State of Texas, the Texas State University, and the University of Texas at Austin.
Other high-tech companies with operations in Austin include 3M, Apple, Amazon, AMD, Apartment Ratings, Applied Materials, ARM Holdings, Bigcommerce, BioWare, Blizzard Entertainment, Buffalo Technology, Cirrus Logic, Cisco Systems, Dropbox, eBay, PayPal, Electronic Arts, Flextronics, Facebook, Google, Hewlett-Packard, Hoover's, HomeAway, Hostgator, Intel Corporation, National Instruments, Nvidia, Oracle, Polycom, Qualcomm, Inc., Rackspace, RetailMeNot, Rooster Teeth, Samsung Group, Silicon Laboratories, Spansion, United Devices, and Xerox. In 2010, Facebook accepted a grant to build a downtown office that could bring as many as 200 jobs to the city. The proliferation of technology companies has led to the region's nickname, "the Silicon Hills", and spurred development that greatly expanded the city.
Austin is also emerging as a hub for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies; the city is home to about 85 of them. The city was ranked by the Milken Institute as the No.12 biotech and life science center in the United States. Companies such as Hospira, Pharmaceutical Product Development, and ArthroCare Corporation are located there.
Whole Foods Market (often called just "Whole Foods") is an upscale, international grocery store chain specializing in fresh and packaged food products—many having an organic-/local-/"natural"-theme. It was founded and is headquartered in Austin.
Other companies based in Austin include Freescale Semiconductor, GoodPop, Temple-Inland, Sweet Leaf Tea Company, Keller Williams Realty, National Western Life, GSD&M, Dimensional Fund Advisors, Golfsmith, Forestar Group, EZCorp, Tito's Vodka and YETI.
In addition to national and global corporations, Austin features a strong network of independent, unique, locally owned firms and organizations.
Arts and cultureEdit
"Keep Austin Weird" has been a local motto for years, featured on bumper stickers and T-shirts. This motto has not only been used in promoting Austin's eccentricity and diversity, but is also meant to bolster support of local independent businesses. According to the 2010 book, Weird City, the phrase was begun by a local Austin Community College librarian, Red Wassenich, and his wife, Karen Pavelka, who were concerned about Austin's "rapid descent into commercialism and overdevelopment." The slogan has been interpreted many ways since its inception, but remains an important symbol for many Austinites who wish to voice concerns over rapid growth and irresponsible development. Austin has a long history of vocal citizen resistance to development projects perceived to degrade the environment, or to threaten the natural and cultural landscapes.
According to the Nielsen Company, adults in Austin read and contribute to blogs more than those in any other U.S. metropolitan area. Austin residents have the highest internet usage in all of Texas. Austin was selected as the No. 2 Best Big City in "Best Places to Live" by Money magazine in 2006, and No. 3 in 2009, and also the "Greenest City in America" by MSN. According to Travel & Leisure magazine, Austin ranks No. 1 on the list of cities with the best people, referring to the personalities and attributes of the citizens. In 2012, the city was listed among the 10 best places to retire in the U.S. by CBS Money Watch.
In 2015, Forbes listed Austin as #1 Boom Town because of its economic strength, including jobs among other appealing attributes.
South Congress is a shopping district stretching down South Congress Avenue from Downtown. This area is home to coffee shops, eccentric stores, restaurants, food trucks, trailers and festivals. It prides itself on "Keeping Austin Weird", especially with development in the surrounding area(s).
"Old Austin" is an adage often used by the native citizens in Austin, Texas when being nostalgic to refer to the olden days of the capital city of Texas. Although Austin is also known internationally as the live music capital of the world and its catch phrase/slogan Keep Austin Weird can be heard echoed in places as far as Buffalo, NY and Santa Monica, CA - the term Old Austin refers to a time when the city was smaller and more bohemian with a considerably lower cost of living and better known for its lack of traffic, hipsters, and urban sprawl. It is often employed by longtime residents expressing displeasure at the rapidly changing culture.
The growth and popularity of Austin can be seen by the expansive development taking place in its downtown landscape. Forbes ranked Austin as the second fastest-growing city in 2015. This growth can have a negative impact on longtime small businesses that cannot keep up with the expenses associated with gentrification and the rising cost of real estate. A former Austin Musician, Dale Watson, described his move away from Austin, "I just really feel the city has sold itself. Just because you’re going to get $45 million for a company to come to town – if it’s not in the best interest of the town, I don’t think they should do it. This city was never about money. It was about quality of life.”
Annual cultural eventsEdit
Other annual events include Eeyore's Birthday Party, Spamarama, Austin Gay Pride in August, the Austin Reggae Festival in April, Kite Festival, Texas Craft Brewers Festival in September, Art City Austin in April, East Austin Studio Tour in November, and Carnaval Brasileiro in February. Sixth Street features annual festivals such as the Pecan Street Festival and Halloween night. The three-day Austin City Limits Music Festival has been held in Zilker Park every year since 2002. Every year around the end of March and the beginning of April, Austin is home to "Texas Relay Weekend."
Austin's Zilker Park Tree is a Christmas display made of lights strung from the top of a Moonlight tower in Zilker Park. The Zilker Tree is lit in December along with the "Trail of Lights," an Austin Christmas tradition. The Trail of Lights were cancelled four times, first starting in 2001 and 2002 due to the September 11 Attacks, and again in 2010 and 2011 due to budget shortfalls, but the trail was turned back on for the 2012 holiday season.
As Austin's official slogan is The Live Music Capital of the World, the city has a vibrant live music scene with more music venues per capita than any other U.S. city. Austin's music revolves around the many nightclubs on 6th Street and an annual film/music/interactive festival known as South by Southwest (SXSW). The concentration of restaurants, bars, and music venues in the city's downtown core is a major contributor to Austin's live music scene, as the zip code encompassing the downtown entertainment district hosts the most bar or alcohol-serving establishments in the U.S.
The longest-running concert music program on American television, Austin City Limits, is recorded at ACL Live at The Moody Theater. Austin City Limits and C3 Presents produce the Austin City Limits Music Festival, an annual music and art festival held at Zilker Park in Austin. Other music events include the Urban Music Festival, Fun Fun Fun Fest, Chaos In Tejas and Old Settler's Music Festival. Austin Lyric Opera performs multiple operas each year (including the 2007 opening of Philip Glass's Waiting for the Barbarians, written by University of Texas at Austin alumnus J. M. Coetzee). The Austin Symphony Orchestra performs a range of classical, pop and family performances and is led by Music Director and Conductor Peter Bay. The Austin Baroque Orchestra and La Follia Austin Baroque ensembles both give historically-informed performances of Baroque music.
Austin hosts several film festivals including SXSW Film Festival and Austin Film Festival, which hosts international films. In 2004 the city was first in MovieMaker Magazine's annual top ten cities to live and make movies.
Austin has been the location for a number of motion pictures, partly due to the influence of The University of Texas at Austin Department of Radio-Television-Film. Films produced in Austin include The Texas Chain Saw Massacre (1974), Songwriter (1984), Man of the House, Secondhand Lions, Chainsaw Massacre 2, Nadine, Waking Life, Spy Kids, The Faculty, Dazed and Confused, Wild Texas Wind, Office Space, The Life of David Gale, Miss Congeniality, Doubting Thomas, Slacker, Idiocracy, The New Guy, Hope Floats, The Alamo, Blank Check, The Wendall Baker Story, School of Rock, A Slipping-Down Life, A Scanner Darkly, Saturday Morning Massacre, and most recently, the Coen brothers' True Grit, Grindhouse, Machete, How to Eat Fried Worms, Bandslam and Lazer Team. In order to draw future film projects to the area, the Austin Film Society has converted several airplane hangars from the former Mueller Airport into filmmaking center Austin Studios. Projects that have used facilities at Austin Studios include music videos by The Flaming Lips and feature films such as 25th Hour and Sin City. Austin also hosted the MTV series, The Real World: Austin in 2005. The film review websites Spill.com and Ain't It Cool News are based in Austin. Rooster Teeth Productions, creator of popular web series such as Red vs. Blue and RWBY, is also located in Austin.
Austin has a strong theater culture, with dozens of itinerant and resident companies producing a variety of work. The Church of the Friendly Ghost is a volunteer-run arts organization supporting creative expression and counter-culture community. The city also has live performance theater venues such as the Zachary Scott Theatre Center, Vortex Repertory Company, Salvage Vanguard Theater, Rude Mechanicals' the Off Center, Austin Playhouse, Scottish Rite Children's Theater, Hyde Park Theatre, the Blue Theater, The Hideout Theatre, and Esther's Follies. The Victory Grill was a renowned venue on the Chitlin' circuit. Public art and performances in the parks and on bridges are popular. Austin hosts the Fuse Box Festival each April featuring international, leading-edge theater artists.
The Paramount Theatre, opened in downtown Austin in 1915, contributes to Austin's theater and film culture, showing classic films throughout the summer and hosting regional premieres for films such as Miss Congeniality. The Zilker Park Summer Musical is a long-running outdoor musical.
The Long Center for the Performing Arts is a 2,300-seat theater built partly with materials reused from the old Lester E. Palmer Auditorium.
Ballet Austin is the fourth largest ballet academy in the country. Each year Ballet Austin's 20-member professional company performs ballets from a wide variety of choreographers, including their international award-winning artistic director, Stephen Mills. The city is also home to the Ballet East Dance Company, a modern dance ensemble, and the Tapestry Dance Company which performs a variety of dance genres.
The Austin improvisational theatre scene has several theaters: ColdTowne Theater, The Hideout Theater, The New Movement Theater, and The Institution Theater. Austin also hosts the Out of Bounds Improv Festival, which draws comedic artists in all disciplines to Austin.
Museums and other points of interestEdit
Museums in Austin include the Texas Memorial Museum, the George Washington Carver Museum and Cultural Center, Thinkery, the Blanton Museum of Art (reopened in 2006), the Bob Bullock Texas State History Museum across the street (which opened in 2000), The Contemporary Austin, the Elisabet Ney Museum and the galleries at the Harry Ransom Center. The Texas State Capitol itself is also a major tourist attraction.
The Driskill Hotel, built in 1886, once owned by George W. Littlefield, and located at 6th and Brazos streets, was finished just before the construction of the Capitol building. Sixth Street is a musical hub for the city. The Enchanted Forest, a multi-acre outdoor music, art, and performance art space in South Austin hosts events such as fire-dancing and circus-like-acts. Austin is also home to the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum, which houses documents and artifacts related to the Johnson administration, including LBJ's limousine and a re-creation of the Oval Office.
Locally produced art is featured at the South Austin Museum of Popular Culture. The Mexic-Arte Museum is a Mexican and Mexican-American art museum founded in 1983. Austin is also home to the O. Henry House Museum, which served as the residence of O. Henry from 1893 to 1895. Farmers' markets are popular attractions, providing a variety of locally grown and often organic foods.
Austin also has many odd statues and landmarks, such as the Stevie Ray Vaughan statue, the Willie Nelson statue, the Mangia dinosaur, the Loca Maria lady at Taco Xpress, the Hyde Park Gym's giant flexed arm, and Daniel Johnston's Hi, How are You? Jeremiah the Innocent frog mural.
The Ann W. Richards Congress Avenue Bridge houses the world's largest urban population of Mexican free-tailed bats. Starting in March, up to 1.5 million bats take up residence inside the bridge's expansion and contraction zones as well as in long horizontal grooves running the length of the bridge's underside, an environment ideally suited for raising their young. Every evening around sunset, the bats emerge in search of insects, an exit visible on weather radar. Watching the bat emergence is an event that is popular with locals and tourists, with more than 100,000 viewers per year. The bats migrate to Mexico each winter.
Many Austinites support the athletic programs of the University of Texas at Austin known as the Texas Longhorns. During the 2005–06 academic term, Longhorns football team was named the NCAA Division I FBS National Football Champion, and Longhorns baseball team won the College World Series. The Texas Longhorns play home games in the state's second-largest sports stadium, Darrell K Royal–Texas Memorial Stadium, seating over 101,000 fans. Baseball games are played at UFCU Disch–Falk Field.
Austin is the most populous city in the United States without a major-league professional sports team. Minor-league professional sports came to Austin in 1996, when the Austin Ice Bats began playing at the Travis County Expo Center; they were later replaced by the AHL Texas Stars. Austin has hosted a number of other professional teams, including the Austin Spurs of the NBA G League, the Austin Aztex of the United Soccer League, the Austin Outlaws in WFA football, and the Austin Aces in WTT tennis.
Natural features like the bicycle-friendly Texas Hill Country and generally mild climate make Austin the home of several endurance and multi-sport races and communities. The Capitol 10,000 is the largest 10 K race in Texas, and approximately fifth largest in the United States. The Austin Marathon has been run in the city every year since 1992. Additionally the city is home to the largest 5 mile race in Texas, named the Turkey Trot as it is run annually on thanksgiving. Started in 1991 by Thundercloud Subs, a local sandwich chain (who still sponsors the event), the event has grown to host over 20,000 runners. All proceeds are donated to Caritas of Austin, a local charity.
|Round Rock Express||Baseball||2000||Pacific Coast League(AAA)||Dell Diamond|
|Austin Spurs||Basketball||2005||NBA G League||H-E-B Center at Cedar Park|
|Texas Stars||Ice hockey||2009||American Hockey League||H-E-B Center at Cedar Park|
|Austin Outlaws||Football||2003||Women's Football Alliance||House Park|
|Austin Huns||Rugby||1972||Texas Rugby Union||Huns Field at Nixon Lane|
|Austin Elite Rugby||Rugby||2017||Major League Rugby||Stadium ATX|
The Austin-founded American Swimming Association hosts several swim races around town. Austin is also the hometown of several cycling groups and the disgraced cyclist Lance Armstrong. Combining these three disciplines is a growing crop of triathlons, including the Capital of Texas Triathlon held every Memorial Day on and around Lady Bird Lake, Auditorium Shores, and Downtown Austin.
In June 2010 it was announced that the Austin area would host the Formula One, United States Grand Prix, from 2012 until 2021. The State pledged $25 million in public funds annually for 10 years to pay the sanctioning fees for the race. A Formula One circuit was built at an estimated cost of $250 to $300 million, and is located just east of the Austin Bergstrom International Airport. Circuit of the Americas also plays host to MotoGP World Championships from 2013.
The summer of 2014 marked the inaugural season for World TeamTennis team Austin Aces, formerly Orange County Breakers of the southern California region. Austin Aces played their matches at the Cedar Park Center northwest of Austin, and featured former professionals Andy Roddick and Marion Bartoli, as well as current WTA tour player Vera Zvonareva. The team left after the 2015 season.
Parks and recreationEdit
The Austin Parks and Recreation Department received the Excellence in Aquatics award in 1999 and the Gold Medal Awards in 2004 from the National Recreation and Park Association. Home to more than 50 public swimming pools, Austin has parks and pools throughout the city. There are several well-known swimming locations. These include Deep Eddy Pool, Texas' oldest man-made swimming pool, and Barton Springs Pool, the nation's largest natural swimming pool in an urban area. Barton Springs Pool is spring-fed while Deep Eddy is well-fed. Both range in temperature from about 68.0 °F (20.0 °C) during the winter to about 71.6 °F (22.0 °C) during the summer. Hippie Hollow Park, a county park situated along Lake Travis, is the only officially sanctioned clothing-optional public park in Texas. Activities include rockclimbing, kayaking, swimming, mountain biking, exploring, and hiking along the greenbelt, a long-spanning area that runs through the city. Some well known naturally forming swimming holes along Austin's greenbelt include Twin Falls, Sculpture Falls and Campbell's Hole. Zilker Park, a large green area close to downtown, forms part of the greenbelt along the Colorado River. Hamilton Pool is a pool and wildlife park located about 30 minutes from the city.
To strengthen the region's parks system, which spans more than 29,000 acres (11,736 ha), The Austin Parks Foundation (APF) was established in 1992 to develop and improve parks in and around Austin. APF works to fill the city's park funding gap by leveraging volunteers, philanthropists, park advocates and strategic collaborations to develop, maintain and enhance Austin's parks, trails and green spaces. APF fosters innovative public/private partnerships and since 2006, has given over 145 grants totaling more than $2 million in service to the greater Austin community.
Government and lawEdit
FBI statistics show that overall violent and property crimes dropped in Austin in 2015, but increased in suburban areas of the city. One such southeastern suburb, Del Valle, reported eight homicides within two months in 2016. According to 2016 APD crime statistics, the 78723 census tract had the most violent crime, with 6 murders, 25 rapes, and 81 robberies.
One of the first American school mass-shooting incidents took place in Austin on August 1, 1966, when a gunman shot 43 people, killing 13 from the top of the University of Texas tower (see University of Texas tower shooting). This event led to the formation of the SWAT team.
In 2010, Andrew Joseph Stack III deliberately crashed his Piper Cherokee PA-28 into Echelon 1, an IRS building housing 190 employees. The resulting explosion killed 1 person (excluding the pilot), injured 13, and completely destroyed the building, costing the IRS a total of 38.6 million. (see 2010 Austin suicide attack)
A series of bombings occurred in Austin in March 2018.
Austin is administered by an 11-member city council (10 council members elected by geographic district plus a mayor elected at large). The council is accompanied by a hired city manager under the manager-council system of municipal governance. Council and mayoral elections are non-partisan, with a runoff in case there is no majority winner. A referendum approved by voters on November 6, 2012 changed the council composition from six council members plus a mayor elected at large to the current "10+1" district system. November 2014 marked the first election under the new system.
Austin formerly operated its city hall at 128 West 8th Street. Antoine Predock and Cotera Kolar Negrete & Reed Architects designed a new city hall building, which was intended to reflect what The Dallas Morning News referred to as a "crazy-quilt vitality, that embraces everything from country music to environmental protests and high-tech swagger." The new city hall, built from recycled materials, has solar panels in its garage. The city hall, at 301 West Second Street, opened in November 2004. The current[update] mayor of Austin is Steve Adler.
Law enforcement in Austin is provided by the Austin Police Department, except for state government buildings, which are patrolled by the Texas Department of Public Safety. The University of Texas Police operate from the University of Texas.
Fire protection within the city limits is provided by the Austin Fire Department, while the surrounding county is divided into twelve geographical areas known as Emergency Services Districts, which are covered by separate regional fire departments. Emergency Medical Services are provided for the whole county by "Austin-Travis County Emergency Medical Services".
Other levels of governmentEdit
The United States Postal Service operates several post offices in Austin.
|2016||27.4% 126,750||66.3% 306,475|
|2012||36.2% 140,152||60.1% 232,788|
|2008||34.3% 136,981||63.5% 254,017|
|2004||42.0% 147,885||56.0% 197,235|
|2000||46.9% 141,235||41.7% 125,526|
|1996||39.9% 98,454||52.3% 128,970|
|1992||31.9% 88,105||47.3% 130,546|
|1988||44.9% 105,915||54.1% 127,783|
|1984||56.8% 124,944||42.8% 94,124|
|1980||45.7% 73,151||46.9% 75,028|
|1976||46.7% 71,031||51.6% 78,585|
|1972||56.3% 70,561||43.2% 54,157|
|1968||41.6% 34,309||48.1% 39,667|
|1964||31.0% 19,838||68.9% 44,058|
|1960||44.9% 22,107||54.9% 27,022|
Austin is known as an enclave of liberal politics in an otherwise conservative state—so much so, that the city is sometimes sarcastically called the "People's Republic of Austin" by residents of other parts of Texas, and conservatives in the Texas Legislature.
Since redistricting following the 2010 United States Census, Austin has been divided between six congressional districts at the federal level: Texas's 35th, Texas's 25th, Texas's 10th, Texas's 21st, Texas's 17th, and Texas's 31st. Texas's 35th congressional district is represented by Democrat Lloyd Doggett. The other five districts are represented by Republicans, of whom only one, Michael McCaul of the 10th district, lives in Travis County.
As a result of the major party realignment that began in the 1970s, central Austin became a stronghold of the Democratic Party, while the suburbs tend to vote Republican. A controversial turning point in the political history of the Austin area was the 2003 Texas redistricting. Before then, Austin had been entirely or almost entirely within the borders of a single congressional district–what was then the 10th District–for over a century. Opponents characterized the resulting district layout as excessively partisan gerrymandering, and the plan was challenged in court by Democratic and minority activists; of note, the Supreme Court of the United States has never struck down a redistricting plan for being excessively partisan. The plan was subsequently upheld by a three-judge federal panel in late 2003, and on June 28, 2006, the matter was largely settled when the Supreme Court, in a 7–2 decision, upheld the entire congressional redistricting plan with the exception of a Hispanic-majority district in southwest Texas. This affected Austin's districting, as U.S. Rep. Lloyd Doggett's district (U.S. Congressional District 25) was found to be insufficiently compact to compensate for the reduced minority influence in the southwest district; it was redrawn so that it took in most of southeastern Travis County and several counties to its south and east.
Overall, the city is a blend of downtown liberalism and suburban conservatism but leans to the political left as a whole. The city last went to a Republican candidate in 2000 when former Texas Governor George W. Bush successfully ran for President. In 2004, the Democrats rebounded strongly as John Kerry enjoyed a 14.0% margin over Bush, who once again won Texas.
City residents have been supportive of alternative candidates; for example, Ralph Nader won 10.4% of the vote in Austin in 2000.
In 2003, the city adopted a resolution against the USA PATRIOT Act that reaffirmed constitutionally guaranteed rights.
Of Austin's six state legislative districts, three are strongly Democratic and three are swing districts, two of which are held by Democrats and one of which is held by a Republican.
Travis County was also the only county in Texas to reject Texas Constitutional Amendment Proposition 2 that effectively outlawed gay marriage and status equal or similar to it and did so by a wide margin (40% for, 60% against).
Two of the candidates for president in the 2004 race called Austin home. Michael Badnarik, the Libertarian Party candidate, and David Cobb of the Green Party both had lived in Austin. During the run up to the election in November, a presidential debate was held at the University of Texas at Austin student union involving the two candidates. While the Commission on Presidential Debates only invites Democrats and Republicans to participate in televised debates, the debate at UT was open to all presidential candidates. Austin also hosted one of the last presidential debates between Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton during their heated race for the Democratic nomination in 2008.
The distinguishing political movement of Austin politics has been that of the environmental movement, which spawned the parallel neighborhood movement, then the more recent conservationist movement (as typified by the Hill Country Conservancy), and eventually the current ongoing debate about "sense of place" and preserving the Austin quality of life. Much of the environmental movement has matured into a debate on issues related to saving and creating an Austin "sense of place." In 2012, Austin became just one of a few cities in Texas to ban the sale and use of plastic bags.
Researchers at Central Connecticut State University ranked Austin the 16th most literate city in the United States for 2008. The Austin Public Library operates the John Henry Faulk Library and various library branches. In addition, the University of Texas at Austin operates the seventh-largest academic library in the nation.
Austin was voted "America's No.1 College Town" by the Travel Channel. Over 43 percent of Austin residents age 25 and over hold a bachelor's degree, while 16 percent hold a graduate degree. In 2009, greater Austin ranked eighth among metropolitan areas in the United States for bachelor's degree attainment with nearly 39 percent of area residents over 25 holding a bachelor's degree.
Austin is home to the University of Texas at Austin, the flagship institution of the University of Texas System with over 38,000 undergraduate students and 12,000 graduate students. In 2015 rankings, the university was ranked 53rd among "National Universities" (17th among public universities) by U.S. News & World Report. UT has annual research expenditures of over $595 million and has the highest-ranked business, engineering, and law programs of any university in the state of Texas.
The Texas State University System, which consists of eight institutions throughout Texas and educates more than 84,000 students, is headquartered in downtown Austin. Other institutions of higher learning in Austin include St. Edward's University, Huston-Tillotson University, Austin Community College, Concordia University, the Seminary of the Southwest, the Acton School of Business, Texas Health and Science University, University of St. Augustine for Health Sciences, Austin Graduate School of Theology, Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Virginia College's Austin Campus, The Art Institute of Austin, Southern Careers Institute of Austin, Austin Conservatory and a branch of Park University.
Public primary and secondary educationEdit
The Austin area has 29 public school districts, 17 charter schools and 69 private schools. Most of the city is served by the Austin Independent School District. This district includes notable schools such as the magnet Liberal Arts and Science Academy High School of Austin, Texas (LASA), which, by test scores, has consistently been within the top thirty high schools in the nation, as well as The Ann Richards School for Young Women Leaders. Some parts of Austin are served by other districts, including Round Rock, Pflugerville, Leander, Manor, Del Valle, Lake Travis, Hays, and Eanes ISDs. Four of the metro's major public school systems, representing 54% of area enrollment, are included in Expansion Management magazine's latest annual education quality ratings of nearly 2,800 school districts nationwide. Two districts—Eanes and Round Rock—are rated "gold medal", the highest of the magazine's cost-performance categories.
Private and alternative educationEdit
Austin has a large network of private and alternative education institutions for children in preschool-12th grade including Abrome, ACE Academy, Acton Academy, Austin International School, Austin Jewish Academy, Austin Peace Academy, The Austin School for the Performing and Visual Arts, The Austin Waldorf School, Brentwood Christian School, Cleaview Sudbury School, Concordia Academy, The Griffin School, Holy Family Catholic School, Huntington-Surrey, Inside Outside School, Integrity Academy, Headwaters School, Hyde Park Baptist, Kirby Hall School, Long-View Micro School, Paragon Preparatory Middle School, Progress School, Redeemer Lutheran School, Regents School of Austin, Renaissance Academy, San Juan Diego Catholic High School, Skybridge Academy, St. Andrew's Episcopal School, St. Austin Catholic School, St. Francis School, St. Gabriel's Catholic School, St. Ignatius Martyr Catholic School, St. Mary's, St. Michael's Catholic Academy, St. Paul Lutheran School, St. Stephen's Episcopal School, St. Theresa's, Trinity Episcopal School, and a number of Montessori schools.
Along with homeschooling and unschooling communities, Austin is home to a number of part-time learning environments designed to offer basic academics and inspired mentoring. Such current resources include the Whole Life Learning Center and AHB Community School.
Austin is also home to child developmental institutions including the Center for Autism and Related Disorders, the Central Texas Autism Center, Johnson Center for Child Health and Development and many more.
Austin's main daily newspaper is the Austin American-Statesman. The Austin Chronicle is Austin's alternative weekly, while The Daily Texan is the student newspaper of the University of Texas at Austin. Austin's business newspaper is the weekly Austin Business Journal. The Austin Monitor is an online outlet that specializes in insider reporting on City Hall, Travis County Commissioners Court, AISD, and other related local civics beats. The Monitor is backed by the nonprofit Capital of Texas Media Foundation. Austin also has numerous smaller special interest or sub-regional newspapers such as the Oak Hill Gazette, Westlake Picayune, Hill Country News, Round Rock Leader, NOKOA, and The Villager among others. Texas Monthly, a major regional magazine, is also headquartered in Austin. The Texas Observer, a muckraking biweekly political magazine, has been based in Austin for over five decades. The weekly Community Impact Newspaper published by John Garrett, former publisher of the Austin Business Journal has five regional editions and is delivered to every house and business within certain zip codes and all of the news is specific to those zip codes. Another statewide publication based in Austin is The Texas Tribune, an on-line publication focused on Texas politics. The Tribune is "user-supported" through donations, a business model similar to public radio. The editor is Evan Smith, former editor of Texas Monthly. Smith co-founded the Texas Tribune, a nonprofit, non-partisan public media organization, with Austin venture capitalist John Thornton and veteran journalist Ross Ramsey.
Commercial radio stations include KASE-FM (country), KVET (sports), KVET-FM (country), KKMJ-FM (adult contemporary), KLBJ (talk), KLBJ-FM (classic rock), KTSN (progressive country), KFMK (contemporary Christian), KOKE-FM (progressive country) and KPEZ (rhythmic contemporary). KUT-FM is the leading public radio station in Texas and produces the majority of its content locally. KOOP (FM) is a volunteer-run radio station with more than 60 locally produced programs. KVRX is the student-run college radio station of the University of Texas at Austin with a focus on local and non-mainstream music and community programming. Other listener-supported stations include KAZI (urban contemporary), and KMFA (classical)
Network television stations (affiliations in parentheses) include KTBC (Fox O&O), KVUE (ABC), KXAN (NBC), KEYE-TV (CBS), KLRU (PBS), KNVA (The CW), KBVO (My Network TV), and KAKW (Univision O&O). KLRU produces several award-winning locally produced programs such as Austin City Limits.
Alex Jones, journalist, radio show host and filmmaker, produces his talk show The Alex Jones Show in Austin which broadcasts nationally on more than 60 AM and FM radio stations in the United States, WWCR Radio shortwave and XM Radio: Channel 166.
In 2009, 72.7% of Austin (city) commuters drove alone, with other mode shares being: 10.4% carpool, 6% work from home, 5% use transit, 2.3% walk, and 1% bicycle. In 2016, the American Community Survey estimated modal shares for Austin (city) commuters of 73.5% for driving alone, 9.6% for carpooling, 3.6% for riding transit, 2% for walking, and 1.5% for cycling.
Central Austin lies between two major north-south freeways: Interstate 35 to the east and the Mopac Expressway (Loop 1) to the west. U.S. Highway 183 runs from northwest to southeast, and State Highway 71 crosses the southern part of the city from east to west, completing a rough "box" around central and north-central Austin. Austin is the largest city in the United States to be served by only one Interstate Highway.
U.S. Highway 290 enters Austin from the east and merges into Interstate 35. Its highway designation continues south on I-35 and then becomes part of Highway 71, continuing to the west. Highway 290 splits from Highway 71 in southwest Austin, in an interchange known as "The Y." Highway 71 continues to Brady, Texas, and Highway 290 continues west to intersect Interstate 10 near Junction. Interstate 35 continues south through San Antonio to Laredo on the Texas-Mexico border. Interstate 35 is the highway link to the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex in northern Texas. There are two links to Houston, Texas (Highway 290 and State Highway 71/Interstate 10). Highway 183 leads northwest of Austin toward Lampasas.
In the mid-1980s, construction was completed on Loop 360, a scenic highway that curves through the hill country from near the 71/Mopac interchange in the south to near the 183/Mopac interchange in the north. The iconic Pennybacker Bridge, also known as the "360 Bridge", crosses Lake Austin to connect the northern and southern portions of Loop 360.
State Highway 130 is a bypass route designed to relieve traffic congestion, starting from Interstate 35 just north of Georgetown and running along a parallel route to the east, where it bypasses Round Rock, Austin, San Marcos and New Braunfels before ending at Interstate 10 east of Seguin, where drivers could drive 30 miles (48 km) west to return to Interstate 35 in San Antonio. The first segment was opened in November 2006, which was located east of Austin–Bergstrom International Airport at Austin's southeast corner on State Highway 71. Highway 130 runs concurrently with Highway 45 from Pflugerville on the north until it reaches US 183 well south of Austin, where it splits off and goes west. The entire route of State Highway 130 is now complete with last leg, which opened on November 1, 2012. The highway is noted for having the entire route with a speed limit of at least 80 mph (130 km/h). The 41-mile section of the toll road between Mustang Ridge and Seguin has a posted speed limit of 85 mph (137 km/h), the highest posted speed limit in the United States.
State Highway 45 runs east-west from just south of Highway 183 in Cedar Park to 130 inside Pflugerville (just east of Round Rock). A tolled extension of State Highway Loop 1 was also created. A new southeast leg of Highway 45 has recently been completed, running from US 183 and the south end of Segment 5 of TX-130 south of Austin due west to I-35 at the FM 1327/Creedmoor exit between the south end of Austin and Buda. The 183A Toll Road opened March 2007, providing a tolled alternative to U.S. 183 through the cities of Leander and Cedar Park. Currently under construction is a change to East US 290 from US 183 to the town of Manor. Officially, the tollway will be dubbed Tollway 290 with the Manor Expressway as a nickname. Despite the overwhelming initial opposition to the toll road concept when it was first announced, all three toll roads have exceeded revenue projections.
Austin's airport is Austin–Bergstrom International Airport (ABIA) (IATA code AUS), located 5 miles (8 km) southeast of the city. The airport is on the site of the former Bergstrom Air Force Base, which was closed in 1993 as part of the Base Realignment and Closure process. Previously, Robert Mueller Municipal Airport was the commercial airport of Austin. Austin Executive Airport serves the general aviation coming into the city, as well as other smaller airports outside of the city centre.
Intercity bus serviceEdit
Greyhound Lines operates the Austin Station at 916 East Koenig Lane, just east of Airport Boulevard and adjacent to Highland Mall. Turimex Internacional operates bus service from Austin to Nuevo Laredo and on to many destinations in Mexico. The Turimex station is located at 5012 East 7th Street, near Shady Lane.
The Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority ("Capital Metro") provides public transportation to the city, primarily by bus. Some heavily utilized routes feature bus rapid transit, with 60-foot (18 m) long, train-like, high-tech buses.
Capital Metro opened a 32-mile (51 km) commuter rail system known as Capital MetroRail on March 22, 2010. The system was built on existing freight rail lines and serves downtown Austin, East Austin, North Central Austin, Northwest Austin, and Leander in its first phase. Future expansion could include a line to Manor and another to Round Rock. The MetroRail system has struggled to build ridership and has faced heavy criticism for its high per-rider cost to the public.
Capital Metro has also explored building a light rail system to connect the MetroRail line to key destinations in Central Austin. On August 7, 2014, the Austin City Council unanimously voted to place a $600 million light rail bond proposal on the November 4, 2014 ballot; the ballot measure was voted down, and no further rail expansions have been put to voters since.
Capital Area Rural Transportation System connects Austin with outlying suburbs.
An Amtrak Texas Eagle station is located in west downtown. Segments of the Amtrak route between Austin and San Antonio are under evaluation for a future regional passenger rail corridor as an alternative to the traffic congestion of Interstate 35. This is a multi jurisdictional project called Lone Star Rail. Austin is also home to Car2Go, a carsharing program. Austin was chosen as the first city in the western hemisphere to host this company's business, which is based in Germany.
Twin towns – sister citiesEdit
- Adelaide, South Australia, Australia – since 1983
- Angers, Maine-et-Loire, Pays de la Loire, France – since 2011
- Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil – since 2015
- Antalya Kepez, Turkey – since 2009
- Gwangmyeong, Gyeonggi, South Korea – since 2001
- Hackney, Greater London, England, United Kingdom - since February 2014
- Koblenz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany – since 1991
- Lima, Peru – since 1981
- Maseru, Lesotho – since 1978
- Ōita City, Japan – since 1990
- Orlu, Imo, Nigeria – since 2000
- Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico – since 1968
- Taichung, Taiwan – since 1986
- Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China – since 1997
The cities of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil and Elche, Alicante, Valencian Community, Spain were formerly sister cities, but upon a vote of the Austin City Council in 1991, their status was de-activated.
- Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
- Official records for Austin were kept at downtown from September 1891 to July 1942, Mueller Airport from August 1942 to June 1999, and at Camp Mabry since July 1999. For more information, see Threadex
- "Government | AustinTexas.gov - The Official Website of the City of Austin". www.austintexas.gov. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- "American FactFinder - Results". Archived from the original on April 9, 2017.
- "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Census Summary File 1 (G001): Austin city, Texas". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- Jones, Daniel (2003) , Peter Roach, James Hartmann and Jane Setter, eds., English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 3-12-539683-2
- Jordan Weissmann (May 21, 2015). "Population growth in U.S. cities: Austin is blowing away the competition." Slate Magazine.
- "America's Fastest Growing Cities 2016". Forbes. Jan 14, 2017.
- "Top 50 Cities in the U.S. by Population and Rank". infoplease.com. Retrieved January 27, 2014.
- "QuickFacts -- Austin, Texas". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
- "History Lesson". Austin Convention & Visitors Bureau. Retrieved July 28, 2008.
- "The History of Austin". Austin City Connection. City of Austin. Archived from the original on February 8, 2012. Retrieved December 28, 2007.
- Fortune. 2009-Apr. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
- Weird City. University of Texas Press. Archived from the original on May 9, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "Teas Real Estate & Relocation Guide". Archived from the original on October 21, 2014.
- "Live Music Capital of the World". Austin City Connection. City of Austin. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
- "The ATX". ATX Fest. Archived from the original on April 6, 2007. Retrieved April 6, 2007.
- "MetroSeeker.com". MetroSeeker.com. Archived from the original on November 20, 2011. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
- Kanter, Alexis (September 9, 2004). "Keep Austin Weird?". The Daily Texan. Archived from the original on July 24, 2008. Retrieved July 28, 2008.
- "Just what is a violet crown?". Retrieved August 19, 2016.
- MacLaggan, Corrie (January 18, 2011). "Senator Proposes State-wide Smoking Ban". Austin American-Statesman. Archived from the original on July 13, 2010. Retrieved August 29, 2011.
- "100 Best Places to Live in the U.S. 2017". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- "U.S. News Unveils the 2018 Best Places to Live". US News and World Report. April 10, 2018.
- "America's Cities of the Future". Forbes. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
- "Next Biggest Boomtowns in the U.S." Forbes. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
- "Best Cities and Neighborhoods for Millennials U.S." Forbes. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
- "Austin no longer holds No. 1 spot on list of America's best cities to live in". Statesman.com. Retrieved December 18, 2017.
- "Austin ranked second safest major city in the U.S." KVUE. Archived from the original on January 21, 2016. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
- "Handbook of Texas Online, "Gault Site" entry". Retrieved July 18, 2010.
- "What Native American tribe was most common in the area?". Austin City Connection. City of Austin. Archived from the original on February 8, 2012. Retrieved September 20, 2007.
- Cecil, Paul F.; Greene, Daniel P.: Hays County from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved Feb 17, 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
- Ryan, Steven. "Austin, Catholic Diocese of". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Archived from the original on July 10, 2011. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Marks, Paula Mitchell: Bastrop, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved Feb 17, 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
- Garrett, Daphne Dalton: Fayette County from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved Feb 17, 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
- Smyrl, Vivian Elizabeth: Travis County from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved February 17, 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
- Humphrey, David C.: Austin, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved February 17, 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
- Patoski, Joe Nick. "It's Just Different Here", Preservation, July/August 2010, page 38
- Waterloo, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved February 17, 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
- Erlichman (2006), p. 61.
- Plum Creek, Battle of from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved February 17, 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
- "City of Austin Community Inventory Report". Austin City Connection. Archived from the original on March 9, 2010. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
- "Austin Treasures: First Year Firsts: 1839". Austin City Connections. Archived from the original on January 9, 2002. Retrieved April 18, 2011.
- Census Office, Department of the Interior (1961). "Map Showing the Distribution of the Slave Population of the Southern States of the United States" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved December 13, 2010.
- "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals by Race, 1790 to 1990, and by Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, for Large Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2011.
- Roots Web, retrieved July 13, 2010 Archived May 9, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Texas Transportation Museum". Txtransportationmuseum.org/. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Martin, Don (2009). Austin, p. 31. Arcadia Publishing, Chicago, Illinois, ISBN 978-0-7385-7067-9
- "History of the Cotton gin (postcard images)". Texasescapes.com. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Martin, Don (2009). Austin, p. 30. Arcadia Publishing, Chicago, Illinois, ISBN 978-0-7385-7067-9
- Greene, Daniel P.: Austin, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved Feb 17, 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
- Martin, Don (2009). Austin, p. 84. Arcadia Publishing, Chicago, Illinois, ISBN 978-0-7385-7067-9
- Martin, Don (2009). Austin, p. 107. Arcadia Publishing, Chicago, Illinois, ISBN 978-0-7385-7067-9
- Tretter, Eliot (2016). Shadows of a Sunbelt City - The Environment, Racism, and the Knowledge Economy in Austin. The University of Georgia Press. p. 126. ISBN 9780820344898.
- McDonald, Jason (2012). Racial Dynamics in Early Twentieth-Century Austin, Texas. Lexington Books. ISBN/9780739170977
- Martin, Don (2009). Austin, p. 111. Arcadia Publishing, Chicago, Illinois, ISBN 978-0-7385-7067-9
- Martin, Don (2009). Austin, p. 112. Arcadia Publishing, Chicago, Illinois, ISBN 978-0-7385-7067-9
- "Austin in Texas". Writeonaustin.com. Retrieved April 16, 2010.
- Humphrey, David C.: Austin, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved February 4, 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
- Abbott (2003), p. 80.
- Baird (2009), p. 24.
- Jordan, Terry G.: Hill Country from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved November 7, 2009. Texas State Historical Association.
- "Watches and warnings". News 8 Austin. Archived from the original on January 14, 2010. Retrieved Feb 7, 2010.
- McCann, William: Lower Colorado River Authority from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved February 7, 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
- "Birding in South Texas". Fodor's.
- "Austin Climate Summary" (PDF). NOAA. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 6, 2011. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- "Austin Texas Weather Patterns". Visiting Austin Texas. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- Vines (1984), p. 4–6.
- Baird (2009), p. 225.
- Nora Fowler; School of Biological Sciences. "Geology (Edward's Plateau Ecology)". University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- "Austonian Reaches Full Height". KTBC. Archived from the original on December 3, 2009. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
- Downtown Commission (June 2007). "Downtown Development and Capitol View Corridors" (PDF).
- "Austin History Center a division of the Austin Public Library: Frequently Asked Questions about Austin, Answer 4". Retrieved July 15, 2010.[dead link]
- "Booming downtown Austin condo market". Austin-American Statesman. February 2008.
- "The surprising backstory of Austin's goal for 25,000 downtown residents". Austin-American Statesman. December 4, 2015.
- Zaragoza, Sandra (February 25, 2010). "New Austin City Limits home taking shape". Austin Business Journal.
- Calnan, Christopher (September 10, 2009). "New downtown hotel and residential tower".
- "U.S. Climate Data". usclimatedata.com.
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved November 30, 2012.
- "Austin Weather Averages". CurrentResults.com. Retrieved May 9, 2017.
- "Very hot early september 2000 weather". National Weather Service. Archived from the original on January 3, 2008. Retrieved March 19, 2007.
- "Normals for Austin, Texas". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2006-07-13.
- "Austin's all-time high: 112 degrees". Statesman.com. Archived from the original on December 20, 2011. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- "Austin Weather & Climate". About.com. Archived from the original on January 18, 2007. Retrieved March 19, 2007.
- Price, Asher; Taboada, Melissa B.; Jankowski, Phillip. "Cold leads to crashes, closings, cancellations: Schools close, flights fall through as freezing rain, sleet coat area". Austin American-Statesman. January 25, 2014.
- "It's not always sweltering in Central Texas. Honest". Austin American-Statesman. July 27, 2008.
- Plohetski, Tony. "Wearing winter white". Austin American-Statesman. February 5, 2011.
- "Southern Texas Gets Most Snow in Century". The Palm Beach Post, via Google News. Associated Press. January 14, 1985.
- "It's Snowing in Austin. People are Freaking Out. Data". Austin 360. Retrieved December 17, 2017.
- "Data Foundry: Austin Risk Assessment" (PDF). Retrieved April 15, 2017.
- "Austin Flood Safety". Retrieved April 15, 2017.
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2016-06-20.
- "Station Name: TX AUSTIN-CAMP MABRY". National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-27.
- "WMO Climate Normals for AUSTIN/MUNICIPAL AP TX 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-10.
- Galbraith, Kate (August 26, 2011). "Assessing Climate Change in a Drought-Stricken State". The New York Times. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "Austin (city), Texas". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau.
- From 15% sample
- American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "Austin city, Texas – Race, Hispanic or Latino, Age, and Housing Occupancy: 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "Austin Housing Trends and Values". HouseAlmanac.com. Archived from the original on May 21, 2006. Retrieved December 12, 2009.
- Donahue, Emily and David Brown. "Austin's the Only Fast-Growing City in the Country Losing African-Americans" (Archive). KUT. Moody College of Communication at the University of Texas at Austin, Friday May 16, 2014. Retrieved on May 20, 2014.
- "Top Ten Demographic Trends in Austin, Texas | Planning and Zoning | AustinTexas.gov - The Official Website of the City of Austin". AustinTexas.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
- "And The U.S. City With The Highest Percentage Of LGBT People Is". Huffington Post. March 20, 2015.
- Hensley, Nicole (2015-03-20). "Salt Lake City has higher percentage of LGBT people than NYC". New York Daily News. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
- "GDP by MSA". Greyhill Advisors. Retrieved September 23, 2011.
- "Austin: Economy". City-Data.com. Archived from the original on September 23, 2008. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
- Kotkin, Joel. "The Best Cities for Jobs 2012". Forbes. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- "WSJ Marketwatch Top 10 U.S. Cities for Growing Businesses". MarketWatch. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "Best Places For Business and Careers". Forbes. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
- Calnan, Christopher (April 29, 2010). "Status update: Facebook opening Sixth St. office". Austin Business Journal. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- DeVol, Ross; Wong, Perry; Ki, Junghoon; Bedroussian, Armen; Koepp Rob. "America's Biotech and Life Science Clusters: San Diego's Position and Economic Contributions". Milken Institute. Archived from the original on September 30, 2008. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
- "About Whole Foods Market". Archived from the original on October 24, 2010. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
- Long, Joshua (2010). Weird City: Sense of Place and Creative Resistance in Austin, Texas. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0292722415.
- Swearingen, W.S. (2010) Environmental City. Austin: University of Texas Press.
- "The Nielsen Company Issues Top Ten U.S. Lists For 2007". Nielsen Company.
- "10 best big cities". Money Magazine (CNN). Archived from the original on August 5, 2008.
- "The 10 Greenest Cities in America". City Guide. MSN. Archived from the original on February 18, 2009.
- "America's Favorite Cities 2008". Archived from the original on October 17, 2010.
- "The 10 Best Places to Retire". Yahoo Finance. March 8, 2012. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Kotkin, Joel. "No. 1: Austin, Texas - In Photos: The Next Biggest Boom Towns In The U.S". Forbes.
- "The Fight Over Keeping Austin Weird". Time. July 5, 2013.
- "What do you miss most about 'old Austin'?". Statesman.com. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
- Kelli Ainsworth; Kelly Connelly; Wells Dunbar. "What Draws People to Austin (And What Drives Them Away)". Kut.org. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
- "How many people move to Austin a day? Here's the official number". Austin Business Journal. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- "Austin, then and now". POrojects.statesman.com. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
- Carlyle, Erin. "Austin, Texas - In Photos: America's Fastest-Growing Cities 2015". Forbes.
- "East Austin restaurant El Azteca likely closing after 53 years". Austin 360. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
- "Dale Watson On Leaving Austin: 'The City Has Sold Itself'". NPR. March 8, 2018.
- Austin Reggae Festival, retrieved November 21, 2016
- Texas Craft Brewers Festival, retrieved November 21, 2016
- Art Alliance Austin, retrieved November 21, 2016
- The 15 Coolest Neighborhoods in the World in 2016, retrieved November 21, 2016
-  Archived October 25, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- "City Data Top 101 zip codes with most drinking places 2005". City Data. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
- Rossie (2009), p. 247.
- O'CONNELL, Joe (2008-02-08). "No. 1 Austin does the Sundance". The Austin Chronicle. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
- "Theater Guide". Austin American-Statesman. Archived from the original on February 26, 2008. Retrieved October 25, 2008.
- "Austin History Center: Nightclub on the Chitlin Circuit". City of Austin. Archived from the original on November 29, 2002. Retrieved September 14, 2008.
- "Fusebox Festival Starts Tomorrow". Gothamist LLC (New York). April 22, 2009. Archived from the original on May 13, 2012.
- "About The Paramount Theatre". Paramount Theatre and State Theatre Company. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved July 24, 2008.
- Faires, Robert (July 11, 2008). "Arts Review: Disney's Beauty". Austin Chronicle.
- 
- "Austin Enchanted Forest". Austin Enchanted Forest. Retrieved February 4, 2010.
- "Austin Farmer's Market". Archived from the original on January 7, 2010. Retrieved February 4, 2010.
- "Wildly Austin". Wildly Austin. Archived from the original on June 28, 2009. Retrieved February 4, 2010.
- "Congress Bridge Bats". Austin City Guide. Archived from the original on August 22, 2009. Retrieved February 15, 2010.
- "To the Bat Bridge!". austin.com. Archived from the original on January 26, 2010. Retrieved Feb 15, 2010.
- "Keep Texas Wild". Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Archived from the original on January 26, 2010. Retrieved Feb 4, 2010.
- "Texas Wins Sixth College World Series. Title". Los Angeles Times. June 27, 2005. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- "Horns of plenty: VY, Texas deny USC three-peat bid". ESPN. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- "Texas 34, Texas Tech 24 box score". USA Today. September 20, 2009.
- "Ten largest cities without a major pro sports franchise in North America". Yahoo! Sports. June 10, 2011. Archived from the original on October 22, 2013. Retrieved October 19, 2013.
- "A to Z Encyclopedia of Ice Hockey – Au". Azhockey.com. Archived from the original on June 9, 2010. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- "Texas Stars". Texasstarshockey.com. Archived from the original on June 19, 2010. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- "Home - Austin Spurs". Austin Spurs.
- "Cap 10K race a running success". KXAN News. Austin, TX. April 11, 2010. Archived from the original on April 13, 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
- "Austin Sub Sandwich Shop - Thundercloud Subs". Austin Sub Sandwich Shop - Thundercloud Subs.
- Macur, Juliet (October 22, 2012). "Lance Armstrong Is Stripped of His 7 Tour de France Titles". The New York Times. Retrieved November 14, 2017.
- "Capital of Texas triathlon maps". October 3, 2009. Archived from the original on January 2, 2014.
- Maher, John (July 20, 2010). "Combs enthusiastic about F1 after watching Gritish Grand Prix". Austin American-Statesman. Archived from the original on July 23, 2010.
- Noble, Jonathan (May 25, 2010). "US Grand Prix returns to F1 in 2012". autosport.com. Haymarket Publishing. Archived from the original on May 26, 2010. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
- "Formula One Headed for Austin". Austin American-Statesman. May 25, 2010. Archived from the original on September 22, 2010. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
- "Tavo(CT)Hellmund Bio". Racing West.com. Archived from the original on June 1, 2010. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
- "About Austin Aces". Austin Aces. Archived from the original on August 19, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
- "Past NAB Recipients". National Recreation and Park Association. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
- "Surprises, Sessions and a Social at NRPA Congress & Exposition". National Recreation and Park Association. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
- "Friends celebrate and help Deep Eddy". News 8 Austin. June 5, 2005. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved October 14, 2008.
- "Texas Natural Areas At Risk" (PDF). Environment Texas. February 23, 2006. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 28, 2008. Retrieved October 14, 2008.
- "Temperature, Water, Degrees Celsius Water Year October 2005 to September 2006" (PDF). Water-Data Report 2006, 08155500 Barton Springs at Austin, Texas. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. 2006. pp. 13–15. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 9, 2008. Retrieved August 19, 2008.
- "Temperature, Water, Degrees Celsius Water Year October 2006 to September 2007" (PDF). Water-Data Report 2007, 08155500 Barton Springs at Austin, Texas. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. 2007. pp. 11–13. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 9, 2008. Retrieved August 19, 2008.
- "Water Quality Records" (PDF). Water-Data Report 2007, 08155500 Barton Springs at Austin, Texas. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. 2007. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 9, 2008. Retrieved August 19, 2008.
- "Hamilton Pool Nature Preserve". Travis County, Texas. Archived from the original on January 24, 2010. Retrieved Feb 7, 2010.
- Folan, Evan (2017-01-02). "2016 homicide rate: El Paso remains steady as Austin, San Antonio experience sharp increase". KVIA. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
- "Austin Murder Total Highest Since 2010". Twcnews.com. 2016-12-29. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
- "Violent crime rate drops in Austin, but grows in suburbs, data". Mystatesman.com. 2016-09-28. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
- FOX. "Eighth body identified in Del Valle - Story | KTBC". Fox7austin.com. Retrieved 2017-05-25.
- "The UT Tower Shooting Archives". Texas Monthly. 1966-08-01. Retrieved 2017-05-25.
- "Paulding County, GA - History of SWAT". Paulding.gov. 1966-08-01. Retrieved 2017-05-25.
- "The Birth and Evolution of the SWAT Unit - Article - POLICE Magazine". Policemag.com. 1997-04-01. Retrieved 2017-05-25.
- "Availability of FEIS" (PDF). Fort Worth District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 9, 2009. Retrieved December 29, 2008.
- "Austin City Hall". Hunter Douglas Contract. Archived from the original on November 19, 2008. Retrieved December 29, 2008.
- Witt, Howard (September 28, 2007). "In heart of Texas, drumbeat for green". Chicago Tribune.
- "Austin City Hall". City of Austin. Retrieved December 29, 2008.
-  Archived October 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Austin Fire Department". Austintexas.gov. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- "Austin Travis-County EMS Department". Austintexas.gov. Retrieved October 17, 2014.
- "Juan Castillo, "New Federal Courthouse opens in Austin"". Austin American Statesman, Dec ember 3, 2012. Retrieved January 27, 2013.
- "Austin District Office Archived January 25, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.." Texas Department of Transportation. Retrieved on January 11, 2010.
-  Archived September 4, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- Verhovek, Sam Howe (November 12, 2000). "COUNTING THE VOTE: THE SCENE; In Austin, the Jockeying, Along With the Partying, Is on Hold". The New York Times. Retrieved January 7, 2009.
- Welsh-Huggins, Andrew (July 17, 2008). "Texas Democrats look to Obama to help them rebound". Archived from the original on February 12, 2009. Retrieved January 7, 2009.
- Stohr, Greg (June 28, 2006). "Republican Texas Redistricting Upheld by Top Court". Bloomberg. Retrieved July 24, 2008.
- "Latest vote, county by county". USA Today. November 16, 2004.
- "November 8, 2005 Joint Special Elections" (PDF). Travis County, Texas. November 8, 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 28, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- Nichols, Lee (November 18, 2005). "Austin – the Only Gay Place". The Austin Chronicle. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- "79(R) HJR 6 – Enrolled version – Bill Text". Archived from the original on November 25, 2005.
- "Obama, Clinton Agree to Disagree". CNN Politics.com. CNN. February 22, 2008. Archived from the original on June 9, 2009. Retrieved June 16, 2009.
- David Leip. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
- Zaragosa, Sara (August 28, 2009). "Conservancy shifts into high gear; Efforts steer land away from development". Austin Business Journal.
- Swearingen, Jr., William. Environmental City. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. pp. 18, 19. ISBN 978-0-292-72181-4. Archived from the original on October 15, 2008. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
- Miller, Jack. "America's Most Literate Cities 2007". Central Connecticut State University. Archived from the original on April 12, 2010. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
- "The University of Texas Libraries. Statistical Overview of the Library Collections". University of Texas at Austin.
- "Welcome to The Art Institute of Austin". The Art Institute of Austin. Archived from the original on July 27, 2008. Retrieved July 22, 2008.
- "Austin city, Texas – American Community Survey 2005–2009". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
- "Bachelor's degree attainment, age 25 and over". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on March 27, 2011.
- "National Universities Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on May 21, 2011. Retrieved September 26, 2014.
- "Research Expenditures Summary, September 1, 2012 – August 31, 2013" (PDF). Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. Retrieved January 24, 2015.
- "Best Undergraduate Business Programs". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on August 26, 2009.
- "Best Undergraduate Engineering Programs". U.S. News & World Report.
- "Best Law Schools". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on January 1, 2011.
- "Austin Chamber of Commerce Greater Austin Profile". Archived from the original on June 18, 2010. Retrieved July 8, 2010.
- "Regional School Districts and the City of Austin." City of Austin. March 2013. Retrieved on August 4, 2016.
- "Introducing The Whole Life Learning Center". Amala Foundation. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
- "AHB Community School". AHB Community School. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
- "Community Impact Distribution Map". Community Impact Newspaper. October 29, 2008. Archived from the original on October 13, 2008. Retrieved October 28, 2008.
- Pérez-Peña, Richard (July 17, 2009). "Web News Start-Up Has Its Eye on Texas". The New York Times. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- Thornton, John (August 1, 2009). "The Huffington Post: What If: The Non-Profit Media Model". The Huffington Post. Retrieved July 3, 2010.
-  Archived July 28, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- Beach, Patrick (August 15, 2008). "KUT's 50 years of not playing the hits". Austin American-Statesman. Archived from the original on December 22, 2008. Retrieved October 25, 2008.
- "KOOP Website". Koop.org. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "KVRX Website". Kvrx.org. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- Holloway, Diane (October 29, 2007). "Austin stations win Lone Star Emmys". Austin American-Statesman. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved October 25, 2008.
- "America's Talk: Compelling Talk Show Hosts". Siriusxm.com. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
- "Table B08406. Sex of Workers by Means of Transportation for Workplace Geography – Universe: Workers 16 Years and Over". 2009 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau.
- Yonah Freemark (13 October 2010). "Transit Mode Share Trends Looking Steady; Rail Appears to Encourage Non-Automobile Commutes". Transport Politic. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
- "2015 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates: Commuting Characteristics by Sex". American Fact Finder. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
- Wear, Ben (September 28, 2009). "Positive signs for financial future of Texas 130;". Austin American-Statesman. pp. B–1. Retrieved August 7, 2010.
Report on the tollway...has been making more money than projected.
- "Austin, Texas Archived November 22, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.." Greyhound Lines. Retrieved on April 7, 2009.
- "Grupo Senda – Turimex Internacional". Grupo Senda. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
- "Megabus.Com Expands Service To/From Dallas, Houston, San Antonio And Five Cities". Us.megabus.com. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "All Systems Go Long-Range Transit Plan". Capital Metro. Archived from the original on March 3, 2009. Retrieved April 23, 2009.
- Beyer, Scott (July 29, 2016). "Austin's Commuter Rail Is A Monument To Government Waste". Forbes. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
- "Austin City Council puts rail bond on ballot". Community Impact Newspaper. Archived from the original on August 12, 2014. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Bicycling Magazine  September 19, 2016
- "Bike Austin". Bike Austin.
- "About Us; Contact - BikeTexas". Biketexas.org. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
- "Bike Survey Results | BikeUT | Parking & Transportation Services (PTS) | The University of Texas at Austin". Parking.utexas.edu. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- "2011 City and Neighborhood Rankings". Walk Score. 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- "Austin Sister Cities". Sister Cities International. Archived from the original on July 24, 2014. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
- "O PREFEITO DE MANAUS, no uso das atribuições que lhe são conferidas pelo art. 80, inc. IV, da Lei Orgânica do Município de Manaus, FAÇO SABER que o Poder Legislativo decretou e eu sanciono a seguinte" (PDF). Cmm.am.gov.br. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
- Barnett, Marissa (February 27, 2014). "Austin picks up 13th sister city in London borough of Hackney". Austin American-Statesman. Cox Media Group. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
- "Austin City Council Minutes". Austin City Connection. City of Austin. Retrieved March 21, 2010.
- Abbott, Mary Lu (2003). Romantic Weekends Texas (2 ed.). Edison, New Jersey: Hunter Publishing. ISBN 978-1-58843-358-9.
- Baird, David (2009). Frommer's San Antonio & Austin. Hoboken, New Jersey: Frommer's. ISBN 978-0-470-43789-6.
- Erlichman, Howard J. (2006). Camino Del Norte: How a Series of Watering Holes, Fords, And Dirt Trails Evolved into Interstate 35 in Texas. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 978-1-58544-473-1.
- Rossie, Cam; Hylton, Hilary (2009). Insiders' Guide to Austin. Guilford, Connecticut: Global Pequot. ISBN 978-0-7627-4864-8.
- Thompson, Karen; Howell, Kathy R. (2000). Austin, Texas. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-0832-0.
- Vines, Robert A. (1984). Trees of central Texas. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-78058-3.
- Long, Joshua (2010). Weird City: Sense of Place and Creative Resistance in Austin, Texas. University of Texas Press.
- Shank, Barry (1994). Dissonant identities: the rock'n'roll scene in Austin, Texas. Hanover, New Hampshire: University Press of New England. ISBN 978-0-8195-6276-0.
- Swearingen Jr., William Scott Environmental City: People, Place, and the Meaning of Modern Austin (University of Texas Press; 2010) 273 pages; traces the history of environmentalism in the Texas capital, which has been part of a larger effort to preserve Austin's quality of life and sense of place.