Reddit (//, stylized in its logo as reddit) is an American social news aggregation, web content rating, and discussion website. Registered members submit content to the site such as links, text posts, and images, which are then voted up or down by other members. Posts are organized by subject into user-created boards called "subreddits", which cover a variety of topics including news, science, movies, video games, music, books, fitness, food, and image-sharing. Submissions with more up-votes appear towards the top of their subreddit and, if they receive enough votes, ultimately on the site's front page. Despite strict rules prohibiting harassment, Reddit's administrators spend considerable resources on moderating the site.
'Home' page of reddit in June 2018
|Type of business||Private|
Type of site
|Social news and media aggregation|
|Available in||Multilingual, primarily English|
|Founded||June 23, 2005|
|Owner||Advance Publications (majority shareholder)|
|Founder(s)||Steve Huffman, Aaron Swartz and Alexis Ohanian|
|Key people||Steve Huffman (co-founder and CEO)|
|Employees||230 (July 2017)|
|Alexa rank||18 (Global, December 2018[update])|
|Advertising||Banner ads, promoted links|
|Registration||Optional (required to submit, comment, or vote)|
|Written in||Python, React (Reddit redesign)|
As of February 2018, Reddit had 542 million monthly visitors (234 million unique users), ranking as the #3 most visited website in U.S. and #6 in the world, according to Alexa Internet, with 57.4% of its user base coming from the United States, followed by the United Kingdom at 7.5% and Canada at 6.3%. Across 2018, Reddit saw 153 million submissions, 1.2 billion comments, and 27 billion upvotes from its users.
Reddit was founded by University of Virginia roommates Steve Huffman and Alexis Ohanian in 2005. Condé Nast Publications acquired the site in October 2006. Reddit became a subsidiary of Condé Nast's parent company, Advance Publications, in September 2011. As of August 2012, Reddit operated as an independent entity, although Advance was its largest shareholder. Reddit is based in San Francisco, California. In October 2014, Reddit raised $50 million in a funding round led by Sam Altman and including investors Marc Andreessen, Peter Thiel, Ron Conway, Snoop Dogg, and Jared Leto. Their investment valued the company at $500 million then. In July 2017, Reddit raised $200 million for a $1.8 billion valuation, with Advance Publications remaining the majority stakeholder.
The site is a collection of entries submitted by its registered users, essentially a bulletin board system. The name "Reddit" is a play-on-words with the phrase "read it", i.e., "I read it on Reddit." The site's content is divided into numerous categories, and the most popular posts from these 'subreddits' are visible on the front page to those who browse the site without an account. As of May 2016[update], there are over 11,400 active subreddits.
When items (links or text posts) are submitted to a subreddit, the users, called "redditors", can vote for or against them (upvote/downvote). Each subreddit has a front page that shows newer submissions that have been rated highly. Redditors can also post comments about the submission, and respond back and forth in a conversation-tree of comments; the comments themselves can also be upvoted and downvoted. The front page of the site itself shows a combination of the highest-rated posts out of all the subreddits a user is subscribed to.
Front-page rank—for both the general front page and for individual subreddits—is determined by the age of the submission, positive ("upvoted") to negative ("downvoted") feedback ratio and the total vote-count. Dozens of submissions cycle through these front pages daily.
The site's logo and its mascot is a line drawing of an alien nicknamed "Snoo". Subreddits often use themed variants of Snoo relevant to the subject.
Although most of the site functions like a bulletin board or message board, each subreddit has the option of having an associated wiki that can provide supplementary material like instructions, recommended reading, or collaboration for real-life events.
Registering an account with Reddit is free and does not require an email address. As of June 2015[update], there were 36 million user accounts. While logged in, Reddit users (known as redditors) have the ability to vote on submissions and comments to increase or decrease their visibility and submit links and comments. Users with enough experience and accumulated points can also create their own subreddit on a topic of their choosing, and interested users can add it to their front page by subscribing to it. Reddit comments and submissions are occasionally abbreviated and peppered with jargon, ranging from OP (for "Original Poster"—the user who posted the submission being commented upon) to NSFW (for "not safe for work"—indicating the post has graphic or sexually explicit content).
Users earn "post karma" and "comment karma" points for submitting text posts, link posts, and comments, which accumulate on their user profile. "Post karma" refers to karma points received from text and link posts, while "comment karma" refers to karma points received from comments. Users may also be gifted "Reddit gold" if another user particularly valued the comment or post, generally due to humorous or high-quality content; this process is known as "gilding". "Reddit gold" unlocks several features not accessible to regular users, such as comment highlighting, ad-blocking, exclusive subreddits, and a personalized Snoo (known as a "snoovatar"). Reddit also created a system of points called "creddits". Reddit gold creddits are like gift certificates: each creddit allows a user to give one month of Reddit gold to someone else. Creddits confer status, not perquisites. They serve as a badge of honor for a user among their peers, although redditors have attempted to redeem points before.
Reddit allows submissions that do not link externally. These are called "self posts" or "text submissions". Many discussion-based subreddits allow solely text submissions such as "AskReddit"—where users are only allowed to pose broad, discussion based questions to the community at large. Self posts at first did not accumulate karma points for the submitter. As of July 2016[update], however, these text-only posts also generate post karma.
Reddit communities occasionally coordinate Reddit-external projects such as skewing polls on other websites, like the 2007 incident when Greenpeace allowed web users to decide the name of a humpback whale it was tracking. Reddit users voted en masse to name the whale "Mr. Splashy Pants", and Reddit administrators encouraged the prank by changing the site logo to a whale during the voting. In December of that year, Mister Splashy Pants was announced as the winner of the competition.
On the site, redditors commemorate their "cake day" once a year, on the anniversary of the day their account was created. Cake day adds an icon of a small slice of cake next to the user's name for 24 hours. Redditors can "friend" one another, which gives a redditor quick access to posting and comments of their friend list. The commenting system and friend system, along with a certain "Reddit ethos" (called reddiquette on Reddit), lend Reddit some aspects of a social networking service, though not to the extent of Facebook, Google+, or other social networking websites. The Reddit community socializes at meetings held at local parks and bars around the world, and many localized subreddits for local in-person meetings exist.
Reddit entries are organized into user-created areas of interest called "subreddits". Originally, there was a primary "main-reddit", and other areas were "subreddits". There is no longer a single main-reddit. Initially it was replaced by a group of "default subreddits". As of June 2017[update], an introductory page was substituted prompting users to customize their "subscriptions". Subscribed subreddits appear on a user's front page and on a top navigation bar, and can deal with a large range of topics—such as video games, books, discussion, and music.
There are over 11,400 active total subreddits to peruse, including the former default set of 50 subreddits. This includes an aggregation of content termed "/r/popular", featuring top ranked posts across all of Reddit, with the exception of controversial subreddits (including both pro and anti-Trump communities, as well as those related to Gamergate). This replaced "/r/all", which does not filter controversial topics; it is still accessible via an "All" link at the top of /r/popular.
In an interview with Memeburn, Erik Martin, Reddit GM, remarked that their "approach is to give the community moderators or curators as much control as possible so that they can shape and cultivate the type of communities they want".
Popular subreddits include:
- /r/changemyview, a forum for discussing various topics for the purpose of understanding opposing viewpoints
- /r/IAmA, a forum for user-driven question-and-answer interviews
- /r/science, a forum for discussing science
- /r/The_Donald, a community supporting the politics of Donald Trump
April Fools' Day
On April Fools' Day 2015, a social experiment subreddit called /r/thebutton appeared. It displayed a button and a 60-second countdown timer. User accounts created before that day were eligible to participate. A user could only click the button once, or opt not to click it. If a user clicked the button the timer was globally reset to 60 seconds, and the user's "flair" (an icon next to the user's name) changed color. Colors were assigned based on a gradient from purple to red with purple signifying up to 60 seconds and red as low as 0 seconds. The countdown reached zero several times due to technical problems but eventually expired without further problems on June 5, 2015, after which the subreddit was archived.
For April Fools' Day 2016, another experiment was launched involving the "Robin" chat widget. After clicking a titular button, an IRC-like chat window was opened with one other user, and allowed a certain time to pick among three options, "Grow," "Stay" and "Leave". "Grow" would join the chat with another group, "Stay" would close the group chat and create a subreddit with that group as moderators and "Leave" would close the group chat.
April Fools' Day 2017 featured a social experiment based on /r/place. The subreddit contained a collaborative pixel art canvas, where a user could place a pixel every five minutes (the timer was temporarily ten and twenty minutes for a few hours on April 1). Many people worked together to create large graphics, such as flags or symbols. Often subreddits would come together as a group to add a graphic from that community to place. Place was closed on April 3, 2017 at 1:00 PM GMT having been active for a full three days.
For April Fools Day' 2018, an experiment launched on the subreddit /r/circleoftrust. Upon clicking a button, each user was given one "circle" that they could entrust to others with the circle's password key to unlock and join the circle. While each user received one personal circle, they could join or betray any other user circles. Clicking the "join" button on another's circle would cause the owner's circle to grow bigger, while the "betray" button would cause the owner's circle to no longer function (having "betrayed" the owner's trust). On the /r/circleoftrust subreddit, all users have a "flair" next to their username that displays the number of users who've joined their personal circle, followed by the number of other circles the user has joined. Those who had betrayed another user's circle have a null sign ("∅") next to their numbered flair. The experiment ended on April 6, 2018.
In June 2005, Reddit was founded in Medford, Massachusetts by Steve Huffman and Alexis Ohanian, both 22-year-old graduates of the University of Virginia. The team expanded to include Christopher Slowe in November 2005. Between November 2005 and January 2006, Reddit merged with Aaron Swartz's company Infogami, and Swartz became an equal owner of the resulting parent company, Not A Bug. Condé Nast Publications, owner of Wired, acquired Reddit on October 31, 2006, and the team moved to San Francisco. In January 2007, Swartz was fired.
By the end of 2008, the team had grown to include Erik Martin, Jeremy Edberg, David King, and Mike Schiraldi. In 2009, Huffman and Ohanian moved on to form Hipmunk, recruiting Slowe and King shortly thereafter. In May 2010, Reddit was named in Lead411's "2010 Hottest San Francisco Companies" list. In July 2010, after explosive traffic growth, Reddit introduced Reddit Gold, offering new features for a price of $3.99/month or $29.99/year. Reddit Gold adds a number of features to the interface, including the ability to display more comments on a page, access to the private "lounge" subreddit, and notifications whenever one's username is mentioned in a comment. It's also possible to endow comments or submissions of other users and thereby give a gold membership to them as an anonymous present.
On September 6, 2011, Reddit became operationally independent of Condé Nast, operating as a separate subsidiary of its parent company, Advance Publications. On January 11, 2012, Reddit announced that it would be participating in a 12-hour sitewide blackout in protest of the Stop Online Piracy Act. The blackout occurred on January 18 and coincided with the blackouts of Wikipedia and several other websites. In May 2012, Reddit joined the Internet Defense League, a group formed to organize future protests. On February 14, 2013, Reddit began accepting the digital currency Bitcoin for its Reddit Gold subscription service through a partnership with bitcoin payment processor Coinbase.
In October 2014, Reddit announced Redditmade, a service which allowed moderators to create merchandise for their subreddits. Redditmade closed in February 2015. In November 2014, Chief Executive Yishan Wong resigned and co-founder Ohanian returned as the full-time executive chairman. Ellen Pao, Reddit's business and partnerships strategist replaced Wong, becoming the interim chief executive. On July 10, 2015, Pao resigned and was replaced by Steve Huffman as CEO.
Reddit launched a new blocking tool in an attempt to curb online harassment in April 2016. The tool allows a user to hide posts and comments from selected redditors in addition to blocking private messages from those redditors. A redditor is blocked by clicking an inbox button.
In April 2018, Reddit rolled out a new website design. The old design can still be accessed at old.reddit.com.
Reddit was originally written in Common Lisp but was rewritten in Python in December 2005. The switch was for wider access to code libraries and greater development flexibility. The Python web framework that former Reddit employee Swartz developed to run the site, web.py, is available as an open-source project. As of November 10, 2009[update], Reddit uses Pylons as its web framework.
From June 18, 2008 until September 2017, Reddit was an open source project. During that time, all of the code and libraries written for Reddit were freely available on GitHub, with the exception of the anti-spam/cheating portions. As of September 1, 2017[update], Reddit's main code repositories, backing its desktop and mobile websites, are no longer open source.
Users can contribute to translating Reddit into 89 languages using the localization management platform Crowdin.
As of November 10, 2009[update], Reddit decommissioned their own servers and migrated to Amazon Web Services. Reddit uses PostgreSQL as their primary datastore and is slowly moving to Apache Cassandra, a column-oriented datastore. It uses RabbitMQ for offline processing, HAProxy for load balancing and memcached for caching. In early 2009, Reddit started using jQuery. On June 7, 2010, Reddit staff launched a revamped mobile interface featuring rewritten CSS, a new color scheme, and a multitude of improvements.
On July 21, 2010, Reddit outsourced the Reddit search engine to Flaptor, who used its search product IndexTank. As of July 12, 2012[update], Reddit uses Amazon CloudSearch. There are several unofficial applications that use the Reddit API in the Google Play store, and F-Droid repository. Examples include: Reddit is Fun, Andreddit, F5, BaconReader, Reddit Sync and an Android tablet specific application called Reddita. There are also several Windows apps used to access Reddit, including unofficial Reddit apps such as ReddHub and Reddit To Go!. An unofficial desktop application Reditr exists that is compatible with Windows, OS X, Linux and ChromeOS.
There are several Reddit applications for iOS. These include Karma, Upvote, iReddit, iPad-specific applications such as Reddzine and Biscuit, and, until April 2016, Alien Blue. In September 2014, an official mobile application for browsing AMA (Ask Me Anything) threads was released for the iOS and Android platforms under the name Ask me Anything. In October 2014, Alien Blue was acquired by Reddit and became the official iOS Reddit app. In April 2016, Reddit released an official application called Reddit: The Official App, which is available on Google Play and the iOS App Store, and Alien Blue was removed from the App Store in favor of the new app.
Community and culture
The website is known for its open nature and diverse user community that generate its content. Its demographics allows for wide-ranging subject areas, or main subreddits, that receive much attention, as well as the ability for smaller subreddits to serve more niche purposes. For example, the University of Reddit, a subreddit that exists to communally teach, emerged from the ability to enter and leave the online forum, the "classroom", at will, and classes ranging from computer science to music, to fine art theory exist. The unique possibilities that subreddits provide create new opportunities for raising attention and fostering discussion across many areas. In gaining popularity in terms of unique users per day, Reddit has been a platform for many to raise publicity for a number of causes. And with that increased ability to garner attention and a large audience, users can use one of the largest communities on the Internet for new, revolutionary, and influential purposes.
Additionally, the userbase of Reddit has given birth to other websites, including image sharing community and image host Imgur, which started in 2009 as a gift to Reddit's community. In its first five months, it jumped from a thousand hits per day to a million total page views.
Statistics from Google Ad Planner suggest that 74% of Reddit users are male. In 2016 the Pew Research Center published research showing that 4% of U.S. adults use reddit, of which 67% are men. 78% of users get news from Reddit. Users tend to be significantly younger than average with less than 1% of users being 65 or over.
Its popularity has enabled users to take unprecedented advantage of such a large community. Its innovative socially ranked rating and sorting system drives a method that is useful for fulfilling certain goals of viewership or simply finding answers to interesting questions. User sentiments about the website's function and structure include feelings about the breadth and depth of the discussions on Reddit and how the site makes it easy to discover new and interesting items. Almost all of the user reviews on Alexa.com, which rates Reddit's monthly unique traffic rating 125th in the United States, mention Reddit's "good content" as a likable quality. However, others raise the negative aspects of the potential for Reddit's communities to possess a "hive mind" of sorts, embodying some negative aspects of group interaction theories like crowd psychology and collective consciousness.
Reddit and its subreddits have conducted multiple charity projects, some short-term and others ongoing. Among the events:
- In early October 2010, a story was posted on Reddit about a seven-year-old girl, Kathleen Edward, who was in the advanced stages of Huntington's disease. The girl's neighbors were taunting her and her family. Redditors banded together and gave the girl a shopping spree at Tree Town Toys, a toy store local to the story owned by a Reddit user.
- In early December 2010, members of the Christianity subreddit decided to hold a fundraiser and later members of the atheism subreddit decided to give some friendly competition, cross-promoting fundraising drives for World Vision's Clean Water Fund and Doctors Without Borders, respectively. Later, the Islam subreddit joined in, raising money for Islamic Relief. In less than a week, the three communities (as well as the Reddit community at large) raised over $50,000. Most of this was raised by the atheism subreddit, though the smaller Christianity subreddit had a higher average donation amount per subscriber. A similar donation drive in 2011 saw the atheism subreddit raise over $200,000 for charity.
- Reddit started the largest Secret Santa program in the world, which is still in operation to date. For the 2010 Holiday season, 92 countries were involved in the Secret Santa program. There were 17,543 participants, and $662,907.60 was collectively spent on gift purchases and shipping costs. In 2014, about 200,000 users from 188 countries participated. Several celebrities have participated in the program, including Bill Gates and Snoop Dogg. Eventually, the Secret Santa program expanded to various other occasions through RedditGifts.
- Members from Reddit donated over $600,000 to DonorsChoose in support of Stephen Colbert's March to Keep Fear Alive. The donation spree broke previous records for the most money donated to a single cause by the Reddit community and resulted in an interview with Colbert on Reddit.
- Reddit users donated $185,356 to Direct Relief for Haiti after an earthquake devastated the nation in January 2010.
- Reddit users donated over $70,000 to the Faraja Orphanage in the first 24 hours to help secure the orphanage after intruders robbed and attacked one of the volunteers, who survived a strike to the head from a machete.
- In October 2012, "Shitty Watercolour", a popular Redditor known for posting watercolor paintings on the website, streamed live a 12-hour painting session on YouTube to raise money for charity: water, a non-profit organization which aims to provide potable drinking water in developing countries. Redditors donated a minimum of $10 to have a photo of their choice painted in a 5 by 5 centimetres (2.0 by 2.0 in) square section of large sheets of paper. The paint-a-thon raised $2,700.
- In February 2014, Reddit announced it would be donating 10% of its annual ad revenue to non-profits voted upon by its users.
- Reddit continued this policy for 2015, donating $82,765 each to Electronic Frontier Foundation, Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Doctors Without Borders, Erowid Center, Wikimedia Foundation, Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, NPR, Free Software Foundation, Freedom From Religion Foundation, and Tor Project.
- In response to the 2015 Nepal earthquake, redditors raised more than $145,000 for Direct Relief and more than $110,000 for MAP International.
Reddit models sociopolitical action, building upon crowdsourcing, user generated content, sharing, altruism, gamification, social reputation and social relevance (rather than financial return), participation, freedom of speech, openness, participatory and/or self-governance, new forms of interaction (e.g. #IAmA and AMA) and collective intelligence. The site has been used for a wide variety of political engagement including the presidential campaigns of Barack Obama and Donald Trump. It has also been used for self-organizing sociopolitical activism such as protests, communication with politicians and active communities. Reddit has become a popular place for worldwide political discussions.
March for Science
The March for Science originated from a discussion on reddit over the deletion of all references to climate change from the White House website, about which a user commented that "There needs to be a Scientists' March on Washington".
Internet privacy, neutrality and anonymity
Many reddit users are highly engaged in the defense of Internet privacy, net neutrality and Internet anonymity. In advance of legislation that endangers these redditors typically set up pages to organize protest, create or curate content, call responsible authorities and inform about their issues and e.g. relevant tools and organizations.
On January 11, 2012, Reddit announced that it would be participating in a 12-hour sitewide blackout in protest of the Stop Online Piracy Act. The blackout occurred on January 18 and coincided with the blackouts of Wikipedia and several other websites. In May 2012, Reddit joined the Internet Defense League, a group formed to organize future protests.
The site is known for hosting groups of users who support legalization of marijuana. The subreddit dedicated to cannabis culture /r/trees is most active in this regard and often organizes, coordinates or supports drug reform campaigns.
In 2010, the site ran ads promoting marijuana legalization without charge, after Conde Nast stated that they did not want to benefit financially from this particular issue.
In February 2013, Betabeat published a post that recognized the influx of multi-national corporations like Costco, Taco Bell, Subaru, and McDonald's posting branded content on Reddit that was made to appear as if it was original content from legitimate Reddit users. Reddit's former Director of Communications noted that while a large number of Chief Marketing Officers want to "infiltrate the reddit community on behalf of their brand," she emphasized that "self-promotion is frowned upon" and the site is "100 percent organic." She recommended that advertisers design promotions that "spark conversations and feedback." She recommended that businesses use AMAs to get attention for public figures but cautioned "It is important to approach AMAs carefully and be aware that this may not be a fit for every project or client." Nissan ran a successful branded content promotion offering users free gifts to publicize a new car, though the company was later ridiculed for suspected astroturfing when the CEO only answered puff piece questions on the site. Taylor described these situations as "high risk" noting: "We try hard to educate people that they have to treat questions that may seem irreverent or out of left field the same as they would questions about the specific project they are promoting."
Reddit's users are more privacy-conscious than on other websites, using tools like AdBlock and proxies, and they hate "feeling manipulated by brands" but respond well to "content that begs for intelligent viewers and participants." Lauren Orsini writes in ReadWrite that "Reddit's huge community is the perfect hype machine for promoting a new movie, a product release, or a lagging political campaign" but "very specific set of etiquette. Redditors don't want to advertise for you, they want to talk to you." Journalists have used the site as a basis for stories, though they are advised by the site's policies to respect that "reddit's communities belong to their members" and to seek proper attribution for people's contributions.
Also known as the "Slashdot effect", the Reddit effect occurs when a smaller website has a high influx of traffic after being linked to on Reddit. It is also called the "Reddit Hug of Death" among the website's users. Because Reddit is such a large site, the traffic is immense and can easily crash smaller sites. In order for users to see crashed websites, several Reddit bots have been created that take a snapshot of the website before arge amounts of traffic flood the affected website. This is often unnecessary however and is not a common practice on the site. This is in stark contrast to the Slashdot effect, because a vast majority of reddit users do not read articles. 
"Restoring Truthiness" campaign
As a response to Glenn Beck's August 28, 2010, Restoring Honor rally (heavily promoted by him in his Fox News broadcasts during the summer), in September 2010 Reddit users started a movement to persuade satirist Stephen Colbert to have a counter-rally in Washington, D.C. The movement, which came to be called "Restoring Truthiness", was started by user mrsammercer, in a post where he described waking up from a dream in which Stephen Colbert was holding a satirical rally in D.C. He writes, "This would be the high water mark of American satire. Half a million people pretending to suspend all rational thought in unison. Perfect harmony. It'll feel like San Francisco in the late 60s, only we won't be able to get any acid."
The idea resonated with the Reddit community, which launched a campaign to bring the event to life. Over $600,000 was raised for charity to gain the attention of Colbert. The campaign was mentioned on-air several times, and when the Rally to Restore Sanity and/or Fear was held in Washington, D.C. on October 30, 2010, thousands of redditors made the journey.
During a post-rally press conference, Reddit co-founder Ohanian asked, "What role did the Internet campaign play in convincing you to hold this rally?" Jon Stewart responded by saying that, though it was a very nice gesture, he and Colbert had already thought of the idea and the deposit for using the National Mall was already paid during the summer, so it acted mostly as a "validation of what we were thinking about attempting". In a message to the Reddit community, Colbert later added, "I have no doubt that your efforts to organize and the joy you clearly brought to your part of the story contributed greatly to the turnout and success."
Blocked in Indonesia and China
The website generally lets moderators on individual subreddits make editorial decisions about what content to allow, and has a history of permitting some subreddits dedicated to controversial content. Many of the default pages are highly moderated, with the "science" subreddit banning climate change denialism, and the "news" subreddit banning opinion pieces and columns. Reddit has changed its site-wide editorial policies several times, sometimes in reaction to controversies. Reddit has had a history of giving a platform to objectionable but legal content, and in 2011, news media covered the way that jailbait was being shared on the site before the site changed their policies to explicitly ban "suggestive or sexual content featuring minors". Following some controversial incidents of Internet vigilantism, Reddit introduced a strict rule against the publication of non-public personally-identifying information via the site (colloquially known as doxxing). Those who break the rule are subject to a site-wide ban, and their posts and even entire communities may be removed for breaking the rule.
On December 16, 2010, a redditor named Matt posted a link describing how he has donated a kidney, and included a JustGive link to encourage users to give donations to the American Cancer Society. After an initially positive reaction, Reddit users began to become suspicious of Matt's intentions, and suggested that he was keeping the donations for himself. Users telephoned his home and he received death threats. Matt eventually proved that he was genuine by uploading his doctor's records.
On October 18, 2011, an IT manager submitted a post to the subreddit "gameswap" offering Redditors to trade one of 312 codes he had been given for the game Deus Ex: Human Revolution. A group of users obtained his personal details, and began to blackmail him for the codes. The Monday after uploading the post, he received 138 threatening phone calls both at home and at his job, and by the end of the day he had been fired.
Following the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings, Reddit faced criticism after users wrongly identified a number of people as suspects. Notable among misidentified bombing suspects was Sunil Tripathi, a student reported missing before the bombings took place. A body reported to be Sunil's was found in Providence River in Rhode Island on April 25, 2013, according to Rhode Island Health Department. The cause of death was not immediately known, but authorities said they did not suspect foul play. The family later confirmed Tripathi's death was a result of suicide. Reddit general manager Martin later issued an apology for this behavior, criticizing the "online witch hunts and dangerous speculation" that took place on the website. The incident was later referenced in the season 5 episode of the CBS TV series The Good Wife titled "Whack-a-Mole," as well as The Newsroom.
In late October 2013, the moderators of the "politics" subreddit banned a large group of websites. Many were left-wing opinion websites, such as Mother Jones, HuffPost, Salon, Alternet, Rawstory, The Daily Kos, Truthout, Media Matters, and ThinkProgress as well as some popular progressive blog sites, such as Democratic Underground and Crooks and Liars. They also banned a number of right-wing sites—Drudge Report, Breitbart, The Daily Caller, Dailypaul, Power Line, and Reason. Salon reported that "the section's moderators explained in a post on Tuesday, the goal is 'to reduce the number of blogspam submissions and sensationalist titles.' The purge, the moderators explained, is also aimed at sites that provide lots of "bad journalism." The December 2013 list of banned websites has been modified since late October, and sites with original content, such as Mother Jones and The Huffington Post, are allowed. Moderators also banned RT, which moderators stated was due to vote manipulation and spam, though one moderator stated that he wanted RT banned because it is funded by the Russian Government.
In August 2014, photos from the 2014 celebrity photo hack were widely disseminated across the site. A dedicated subreddit, "TheFappening," was created for this purpose, and contained links to most if not all of the criminally obtained explicit images. Some images of Liz Lee and McKayla Maroney from the leak were identified by redditors and outside commentators as child pornography because the photos were taken when the women were underage. The subreddit was banned on September 6. The scandal led to wider criticisms concerning the website's administration from The Verge and The Daily Dot.
Also in August 2014, moderators and administrators removed a sizeable amount of content related to the Gamergate controversy; one thread in the "gaming" subreddit lost almost 24,000 comments. This included the subreddit "ZoeQuinnDiscussion", which was banned for violating the Reddit rules. Administrators attributed the bans to 4chan for raiding threads and causing harm, the accuracy of which was debated by some redditors.
After Ellen Pao became CEO, she was initially a target of criticism by users who objected to her lawsuit. Later on June 10, 2015, Reddit shut down the 150,000-subscriber "fatpeoplehate" subreddit and four others citing issues related to harassment. This move was seen as very controversial; some commenters said that the bans went too far, while others said that the bans did not go far enough. One of the latter complaints concerned a subreddit that was "expressing support" for the perpetrator of the Charleston church shooting. Responding to the accusations of "skewed enforcement", Reddit reaffirmed their commitment to free expression and stated that "There are some subreddits with very little viewership that get highlighted repeatedly for their content, but those are a tiny fraction of the content on the site."
On July 2, 2015, Reddit began experiencing a series of blackouts as moderators set popular subreddit communities to private, in an event dubbed "AMAgeddon," a portmanteau of AMA ("ask me anything") and Armageddon. This was done in protest of the recent firing of Victoria Taylor, an administrator who helped organize citizen-led interviews with famous people on the popular "Ask me Anything" subreddit. Organizers of the blackout also expressed resentment about the recent severance of the communication between Reddit and the moderators of subreddits. The blackout intensified on July 3 when former community manager David Croach gave an AMA about being fired. Before deleting his posts, he stated that Ellen Pao dismissed him with one year of health coverage when he had cancer and did not recover quickly enough. Following this, a Change.org petition to remove Pao as CEO of Reddit Inc. reached over 200,000 signatures. Pao posted a response on July 3 as well as an extended version of it on July 6 in which she apologized for bad communication and not delivering on promises. She also apologized on behalf of the other administrators and noted that problems already existed over the past several years. On July 10, Pao resigned as CEO and was replaced by former CEO and co-founder Steve Huffman.
In August 2015, Steve Huffman introduced a policy which led to the banning of several offensive and sexual communities. Included in the ban was lolicon which Huffman referred to as "animated CP". Some subreddits had also been quarantined due to having "highly-offensive or upsetting content", such as /r/European, /r/swedenyes, /r/drawpeople, /r/kiketown, /r/blackfathers, /r/greatapes, and /r/whitesarecriminals.
In May 2016, Reddit CEO Steve Huffman said on an interview at the TNW Conference that, unlike Facebook, which "only knows what [its users are] willing to declare publicly", Reddit knows its users' "dark secrets" at the same time that the website's "values" page was updated in regards to its "privacy" section. The video reached the top of the website's main feed. Shortly thereafter, announcements concerning new advertisement content drew criticism on the website.
In September 2016, a Redditor named mormondocuments released thousands of administrative documents belonging to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, an action driven by the ex-Mormon and atheist communities of that site. Previously, on April 22 of that year, the same Redditor had announced his plans to do so. Church officials commented that the documents did not contain anything confidential.
On November 23, 2016, Steve Huffman admitted to having replaced his user name with the names of r/The_Donald moderators in many insulting comments. He did so by changing insulting comments made towards him and made it appear as if the insult were directed at the moderators of the /r/The_Donald.
On November 24, 2016, the Washington Post reported Reddit had banned the "Pizzagate" conspiracy board from their site stating it violated their policy of posting personal information of others, triggering a wave of criticism from users on /r/The_Donald, who felt the ban amounted to censorship. The Reddit forum /r/pizzagate was devoted to a conspiracy theory derived from the John Podesta leaked emails, a theory that alleged the D.C. Pizzeria Comet Ping Pong "is at the center of a child-abuse ring tied to John Podesta, Mrs. Clinton’s former campaign manager". After the forum was banned from Reddit, the wording "We don't want witchhunts on our site" now appears on the former page of the Pizzagate subreddit.
On November 30, 2016 CEO Steve Huffman announced changes to the algorithm of their /r/all page to block 'stickied' posts from a number of subreddits, such as /r/The_Donald. In the announcement, the CEO also apologized for personally editing posts by users from /r/The_Donald, and declared intentions to take actions against "hundreds of the most toxic users" of Reddit and "communities whose users continually cross the line".
In February 2017, Reddit banned the alt-right subreddit (/r/altright) for violating its terms of service, more specifically for attempting to share personal information about the man who attacked alt-right figure Richard B. Spencer. The forum's users and moderators accused Reddit administrators of having political motivations for the ban.
In March 2018, it was revealed that Reddit's CEO had hidden Russian troll activity from users.
On July 12 the creator and head moderator of the GamerGate subreddit /r/kotakuinaction, removed all of the moderators and set the forum to private, alleging it to have become "infested with racism and sexism". A Reddit employee restored the forum and its moderators an hour later.
- "Reddit on June23-05". Retrieved August 28, 2014.
- "Reddit.com Traffic, Demographics and Competitors - Alexa". www.alexa.com. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
- Ohlheiser, Abby. "Reddit will limit the reach of a pro-Trump board and crack down on its 'most toxic users'". Washington Post. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "Reddit.com Site Info". Alexa Internet. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
- "Reddit's Year In Review: 2018". Reddit. December 10, 2018. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
- "myth: Condé Nast owns Reddit". Reddit. August 6, 2013. Retrieved September 22, 2013.
- Alden, William (October 1, 2014). "With Reddit Deal, Snoop Dogg Moonlights as a Tech Investor". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved October 25, 2014.
- Cheredar, Tom (September 8, 2014). "Reddit reportedly raising $50M at a $500M valuation". Retrieved May 15, 2015.
- Kafka, Peter; Swisher, Kara (September 7, 2014). "Reddit Raising a Big Round, and Some Y Combinator Players Are in the Mix". Retrieved May 15, 2015.
- Wagner, Kurt (2017-07-31). "Reddit raised $200 million in funding and is now valued at $1.8 billion". Recode. Retrieved 2017-08-05.
- "Reddit Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved April 10, 2014.
- By the Numbers: 60+ Amazing Reddit Statistics expandedramblings.com, Digital Tracking Blog, downloaded 10/23/2016.
- "Browse the Future of Reddit: Re-Introducing Multireddits". June 7, 2013. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
- "Active" is defined as "subreddits that had at least 5 posts or comments in the past day", according to /u/chromakode who is an admin
- Redditor – definition of Redditor Oxford Dictionaries Online
- "Reddit algorithm". seomoz.
- "blog.reddit -- what's new on reddit: What's Snoo?".
- Happy 10th birthday to us celebrating Reddit
- "Reddit Terms and Abbreviations". Moreadvertising.com. Archived from the original on August 19, 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
- "What is karma?". Reddit Help. 2016-07-19. Retrieved 2017-09-15.
- "What is Reddit Gold—and why do people keep giving it away?". The Daily Dot. 2017-07-24. Retrieved 2017-09-15.
- "Create your own reddit alien avatar with reddit gold". redditblog.com. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- "We've Got Mail!". Reddit. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
- powerlanguage (July 19, 2016). "Karma for text-posts (AKA self-posts) : announcements". Reddit.
- Feature story (December 10, 2007). "Mister Splashy Pants the whale – you named him, now save him". Greenpeace.org. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
- "Enjoy your complimentary karma". Reddit. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
- "Reddit Worldwide Meetups". Reddit. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Re: Can I make my own subreddit?". May 28, 2011.
- "Reddit's new signup experience". May 31, 2017. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Menegus, Bryan (June 2, 2017). "Reddit Is Finally Fixing its Trump Spam Problem". Gizmodo. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
- Atagana, Michelle (August 22, 2014). "Creating a more curious generation through memes: Q&A with Reddit GM". Memeburn.com. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- Malone, Kenny (29 June 2017). "Change My View On Reddit Helps People Challenge Their Own Opinions". All Things Considered. NPR.
- Madrigal, Alexis C. (January 7, 2014). "'Ask Me Anything': How a Weird Internet Thing Became a New Form of Media". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 7, 2014.
- Owens, Simon (October 7, 2014). "The World's Largest 2-Way Dialogue between Scientists and the Public". Scientific American. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
- Lagorio-chafkin, Christine (November 19, 2016). "Reddit and the God Emperor of the Internet". The New York Times. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Lee, Timothy (April 14, 2015). "The button: the fascinating social experiment driving Reddit crazy". Vox. Vox Media. Retrieved April 24, 2015.
- powerlanguage (June 8, 2015). "The button has ended". Reddit.
- Reddit's 'Robin' is a brilliant social experiment that pits millions of internet users against each other Business Insider April 1, 2016
- "Reddit's new 'Place' is forcing millions of users to work together to make something great". Business Insider. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
- "Place has ended". Reddit. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
- "Looking back at r/CircleofTrust". Upvoted. Reddit. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
- Macale, Sherilynn "Cheri". "A rundown of Reddit's history and community [Infographic]". The Next Web Social Media. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- Adams, Richard (December 8, 2005). "reddit.com". London: The Guardian. Retrieved December 23, 2006.
- Singel, Ryan (July 19, 2011). "Feds Charge Activist as Hacker for Downloading Millions of Academic Articles". Wired. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
- Swartz, Aaron (February 27, 2006). "Introducing Infogami". Infogami. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved January 6, 2007. (archive.org link)
- Arrington, Michael (October 31, 2006). "Breaking news: Condé Nast/Wired Acquires Reddit". TechCrunch. Retrieved January 6, 2007.
- "A Chat with Aaron Swartz". Blogoscoped.com. May 7, 2007. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- alexis [kn0thing] (March 20, 2007). "welcome, jedberg". blog.reddit. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- alexis [kn0thing] (April 17, 2008). "welcome, david". blog.reddit. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- alexis [kn0thing] (December 9, 2008). "Welcome, Mike Schiraldi (a.k.a. raldi)". blog.reddit. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Kincaid, Jason (November 1, 2010). "Reddit Chief Takes Flight To Hipmunk, Explains Why He's Leaving Now". Techcrunch.com. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Welcome, Ketralnis!". Blog.hipmunk.com. March 12, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-02-13. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Lead411 launches "Hottest Companies in San Francisco" awards". Lead411.com. May 18, 2010. Archived from the original on October 17, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- mike [raldi] (July 19, 2010). "What's new on Reddit: Three new features for Reddit gold: Choose-your-own ads, Userpage sorting, and Friends with Benefits". blog.reddit. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
It's time for Reddit gold to make the shift from a one-week experiment to a true service with a clear pricing structure and at least a few whistles and bells.
- "reddit.com: gold". Retrieved July 20, 2013.
- "blog.reddit – what's new online: Independence". Retrieved September 6, 2011.
- "Reddit Plans SOPA 'Blackout' Protest Jan. 18". Entertainment Consumers Association. Archived from the original on October 10, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- "The Internet Defense League - Protecting the Free Internet since 2012". internetdefenseleague.org.
- Olanoff, Drew. "Reddit Starts Accepting Bitcoin for Reddit Gold Purchases Thanks To Partnership With Coinbase". Techcrunch. Retrieved February 14, 2013.
- "Reddit Gets Into Crowdfunding With Redditmade". TechCrunch. Retrieved October 29, 2014.
- "Reddit CEO Wong resigns, co-founder Ohanian to return". Reuters. Retrieved November 13, 2014.
- "An old team at reddit • /r/announcements". reddit. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- Issac, Mike (July 10, 2015). "Ellen Pao Is Stepping Down as Reddit's Chief". New York Times. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- "Reddit Launches New Block Tools To Help Temper Harassment".
- Hempel, Jessi (2015). "Inside Reddit's Plan to Recover From Its Epic Meltdown". WIRED. Retrieved 2017-08-05.
- steve [spez] (December 5, 2005). ""On lisp" blog post by Reddit founder "spez", detailing the reasons for switching to python from lisp". Blog.reddit.com. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Official web.py site". Webpy.org. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Sites Using Pylons Archived 2008-09-13 at the Wayback Machine. – Pylons Community – PythonWeb
- steve [spez] (June 17, 2008). "Reddit goes open source". Blog.reddit.com. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Reddit GitHub". Retrieved June 5, 2011.
- "An update on the state of the reddit/reddit and reddit/reddit-mobile repositories". Reddit. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
- "Reddit is killing off access to its main source code, because open source is bad for competition". BetaNews. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
- "reddit — Translation Project on Crowdin". Crowdin. Retrieved 2017-07-30.
- jeremy [jedberg] (November 10, 2009). "Moving to the cloud". Blog.reddit.com. Archived from the original on April 10, 2016. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- What's new on Reddit: Reddit now powered by jQuery – Posted by Chris Slowe (keysersosa) (Friday, January 30, 2009) – blog.reddit
- "A better mobile Reddit for all". Reddit. June 9, 2010. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
- "Reddit Blog post announcing the use of IndexTank search engine".
- "Does Reddit using Amazon Cloud Search?". July 17, 2012. Retrieved September 9, 2013.
- "Reddit is fun – Android Application on the Android market". Appbrain.com. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Download andreddit for your Android phone on AppBrain". Appbrain.com. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "A tasty new Reddit app". baconreader. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
- Sync apps. "Reddit Sync – Android Apps on Google Play". Google Inc. Archived from the original on June 9, 2013. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- "Reddita – Android Market". Market.android.com. November 15, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Windows Store – Reddit on ReddHub". Reddit Anonymous. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
- "Reddit To Go! app for Windows in the Windows Store". ross456. Retrieved August 6, 2013.
- Pot, Justin. "Reditr: A Desktop Client For Reddit With Embedded Content". MakeUseOf. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
- Joshua Lockhart On 2 (May 26, 2013). "The 5 Best Free Reddit Apps for iOS". Makeuseof.com. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
- "Announcing the official reddit AMA app".
- Kumparak, Greg (October 15, 2014). "Reddit Acquires Alien Blue, The Most Popular Unofficial Reddit App". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved October 25, 2014.
- Reddit scraps Alien Blue in favor of in-house built iOS and Android apps April 2016
- AMA how a weird internet thing became a mainstream delight The Atlantic January 2014
- "The University of Reddit". UReddit. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
- "Could Reddit be the world's most influential website?". BlueGlass. Archived from the original on May 4, 2012. Retrieved April 26, 2012.
- Schaaf, Alan (February 23, 2009). "My Gift to Reddit: I created an image hosting service that doesn't suck. What do you think?". Reddit. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
- "Interview: Imgur's Path to a Billion Image Views Per Day - Liz Gannes - Social - AllThingsD". AllThingsD.
- "Social Media By Gender: Women Dominate Pinterest, Twitter, Men Dominate Reddit, YouTube (INFOGRAPHIC)". June 21, 2012. Retrieved April 17, 2017 – via Huff Post.
- Barthel, Michael; Stoking, Galen; Holcomb, Jesse; Mitchell, Amy (February 25, 2016). "Seven-in-Ten Reddit Users Get News on the Site". Pew Research Center. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
While just 4% of U.S. adults report using Reddit, about seven-in-ten of these users (78%) get news on the site.
- "Reddit.com Site Info". Alexa.com. Retrieved April 26, 2012.
- "Toy Store Shopping Spree for Kathleen Edward". Myfoxdetroit.com. October 12, 2010. Archived from the original on March 8, 2012. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Stryker, Cole (December 10, 2010). Kathleen Edward, Harassed Girl with Huntington's Diseas, Thanks Reddit Archived 2011-04-19 at the Wayback Machine.. Urlesque. Retrieved April 20, 2011.
- "If every member of r/Christianity donates just $4.45, we can build a health clinic in an impoverished area that desperately needs one. Let's do it!". December 9, 2010.
- "OK, Battle stations everybody. Tonight we show r/Christianity what we are made of..." December 9, 2010.
- "Dogs and cats living together! Mass hysteria! r/atheism and r/Christianity have a friendly competition up for a holiday charity drive that is spilling over into other subreddi". Reddit. December 10, 2010. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Miles, Tom (December 12, 2011). "Irreverent atheists crowdsource charitable giving". Reuters. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- Levy, Piet (December 16, 2010). "Christians and Atheists Square Off In Online Battle To Raise Money For Charity". Huffington Post. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- Winston, Kimberly (December 21, 2011). "Atheists aim to change image of penny-pinching Scrooges". USA Today. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- Boitnott, John (December 23, 2010). "Secret Santa success caps banner year for Reddit". VentureBeat Interpreting Innovation. VentureBeat. Retrieved January 3, 2011.
- "The Biggest Secret Santa Gift Exchange in the World". Retrieved February 12, 2011.
- "Statistics for Secret Santa 2010". Retrieved February 12, 2011.
- "Nearly 1,000 Reddit Ottawa users signed up for gift exchange". CBC News. December 19, 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
- McCluskey, Megan (December 17, 2015). "Bill Gates Gave One Reddit User an Amazingly Thoughtful Secret Santa Gift". Retrieved April 27, 2016.
- Ballingall, Alex (December 22, 2014). "Web community's holiday gift exchange has more than 212,000 participants this year, including celebrities and people from 188 countries". Retrieved April 27, 2016.
- "Restoring Truthiness Giving Page". Donorschoose.org. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Direct Relief International: Support Us – Tributes:". Dri.convio.net. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "How Reddit Saved an Orphanage". Reddit. January 27, 2012. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
- Watercutter, Angela (June 12, 2012). "Reddit's (Best) Worst Painter Turns Comment Threads Into Art". Wired. Retrieved June 9, 2013.
- Alfonso III, Fernando (February 21, 2012). "He turns posts into paintings on Reddit". The Daily Dot. Retrieved June 9, 2013.
- "40 Really Bad Watercolor Interpretations Of Photos On Reddit". BuzzFeed. April 26, 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2013.
- Hickey, Walter; Lubin, Gus (March 13, 2012). "Meet The Redditors Who Rule The Internet". Business Insider. Retrieved June 9, 2013.
- Alfonso III, Fernando (October 4, 2012). "Reddit's shitty_watercolour launches charity paint-a-thon". The Daily Dot. Retrieved June 9, 2013.
- "Watercolour Fundraising". JustGiving. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
- "Decimating Our Ads Revenue". February 8, 2014. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
- "Announcing the winners of Reddit Donate!". February 26, 2015. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
- "An update on what the reddit community has done so far to help Nepal - and what's still needed". redditblog.com. May 12, 2015. Retrieved April 8, 2016.
- "Karma whoring reddit and the frontpage's econometrization" (PDF). Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- "Occupy and Academia: Investigating a Socio-Political Laboratory" (PDF). Retrieved 23 April 2017.[permanent dead link]
- Lagorio-chafkin, Christine (19 November 2016). "Reddit and the God Emperor of the Internet". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- Kanalley, Craig (29 August 2012). "Barack Obama Reddit AMA: President Participates In 'Ask Me Anything' Thread". Huffington Post. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- "How Obama Won The Internet". BuzzFeed. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- "The Surprising Ways You Ruined Your Interview Before You Even Opened Your Mouth". Fast Company. 21 April 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- "The March for Science began with this person's 'throwaway line' on Reddit". Washington Post. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- "Are scientists going to march on Washington?". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Foley, Katherine Ellen. "The global March for Science started with a single Reddit thread". Quartz. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- Morris, Kevin (September 24, 2011). "Legal pot makes Reddit forum hot". The Daily Dot.
- "Reddit Joins the Marijuana Majority!". 14 July 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- "/r/Trees search results". www.reddit.com. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- "Legal kiffen? Befürworter lancieren neue Initiative" (in German). Basler Zeitung. 22 April 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- "U.S. Rep. Earl Blumenauer Fields Questions From Stoners On Reddit:". Willamette Week. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- "In protest, Reddit rolls its own pot ads". CNET. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- Holiday, Ryan (February 21, 2013). "Hail Corporate: The Increasingly Insufferable Fakery of Brands on Reddit". Betabeat. Archived from the original on December 30, 2014.
- "Victoria Taylor Tells PAN how Reddit Stays Genuine and What That Means for Marketers". PAN communications. May 21, 2014.
- "On Reddit, Unlike Other Social Sites, It's About the Topic, Not the Brand". PR News. October 28, 2013. Archived from the original on July 5, 2015.
Brands that are mentioned on the site are in a casual context, similar to being in a local bar or coffee shop, rather than a mall, which is much more of a commercial space
- "To Learn About reddit, Listen First". September 3, 2014.
Victoria Taylor, director of communications at reddit, said the point of posting to reddit is not to have content go viral; it is to build credibility
- "Social Media and Journalism: An Intrinsically Linked Organism". Brandwatch. May 20, 2014.
The communities on Reddit don't want to feel used or exploited. That's where listening comes in.
- "The Real Low-Down From Reddit". Tech Affect. October 22, 2014. Archived from the original on July 2, 2016.
- Carrie Fung (September 13, 2013). "When the Narwhal Bacons and Why it Matters to PR Pros". EngagePR blog. Archived from the original on July 5, 2015.
- "Nissan Buys Gifts for Redditors – and Some Love for Itself". Digday. November 21, 2013.
Victoria Taylor, reddit's director of communications, told Digiday that Nissan's reddit adventure was one of the best campaigns the site has seen in a long time. "The community really responded well to the two community managers"
- "Cheatsheet: How brands can win reddit". Digday. February 3, 2014.
"Going into it, we are honest with advertisers that redditors are opinionated," said Victoria Taylor, reddit's director of communications. "Anywhere you have opinions, people are going to have a dialog and disagree." Advertisers have to be willing to engage honestly — and cleverly — with the reddit community to win their trust.
- "Nissan, Reddit defend authenticity of questions in Ghosn AMA". PR Week. January 14, 2015.
While Taylor said it's a positive that users demand authenticity, transparency, and accountability on Reddit, she noted that "it's unfortunate that people tend to try to look for negative examples." She admitted that the AMA with Nissan was not the most successful edition the platform has had... Reddit, she said, will always be "open and transparent if something doesn't seem genuine."
- "Walking a fine line as a communicator on Reddit". Muck Rack. March 3, 2015.
- "Reddit AMAs: A minefield worth crossing". PR Week. April 4, 2014.
- Nicole Spector (June 18, 2014). "Reddit's Safe Play in the Game of Geo-Targeting".
- Megan Haynes (June 5, 2014). "Reddit knows: new study reveals what Canadians want". StrategyOnline.ca.
- "Let your audience ask you anything". ReadWrite. September 24, 2014.
- "Reddit - the front page of the internet: New user behaviour and social media trends". BBC Academy: Journalism. BBC via YouTube. November 7, 2013.
- "Affiliate links on Reddit".
- abc blog (August 31, 2012). "The Reddit effect". ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). Archived from the original on November 1, 2014. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
- Friedman, Megan (September 14, 2010). "Reddit Campaign for Colbert Rally Breaks Donation Record". Time NewsFeed. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- mrsammercer (August 31, 2010). "I've had a vision and I can't shake it: Colbert needs to hold a satirical rally in DC". Reddit. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Restoring Truthiness donor page". Donorschoose.org. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Schiraldi, Mike (November 12, 2010). "Buy Shirts, Remember the Rally, Question Colbert, and Smile". blog.reddit. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Rally to Restore Sanity – Press Conference – Video Mediaite. October 30, 2010.
- "Stephen Colbert has answered your questions : IAmA". Reddit. November 30, 2010. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Netflix is latest victim: 5 things censored in Indonesia Max Stainkamph, 27 January 2016 https://www.rappler.com/world/regions/asia-pacific/indonesia/bahasa/englishedition/120513-netflix-censorship
- Indonesia bans Vimeo by Catriona Croft-Cusworth 16 May 2014 https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/indonesia-bans-vimeo
- Reddit now blocked in China, joining Google, Facebook and others. by OWEN WILLIAMS 26 June 2015 in INSIDER. https://thenextweb.com/insider/2015/06/26/reddit-now-blocked-in-china-joining-google-facebook-and-others/
- "Rules of Reddit". Retrieved October 14, 2012.
- "Critics blast Reddit over climate-change skeptic ban". Fox News. December 19, 2013.
Reddit's director of communications told FoxNews.com that while it was Allen's prerogative to ban climate-change skeptics from "/r/science", his statements "do not reflect the views of Reddit as a whole, or other science or climate-oriented subreddits. Each subreddit community is entitled to its own views, and anyone who wants to start their own subreddit is welcome to do so devoted to their views, opinions or interests"
- Sam Kirkland (November 25, 2014). "How to get your news site banned from Reddit". Poynter. Archived from the original on July 5, 2015.
If you don't like how a moderator is managing a subreddit, the best solution is to start your own subreddit and moderate it with different rules, said Victoria Taylor, director of communications for Reddit.
- "blog.reddit -- what's new on reddit: reddit, we need to talk..." redditblog.com.
- "A necessary change in policy : blog". reddit.
- "Image from Yishan Wong". imgur.com. Retrieved April 17, 2017.
- Rob Price. "Reddit's old CEO rewrites the history of Reddit and says 'the purge' of users will begin". Business Insider Australia.
- Morris, Kevin (February 12, 2012). "Reddit bans "suggestive or sexual content" of minors". The Daily Dot. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
- BadgerMatt (December 16, 2010). "My story as an anonymous kidney donor and my plea for your help". Reddit. Archived from the original on December 20, 2010. Retrieved July 14, 2014.
- Coscarelli, Joe (December 19, 2010). "The Dangers of Going Viral: Kidney Donor Attacked by Reddit For Plugging Charity". The Village Voice. Voice Media. Archived from the original on December 22, 2010. Retrieved July 14, 2010.
- nyan_all_the_links (July 15, 2014). "[H] Deus Ex: Human Revolution (300+ copies) [Steam], [W] Any and all steam offers". Reddit. Archived from the original on October 28, 2011. Retrieved July 15, 2014.
- Morris, Kevin (October 28, 2011). "A sweet deal on Reddit gets IT exec fired". The Daily Dot. Archived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved July 14, 2014.
- Morris, Kevin (October 29, 2011). "Game swap leads to harassment, firing, apology". The Daily Dot. Archived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved July 14, 2014.
- "Innocents accused in online manhunt". 3 News NZ. April 22, 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-12-15. Retrieved 2013-06-04.
- Buncombe, Andrew (April 26, 2013). "Family of Sunil Tripathi - missing student wrongly linked to Boston marathon bombing - thank well-wishers for messages of support". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on January 17, 2015. Retrieved January 17, 2015.
The cause of the student's death has still be determined but the medical examiner said no foul play was suspected.
- Nark, Jason. "The Boston bombing's forgotten victim". Philadelphia Daily News. Archived from the original on October 31, 2014. Retrieved October 31, 2014.
Akhil spent the most time with Sunny before his suicide, weekends at Brown where he tried to help his youngest child foresee a future.
- Martin, Erik. "Reflections on the Recent Boston Crisis". Reddit. Retrieved May 3, 2013.
- Harnick, Chris (November 24, 2013). "'The Good Wife' Recap: Alicia Takes on Anonymous Posters in 'Whack-A-Mole'". The Huffington Post. Retrieved November 25, 2013.
- Hathaway, Jay (November 11, 2014). "Here's How The Newsroom Covered Reddit's Failed Boston Bombing Manhunt". Archived from the original on June 30, 2015. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
- Fallon, Kevin. "'Newsroom' Premiere: Aaron Sorkin Puts CNN on Blast Over the Boston Bombing". Retrieved June 27, 2015.
- Oremus, Will (November 1, 2013). "Reddit politics: r/politics mods ban Mother Jones, others for "bad journalism."". Slate. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
- "filtereddomains – politics". Reddit. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
- "Reddit's r/news bans RT.com for alleged spamming". The Daily Dot. Retrieved December 26, 2014.
- "Reddit moderator pushed for RT ban 'simply because it's Kremlin'". Retrieved December 26, 2014.
- "Say hello to men who hate NSA spying but blame women for being spied on". The Verge. September 1, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- Vincent, James (September 1, 2014). "Is Apple's iCloud safe after leak of Jennifer Lawrence and other celebrities' nude photos?". The Independent. London. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- "Celebrity Naked Photos Leaked – #theFappening – So You Have A Girlfriend". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- "The Fappening Is Being Broadcast Live On Reddit With 100,000+ Viewers". Business 2 Community. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- Anthony Johnston, Metro World News (October 10, 2014). "Security expert weighs in on 'The Fappening' and the iCloud". Metro. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved December 26, 2014.
- "Man who leaked celebrity nude photos admits he is running from authorities". Daily Mail. London. September 1, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- "Hunt begins for hacker behind Jennifer Lawrence nude photo theft". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- "Jennifer Lawrence nude photos leaked: Hacker posts explicit pics". NewsComAu. September 3, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- Price, Rob. "There's child porn in the massive celebrity nudes hack". The Daily Dot. Retrieved September 2, 2014.
- Geller, Eric. "Reddit just banned the subreddit at the center of Celebgate". The Daily Dot. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Sottek, T.C. (September 8, 2014). "Reddit is a failed state". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved November 2, 2014.
- Sankin, Aaron. "Is Reddit broken beyond repair?". The Daily Dot. Retrieved November 2, 2014.
- "TotalBiscuit discusses the state of games journalism, Steam Greenlight, ethics, DMCA abuse and Depression Quest. : gaming". reddit.
- "ZoeQuinnDiscussion: banned". Reddit. Archived from the original on February 25, 2016. Retrieved February 9, 2016.
- "cupcake1713 comments on Latest Zoe Quinn drama explodes. SpiritualSuccessors takes on the job of undertaker and ferryman across the styx to /r/Shadowban". reddit.
- Goldman, David (December 29, 2014). "Reddit takes down Sony hack forum". CNN. Retrieved January 4, 2015.
- Celarier, Michelle (March 18, 2015). "Users lash out at Reddit boss for 'deleting' posts on hubby's lawsuit". New York Post. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
- Griffin, Andrew (2015-06-11). "Reddit bans communities including 'Fat People Hate' as users say anti-harassment policies could be 'beginning of the end'". The Independent. Retrieved 2017-02-08.
- Woollacott, Emma. "Users Flock To Voat As Reddit Shuts Harassing Groups". Forbes. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- Wendling, Mike. "What should social networks do about hate speech?". BBC News. Retrieved July 2, 2015.
- "Reddit in uproar after staff sacking". BBC News. BBC. July 3, 2015. Retrieved July 3, 2015.
About 100 chat sections, or sub-reddits, that together have millions of readers are believed to have been shut. Reddit's only comment about the issue has been to say that it did not talk about 'individual employee matters'. The protests were led by the volunteer moderators of the AMA section, which said in an explanatory posting that they needed Ms Taylor to keep the sub-reddit functioning. Ms Taylor helped organise guests for AMAs and worked to verify that people due to answer questions were who they said they were. There had been no explanation of why she was suddenly sacked, said the administrators.
- "Reddit: Laute Rufe nach Absetzung von CEO Ellen Pao". July 4, 2015. Retrieved July 5, 2015.
Zwar sind einige Foren wieder entsperrt, trotzdem ist Pao weiterhin Ziel vielerlei Angriffe. Zusätzliches Öl ins Feuer goss ein ehemaliger Community Manager der Online-Community, der angab von der Reddit-Chefin aufgrund seiner Krebserkrankung gefeuert worden zu sein. Zuvor wurde dem an Leukämie erkrankten Mitarbeiter eingeräumt, beim Unternehmen zu verbleiben – allerdings meldete sich Pao nur wenig später und gab ihm zu wissen, dass er aufgrund seiner Erkrankung nicht mehr bei Reddit verbleiben könnte. So zumindest die Behauptung, die wenig später offline ging.
- "Reddit's CEO Allegedly Fired an Employee For Having Cancer and Not Recovering Fast Enough". Retrieved July 5, 2015.
- McGregor, Jena (July 6, 2015). "More than 200k people have signed a petition calling for Reddit's Ellen Pao to step down". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
- Musil, Steven (July 5, 2015). "Petition for Pao resignation from Reddit grows to 130K". Cnet. Retrieved July 5, 2015.
- Malik, Naureen; Jones, Tim (July 5, 2015). "Reddit CEO Pao Under Fire as Users Protest Removal of Executive". Bloomberg. Retrieved July 5, 2015.
- Reddit CEO Ellen Pao apologizes: 'We screwed up' By Laurie Segall and Chris Isidore CNN.com July 6, 2015
- Reddit CEO Ellen Pao Issues an Apology for the Direction of the Site by Laura Entis FoxNews.com July 6, 2015
- Jack Linshi (July 6, 2015). "Ellen Pao: Reddit CEO Apologizes After Petition for Her to Resign". TIME.com.
- Titcomb, James (July 7, 2015). "Petition calling for Reddit boss Ellen Pao to resign hits 200,000 as she admits 'we screwed up'". London: The Telegraph. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
- Mike, Isaac (July 10, 2015). "Ellen Pao Is Stepping Down as Reddit's Chief". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- Weinberger, Matt (2015-08-05). "Reddit finally bans its most infamous racist communities because they 'made recruiting here more difficult'". Business Insider. Retrieved 2016-08-09.
- "Quarantined Subreddits". Reddit Help. Retrieved June 21, 2016.
- Boris van Zanten (30 May 2016). "Reddit CEO Steve Huffman: 'We know your dark secrets. We know everything.'". The Next Web (TNW).
- Jessica Haworth (30 May 2016). "Reddit CEO tells users 'we know your dark secrets' as he strikes fear into web surfers". Mirror.
- "Reddit CEO Steve Huffman says, "We know your dark secrets"". Daily News and Analysis. 31 May 2016.
- "CEO of Reddit, Steve Huffman, about advertising on Reddit: "We know all of your interests. Not only just your interests you are willing to declare publicly on Facebook - we know your dark secrets, we know everything" (TNW Conference, 26 May) (27,500 votes)". Reddit. 29 May 2016.
- "New Ad Type: Promoted User Posts". Reddit (official announcement). 26 July 2016.
- "Sponsored headline tests: placement and design". Reddit (official announcement).
- Roth, Max (September 22, 2016). "Allegedly secret LDS Church documents leaked". Fox 13 Now. Fox 13 Salt Lake. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
- Wenzke, Marissa (September 26, 2016). "Inside the online world of ex-Mormons". Mashable. Mashable. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
- Yeung, Ken. "Reddit CEO apologizes for editing comments critical of him following Pizzagate ban". VentureBeat. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
- Russell, Jon. "Reddit CEO admits he secretly edited comments from Donald Trump supporters". Techcrunch. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
- Weingerger, Matt. "The CEO of Reddit confessed to modifying posts from Trump supporters after they wouldn't stop sending him expletives". Business Insider. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
- Ohlheiser, Abby (November 24, 2016). "Fearing yet another witch hunt, Reddit bans 'Pizzagate'". Washington Post. Retrieved November 24, 2016.
- Blake, Andrew (November 25, 2016). "Reddit CEO admits editing posts, directing obscene comments to pro-Trump administrators". Washington Times. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- "Pizzagate subreddit webpage". Reddit. November 23, 2016. Archived from the original on November 22, 2016. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Huffman, Steve (November 30, 2016). "TIFU by editing some comments and creating an unnecessary controversy". Reddit. Retrieved November 30, 2016.
- "Reddit moves against 'toxic' Trump fans". BBC News. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "Reddit shuts down 'alt-right' subreddit". CNET. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
- Resnick, Gideon (2017-02-02). "Reddit Bans Alt-Right Group". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
- Weinberger, Matt (February 2, 2017). "Reddit bans a major alt-right community — and there may be a very good reason". Business Insider.
- Hern, Alex (2017-02-02). "Reddit bans far-right groups altright and alternativeright". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
- "Reddit Rises Up Against CEO for Hiding Russian Trolls". Retrieved 6 March 2018.
- "Opinions Are Split On The Attempt To Shut Down Popular Subreddit r/KotakuInAction [Opinion]". The Inquisitr. 2018-07-14. Retrieved 2018-07-17.
- "Reddit employee saves GamerGate subreddit, KotakuInAction, after founder closes it". Polygon. Retrieved 2018-07-17.
- Official website
- How I Built This Podcast - Reddit: Alexis Ohanian & Steve Huffman (audio interview with founders)