Light rail in the United States
Light rail is defined in the United States (and elsewhere) as a mode of electrified (or in a few exceptional cases, diesel-powered) rail-based transit, usually urban in nature, which is distinguished by operation in routes of generally exclusive, though not necessarily grade-separated, rights-of-way. This is distinguished from 'heavy rail' systems, also known as rapid transit or 'metro' (e.g. subway and/or elevated), which are fully grade-separated from other traffic, and which are characterized by higher passenger capacities than light rail. Arguably, traditional streetcars (also known as trolleys in North America, or as trams outside of North America especially in Europe), which is rail-based transit that takes place in shared roadways with automobile traffic (i.e. with street running) and thus does not operate in exclusive rights-of-way, can be considered to be a sub-set of light rail, though the two modes of transit are often treated as distinct in the United States.
- 1 Light rail transit in the United States
- 2 History of streetcars and light rail in the United States
- 3 List of light rail systems operating in the United States
- 4 Light rail systems in the United States under construction
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Light rail transit in the United StatesEdit
According to the American Public Transportation Association, of the roughly 30 cities with light rail systems in the United States, the light rail systems in six of them (Boston, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Portland (Oregon), San Diego, and San Francisco) achieve more than 30 million unlinked passenger transits per year.
The United States has a number of light rail systems in its mid-sized to large cities. In the oldest legacy systems, such as in Boston, Cleveland, Newark, New Orleans, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and San Francisco, the light rail is vestigal from the first-generation streetcar systems of the 19th and early 20th centuries, but were spared the fate of other streetcar systems due to these systems having some grade separation from traffic and high ridership. A number of second-generation light rail systems were inaugurated in the 1980s starting with San Diego in 1981, with a few more built in the 1990s, and many more opened in lower density cities since the early 2000s.
History of streetcars and light rail in the United StatesEdit
From the mid-19th century onwards, horse-drawn trams (or horsecars) were used in cities around the world. The St. Charles Avenue Line of New Orleans' streetcar system is the oldest continuously operating street railway system in the world, beginning operation as a horse-drawn system in 1835.
From the late 1880s onwards, electrically powered street railways became technically feasible following the invention of a trolley pole system of collecting current by American inventor Frank J. Sprague who installed the first successful electrified trolley system in Richmond, Virginia in 1888. They became popular because roads were then poorly surfaced, and before the invention of the internal combustion engine and the advent of motor-buses, they were the only practical means of public transport around cities.
The streetcar systems constructed in the 19th and early 20th centuries typically only ran in single-car setups. Some rail lines experimented with multiple unit configurations, where streetcars were joined together to make short trains, but this did not become common until later. When lines were built over longer distances (typically with a single track) before good roads were common, they were generally called interurban streetcars or radial railways in North America.
After World War II, six major cities in the United States (Boston, Newark, New Orleans, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, San Francisco) continued to operate large first-generation streetcar systems, although most of them were later converted to modern light rail standards. Toronto in Canada marks the other city in North America with a continuing first-generation streetcar system. Additionally, a seventh American city, Cleveland, maintained an interurban system (e.g. the Blue and Green Lines) equivalent to what is now "light rail", that opened before World War I, and which is still in operation to this day.
|Boston||MBTA Green Line,
High Speed Line
|Light rail||While changes were made to the original 1897 Tremont Street Subway in 1962 and 2004, and to some of the line routes over the years, and the Green Line's streetcar "A" Branch was closed in 1967, both systems have run intact with mostly uninterrupted service since their opening dates.|
|Aside from line and station renovations in the early 1980s, and the Waterfront extension in 1996, these lines have operated essentially uninterrupted as light rail/interurbans from their opening.|
|Newark||Newark Light Rail
(aka. Newark City Subway)
|1935||2||Light rail||Outside of an extension in 2002, and the switch to modern LRT vehicles in 2001, this line still operates essentially unchanged since the 1930s. A second, modern LRT line, called the Broad Street Extension, opened in 2006.|
|New Orleans||New Orleans Streetcars||1835||4||Heritage streetcar||The St. Charles Avenue Line of the New Orleans streetcar system is the oldest continuously operating street railway system in the world, beginning operation as a horse-drawn system in 1835; the line was electrified in 1893. The Canal Street Line dates to 1861, and was electrified in 1894; however, the line was closed in May 1964, and was not re-inaugurated with restored service until 2004. The Riverfront Line and Loyola Avenue Line are "new", and did not open for service until 1988 and 2013, respectively.|
Subway–Surface Trolley, Route 101 & 102 Trolley Lines, Girard Avenue Line
|Light rail / Streetcar,
|The Subway–Surface Trolley Lines began operation as a mixed subway (Market Street Tunnel)/streetcar system in 1906, and have continued operation essentially unchanged, including the use of single-car trolley vehicles, since that time – however, three of the original eight lines were replaced by buses in the 1950s.|
Similarly, SEPTA Routes 101 & 102 (aka. the Media-Sharon Lines) began operation as rail lines in mostly exclusive rights-of-way (i.e. light rail) in 1906, and have also operated mostly unchanged since then.
Additionally, SEPTA Route 15 (aka. the Girard Avenue Line) dates to 1859 as a horse car line, and was electrified in 1895; it was replaced with buses relatively late, in 1992, but service on the line was resumed with heritage streetcars in 2005 – a portion of the line is closed for construction, but is approximately scheduled to reopen in 2018.
|Pittsburgh||Pittsburgh Light Rail||1903 / 1984–87||2||Light rail||Began as a first-generation streetcar network (operated by Pittsburgh Railways), but was converted to light rail. By the 1970s, most of the original streetcar routes (now operated by PAT) were converted to bus, and it was decided to renovate the remaining streetcar lines (all of which still used the 1904 Mt. Washington Transit Tunnel) as light rail. This included the construction of a new 1.1 miles (1.8 km) downtown subway tunnel section. The converted light rail system opened for service in 1984, with the downtown subway tunnel opened in 1985, and the rest of the system opened in 1987. The light rail system was further renovated in 2004. A subway extension to the North Shore opened in 2012.|
|San Francisco||Muni Metro,
E & F lines,
|1912 / 1980–82,
|Light rail / Streetcar,
|Began as a first-generation streetcar network, and was partially converted to light rail. While most of San Francisco's original streetcar lines had been converted to buses in the post-World War II years, five lines that had dedicated rights-of-way or used narrow tunnels (e.g. the Twin Peaks Tunnel and the Sunset Tunnel) could not be converted to buses. By the 1950s and 1960s, planning for the Market Street Subway was undertaken that would serve both the planned rapid transit BART system, and operate as a new subway tunnel for the five remaining streetcar lines. The partial conversion to the Muni Metro light rail/subway began service in 1980, with full service commencing in 1982 – while operation in the Market Street Subway portion of Muni Metro can be considered true "light rail" service, the remaining surface portions of the five original Muni Metro lines still largely operate as streetcars. The surface Market Street streetcar operations ceased in 1982; however, full revenue surface streetcar service was restored to Market Street in 1995 as the heritage streetcar F Market & Wharves line. A sixth Muni Metro line, the T Third Street, was added to the system in 2007 and has more features of true light rail than older lines; a new subway extension for this line, the Central Subway, is under construction.|
Many of these lines were formerly cable propelled, but converted to electric traction; only the steepest grades retained cable cars. While serving primarily as a tourist attraction, sections of the current cable car system have been in place prior to consolidation under the Municipal Railway.
When several of these cities upgraded to new technology (e.g. San Francisco, Newark, and Pittsburgh), they called it "light rail" to differentiate it from their existing streetcar systems since some continued to operate portions of both the old and new systems.
In the United States, most of the original first-generation streetcar systems were decommissioned from the 1950s onward through approximately 1970 as the popularity of the automobile increased. Although a few traditional streetcar or trolley systems still exist to this day (e.g. New Orleans), the term "light rail" has come to mean a different type of rail system. Modern light rail technology has primarily German origins, since an attempt by Boeing Vertol to introduce a new American light rail vehicle was a technical failure. After World War II, the Germans retained their streetcar (Straßenbahn) networks and evolved them into model light rail systems (Stadtbahn). Except for Hamburg, all large and most medium-sized German cities maintain light rail (Stadtbahn) networks.
The renaissance of light rail in the United States began in 1981, when the first truly second-generation light rail system was inaugurated in the United States, the San Diego Trolley in California, which adopted use of the German Siemens-Duewag U2 light rail vehicle. (This was just three years after the first North American second-generation light rail system opened in the Canadian city of Edmonton, Alberta in 1978, and which used the same German Siemens-Duewag U2 vehicles as San Diego.)
Historically, the rail gauge has had considerable variations, with a variety of gauges common in many early systems (e.g. the broad Pennsylvania trolley gauge, etc. used by New Orleans' streetcars and by the light rail systems in Philadelphia and Pittsburgh). However, most modern second-generation light rail systems now operate on standard gauge rail. An important advantage of standard gauge is that standard railway maintenance equipment can be used on it, rather than custom-built machinery. Using standard gauge also allows light rail vehicles to be delivered and relocated conveniently using freight railways and locomotives. Another factor favoring standard gauge is that low-floor vehicles are becoming popular in second-generation light rail systems, and there is generally insufficient space for wheelchairs to move between the wheels in a narrow gauge layout.
List of light rail systems operating in the United StatesEdit
As of April 2018[update], there are a total of 51 operational light rail-type lines and systems (noting that some cities, such as Philadelphia, Portland, San Francisco and Seattle, have more than one light rail system) that offer regular year-round transit service in the United States: 27 modern light rail systems, 12 modern streetcar systems, and 12 heritage streetcar systems (including the San Francisco cable car system). These include the seven 'legacy' systems described above; the remainder are second-generation "modern" light rail (or streetcar) systems, or are "heritage" streetcar systems, opened since 1980.
The United States, with its 27 systems (as counted by the Light Rail Transit Association), has a much larger number of "true" light rail systems (i.e. not including streetcar and heritage streetcar systems), by far, compared to any other country in the world (the next largest are Germany with 10 light rail systems, and Japan with 7).
All of the operational regular transit light rail and streetcar systems in the United States are listed in the following table:
- This system also has a heavy rail rapid transit/metro portion (see List of metro systems); the figures and statistics presented here represent the light rail portion of the system only.
- This system also has a heavy rail rapid transit/metro portion (see List of metro systems), and connections to a commuter rail system; the figures and statistics presented here represent the light rail portion of the system only.
- While the MBTA Green Line is light rail, the MBTA Blue, Orange, and Red lines of the MTBA system are rapid transit/subways and are not included here.
- The Ashmont–Mattapan High Speed Line is run with historic PCC streetcar rolling stock, but is considered by the MBTA to be a regular light rail line rather than a "heritage streetcar" line.
- While currently operated with replica heritage streetcars, it is planned to convert this line to modern streetcars by 2019.
- While the Blue, Green, and Waterfront Lines are light rail, Cleveland's other transit line, the Red Line, is rapid transit.
- This includes just the light rail lines (Blue, Expo, Gold and Green lines) of L.A. Metro Rail only. The Red and Purple lines of L.A. Metro are rapid transit/subway lines and are not included here.
- SEPTA Subway–Surface Trolley Lines: 16 stations (8 underground; 8 surface), with several additional streetcar-like surface stops.
- Began operation as a streetcar system in 1912. Partially converted to modern light rail in the given date.
- Muni Metro: 33 stations (9 underground; 24 surface), with an additional 87 streetcar-like surface stops.
- It is debatable whether this system truly qualifies as "light rail" (or as a true "transit" system either), but it is included in the table anyway for completeness.
Light rail systems in the United States under constructionEdit
The following table lists entirely new light rail or streetcar systems under heavy construction. LRT systems that are in the planning stages but not yet under construction (e.g. Glassboro–Camden Line, MARTA Clifton Corridor), are not listed; expansions of existing LRT systems are also not listed here.
|Type of vehicle||System type|
|Tempe||Arizona||Tempe Streetcar||2021||3.44 mi (6 km)||Brookville Liberty||Streetcar|
|Orange County||California||OC Streetcar||2021||4.1 mi (7 km)||Siemens S70||Streetcar|
|Maryland||Maryland||Purple Line||2022||16.2 mi (26.1 km)||CAF||Light rail|
|City & County of Honolulu||Hawaii||HART||2020||20 mi (32 km)||Hitachi Rail Italy Driverless Metro||Light metro|
- List of United States light rail systems by ridership
- List of rail transit systems in the United States
- Light rail in North America
- Streetcars in North America
- Public Transportation in San Diego
- Transportation in Dallas, Texas
- Transportation in Houston
- Transportation in Portland, Oregon
- Transportation in San Francisco
- Transportation in Salt Lake City
- Transportation of St. Louis, Missouri
- Rail transit in metropolitan Denver
- Rail transit in Boston
- Transportation in San Jose, California
- Transportation in Hudson Country, New Jersey
- Rail transit in Kenosha, Wisconsin
- Transportation in New York City
- "Transit Ridership Report Fourth Quarter 2018" (pdf). American Public Transportation Association (APTA). April 12, 2019. Retrieved May 8, 2019 – via https://www.apta.com/wp-content/uploads/2018-Q4-Ridership-APTA.pdf.
- "This Is Light Rail Transit" (pdf). Transportation Research Board. pp. 7–9. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- "About the RTA". New Orleans Regional Transit Authority. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
- Taplin, Michael (1998). "The History of Tramways and Evolution of Light Rail". Light Rail Transit Association.
- Demery, Jr., Leroy W. (October 25, 2010). "U.S. Urban Rail Transit Lines Opened From 1980: Appendix". publictransit.us. Archived from the original on November 3, 2013. Retrieved 2014-07-24.
- "Muni's History". San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency. Retrieved July 6, 2014.
- Bottoms, Glen (2000). Continuing Developments in Light Rail Transit in Western Europe (PDF). 9th Annual Light Rail Transit Conference, Portland, Oregon: Light Rail Transit Association. Retrieved 2007-01-02.CS1 maint: location (link)
- Johnson, Matt (January 12, 2015). "See America's light rail and streetcars at the same scale". Greater Greater Washington. Retrieved 2015-01-14.
- Taplin, Michael. "A world of trams and urban transit". lrta.org. Light Rail Transit Association (LRTA). Retrieved 2014-08-07.
- "A Better Way to Get Around". Atlanta Streetcar. Archived from the original on 2014-10-29. Retrieved 2014-12-30.
- "Visitors Ride Guide" (PDF). Maryland Transit Administration. Retrieved 2013-07-14 – via http://mta.maryland.gov/content/visitors).
- "MTBA - About the MTBA - History - The Rapid Transit Commission and the BERY". Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- "About the T - Financials - Appendix: Statistical Profile" (PDF). Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. 2007. Retrieved 2013-07-13.
- "Metro Rail 7 Day Timetable" (PDF). NTFA-Metro. July 2, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 2, 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- "NJ Transit Facts At a Glance Fiscal Year 2014" (pdf). NJ Transit. March 2015. Retrieved 2015-04-02.
- "River Line - Light Rail" (PDF). NJ Transit. March 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-14.
- "LYNX Home". Charlotte Area Transit System (CATS). Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- "CityLYNX Rail Service Gold Line Gold Line Phase 1". Charlotte Area Transit System (CATS). Retrieved 2015-09-05.
- Coolidge, Sharon (September 9, 2016). "It's a go: Streetcar finally opens". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved 2016-09-10.
- "Design & Route". City of Cincinnati. 2016. Retrieved 2016-09-10.
- "About RTA: History of Public Transit in Greater Cleveland". Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority. 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
- "2012 Annual Report - Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority". Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority. December 31, 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
- "DART.org - DART History". Dallas Area Rapid Transit. 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
- "Facts about Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART)". Dallas Area Rapid Transit. February 8, 2016. Retrieved 2016-10-07.
- Chiquillo, Julieta (October 24, 2016). "Students, workers try new commutes as DART takes rail line to UNT Dallas". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved 2016-10-25.
- Appleton, Roy (April 14, 2015). "Downtown-Oak Cliff streetcar debuts with speeches, curious riders". The Dallas Morning News. p. 1B. Retrieved 2015-04-15.
- "Dallas Streetcar". Dallas Area Rapid Transit. 2016. Retrieved 2016-09-10.
- "Expanded Bishop Arts District Streetcar Service Begins". KTVT. August 29, 2016. Retrieved 2016-09-10.
- "Dallas signs Liberty deal". Tramways & Urban Transit, May 2013, p. 166.
- "RTD - Facts & Figures - Central Corridor Light Rail Line". Regional Transportation District. January 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
- "RTD - Facts & Figures". Regional Transportation District. May 24, 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
- "About M-1 Rail". M-1 Rail. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-06-13. Retrieved 2015-06-12.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "El Paso streetcar project on schedule, on budget". KTSM. 6 October 2016. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- "Streetcar Project Work Continues as Restoration of PCC Cars Revealed". EL Paso Herald-Post. 25 August 2016. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- "FY2012 Business Plan & Budget" (PDF). Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Houston, Texas. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-09-18. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
- "METRO About Us". Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Houston, Texas. Archived from the original on 2013-06-24. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
- "METRORail Rider Guide" (PDF). Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Houston, Texas. December 22, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 30, 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-08.
- "Hudson-Bergen - Light Rail" (PDF). NJ Transit. March 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-14.
- "Kansas City is on the MOVE with the KC Streetcar". KCStreetcar.org. KC Downtown Streetcar. Retrieved 2016-05-07.
- Horsley, Lynn (May 6, 2016). "After years of planning, setbacks, hard work, KC celebrates streetcar grand opening". The Kansas City Star. Retrieved 2016-05-07.
- "River Rail - Central Arkansas Transit Authority". Central Arkansas Transit Authority (CATA). Archived from the original on 2013-09-02. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
- "River Rail System Map" (png). Central Arkansas Transit Authority (CATA). 2013. Archived from the original on 2014-01-05. Retrieved 2013-07-14.
- "Metro – Facts at a Glance". Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro). November 18, 2016. Retrieved 2017-05-19.
- "MATA - Memphis Area Transit Authority - Trolley History". Memphis Area Transit Authority (MATA). 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
- "MATA - Memphis Area Transit Authority - Trolley Map". Memphis Area Transit Authority (MATA). 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
- Vantuono, William C. (November 16, 2015). "Brookville streetcars for Milwaukee". Railway Age. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
- "METRO Blue Line - Facts About Trains and Construction". Metro Transit. 2013. Archived from the original on 2014-02-14. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
- "Metro Green Line Fact Sheet". Metropolitan Council. 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
- "Newark - Light Rail" (PDF). NJ Transit. June 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-14.
- "New Orleans Streetcars - New Orleans Online". The Official Tourism Site of the City of New Orleans: NewOrleansOnline.com. 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-16.
- "APTA Streetcar and Heritage Trolley Site - New Orleans Overview". American Public Transportation Association. Retrieved 2013-07-16.
- "All aboard: North Rampart St. Claude streetcar line opens Oct. 2". nola.com.
- "Light Rail Service to Begin August 19, 2011". Hampton Roads Transit. Archived from the original on January 2, 2014. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
- "The Tide - Hampton Roads Transit". Hampton Roads Transit. 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-15.
- "NCTD Sprinter". North County Transit District (NCTD). 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-30.
- "Oklahoma City Streetcar - EMBARK". embarkok.com.
- Mills, Kylen (February 7, 2017). "Groundbreaking for OKC Streetcar". KOKH-TV. Retrieved 2017-02-08.
- Barrow, Keith (March 23, 2016). "Oklahoma City orders Brookville LRVs". International Railway Journal. UK. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
- Demery, Jr., Leroy W. (November 2011). "U.S. Urban Rail Transit Lines Opened From 1980" (PDF). publictransit.us. pp. 37–40. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2013-11-04. Retrieved 2013-11-02.
- "SEPTA - Spring 2012 Route Statistics" (PDF). Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority. 2012. Retrieved 2013-06-28.
- "2012 Route 15 Rail Renewal". Philadelphia Trolley Tracks (PhillyTrolleys.org). Retrieved 2012-02-15.
- "Light Rail System 2011 Facts and Figures" (PDF). Valley Metro. August 14, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 3, 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-15.
- "Valley Metro Rail System FY15 Facts and Figures" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-12-10.
- "Northwest light rail extension opens in Phoenix Saturday". azcentral.com.
- "Port Authority of Allegheny County - Company Info & Projects - Agency Profile". Port Authority of Allegheny County (PAT). 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-15.
- "Gov. Brown, U.S. Reps. join hundreds for Inaugural Ride as part of MAX Orange Line Grand Opening". September 12, 2015. Retrieved 2015-09-16.
- "MAX Light Rail". TriMet. 2015. Retrieved 2015-09-16.
- "Streetcar History | Portland Streetcar". Portland Streetcar, Inc. 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-12-03. Retrieved 2013-06-30.
- "Sacramento Regional Transit District: Fact Sheet" (PDF). Sacramento Regional Transit District. May 2016. Retrieved 2016-06-22.
- "History - The 1990s - MetroLink". Bi-State Development Agency (Metro). 2010. Archived from the original on 2013-08-23. Retrieved 2013-08-11.
- "Procurement Information". Bi-State Development Agency (Metro). 2010. Archived from the original on 2013-08-18. Retrieved 2013-08-11.
- "Front Lines 2015 Map" (PDF). Utah Transit Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-25. Retrieved 2013-07-02.
- "TRAX and FrontRunner Map". Utah Transit Authority. April 2013. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2013-06-20. Retrieved 2013-08-11.
- "San Diego Trolley Fact Sheet" (pdf). San Diego Metropolitan Transit System. February 2013. Retrieved 2015-12-30 – via http://www.sdmts.com/about-mts.
- "San Diego MTS Vintage Trolley". San Diego Metropolitan Transit System. 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-22.
- "San Diego Vintage Trolley". San Diego Vintage Trolley, Inc. 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-22.
- "San Diego Vintage Trolley - Route and Fares". San Diego Vintage Trolley, Inc. 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-10-16. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
- "Muni Metro Light Rail | SFMTA". San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency. 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-30.
- "Rider Information – Market Street Railway". Market Street Railway. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
- "Historic of Market Street Railway". San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency. 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-30.
- "Historic Streetcars | SFMTA". Market Street Railway. 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-30.
- "Cable Cars | SFMTA". San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency. 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-30.
- "VTA Facts: Light Rail System Overview" (PDF). Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA). November 14, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 20, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-30.
- "Light Rail Service – Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority". Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA). 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-30.
- "Schedules – SoundTransit". SoundTransit. Retrieved 2016-10-26.
- "South Lake Union Streetcar". Seattle Streetcar. Retrieved 2016-02-27.
- "First Hill StreetCar Construction - Frequently Asked Questions". Seattle Streetcar. Retrieved 2016-02-27.
- "Streetcar Routes". Seattle Streetcar. Retrieved 2016-02-27.
- Lindblom, Mike (January 22, 2016). "Seattle's First Hill Streetcar to open Saturday with free rides". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 2016-01-22.
- "TECO Line Streetcar System – Streetcar System". TECOline Streetcar System. 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-02.
- "Downtown Network Map" (PDF). Hillsborough Area Transit Authority (HART). February 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-02.
- "Why do we need a streetcar? – The streetcar route". Sun Link Tucson Streetcar. Retrieved 2014-07-26.
- Laris, Michael (February 27, 2016). "D.C. streetcar makes its first voyages on H Street. 'Is it really happening?'". Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-02-27.
- "DC Streetcar - H/Benning". District Department of Transportation (DDOT). 2016. Retrieved 2016-02-27.
- "APTA Streetcar and Heritage Trolley Site - Future Systems". American Public Transportation Association (APTA). Retrieved 2014-01-11.
- "Brookville Contracted to Design, Build Six Off-Wire Capable Liberty Streetcar Vehicles for Valley Metro". Mass Transit. Brookville Equipment Corporation. June 19, 2017. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
- Vantuono, William C. (March 28, 2018). "Siemens selected for OC Streetcar". Railway Age. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
- Brazil, Ben (27 September 2018). "$220-million contract to build modern streetcar line in Orange County". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
- Shaver, Katherine (11 July 2019). "Maryland grants contractor a 5-month delay in Purple Line's opening date". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
- Shaver, Katherine (10 May 2018). "Purple Line train tests will begin in Maryland in 2020 or after, contractor says". Washington Post. Retrieved 6 July 2018.
- "Rail Facts - All FAQs". www.honolulutransit.org.
- Bogonovich, Mike. "Automated Light Metro for Honolulu". https://ascelibrary.org/. American Society of Civil Engineers. Retrieved 25 September 2019. External link in
- Smith, Sandy. "Honolulu Negotiates With Feds Over Light Metro Line". Next City. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
- "Light rail? Heavy rail? Subway? Rail transit modes fall on a continuum". Greater Greater Washington. 4 April 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Light rail in the United States.|
- American Public Transit Association (APTA)
- Table of Light Rail Transit Agencies in the United States (from APTA)
- Federal Transit Administration (U.S.)
- Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the U.S. National Research Council
- Commuter Rail, Light Rail & Rail Transit News
- Light Rail Central photos & news
- A movie of Armour's electric trolley, circa 1897 from Library of Congress