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The "Chitlin Circuit" was a collection of performance venues throughout the eastern, southern, and upper midwest areas of the United States that provided commercial and cultural acceptance for African-American musicians, comedians, and other entertainers during the era of racial segregation in the United States (from at least the early 19th century[citation needed] through the 1960s).[1]

In the 21st century, the term is applied to the venues, especially in the South, where contemporary African-American blues singers such as Bobby Rush, Denise LaSalle, and O.B. Buchana continue to appear regularly. The name derives from the soul food item chitterlings (stewed pig intestines); it is also a play on the term "Borscht Belt", which referred to particular resort venues (primarily in New York State's Catskill Mountains) that were popular with Jewish performers and audiences during the 1940s through the 1960s.[2] This name also comes from the culinary history of black people, where they were often only given the intestines of the pig to eat as opposed to the bacon or ham. It symbolizes acquiring a taste out of necessity and eventually coming to like it. [3]

The Chitlin' Circuit was considered to be by, for, and about black people. Topics of plays were often farcical and overdramatic. There is debate as to when the Chitlin' Circuit's peaked. Some say its peak was in the ‘30s, some say it was after World War II, and others say it was the time of the blues.[4]

Theaters and night clubsEdit

Noted theaters and night clubs on the Chitlin' Circuit included the Royal Peacock in Atlanta; the 100 Men Hall (Bay Saint Louis, Mississippi), the Carver Theatre in Birmingham, Alabama; the Harlem Duke Social Club in Mobile (Prichard), Alabama; Cotton Club, Smalls Paradise and the Apollo Theater in Harlem, New York City; Robert's Show Lounge, Club DeLisa and the Regal Theatre in Chicago; the Howard Theatre in Washington, D.C.; the Uptown Theatre in Philadelphia; the Royal Theatre in Baltimore; the Fox Theatre in Detroit; the Eastwood Country Club in San Antonio, Texas[5]; the Victory Grill in Austin, Texas; the Hippodrome Theatre in Richmond, Virginia; the Ritz Theatre in Jacksonville, Florida; Club Eaton in historic Eatonville, Florida; Abe's 506 Club in Pensacola, Florida's Historic Belmont-DeVilliers Neighborhood, the Manhattan Casino in St. Petersburg, Florida, the Red Bird Cafe in Frenchtown, Tallahassee, Florida, Club Cherry in Lebanon, Kentucky, the Lyric Theatre in Lexington, Kentucky, The National Theater in Louisville, Kentucky, The Quanset in Bowling Green, KY, and The Madam C. J. Walker Theatre on Indiana Avenue in Indianapolis.

Seasonal venues included the still-standing auditorium at John Brown's Farm (also known as "the Kennedy Farm") outside Sharpsburg, Maryland[6]; Carr's and Sparrow's Beach in Anne Arundel County, Maryland; and Rosedale Beach in Millsboro, Delaware.

According to Ruth Brown, an artist needed to play at four specific theaters to prove they had made it: the Regal, the Howard, the Uptown, and the Apollo. This was called the "litchman chain".[7]

The song "Tuxedo Junction" was written about a stop along the Chitlin' Circuit in Birmingham. Once the performance was over, the band would leave for the next stop on the circuit. After composing the music, Erskine Hawkins explained the reason for the title to Buddy Feyne, who created lyrics to express the concept.[8]

Many notable 20th-century performers worked on the Chitlin' Circuit, including Count Basie, Sam Cooke, Sheila Guyse, Jackie Wilson, Peg Leg Bates, George Benson, Hammond B-3, Jeff Palmer, James Brown & The Famous Flames, Cab Calloway, Ray Charles, Wayne Cochran, Dorothy Dandridge, Sammy Davis, Jr., Fats Domino, Duke Ellington, Ella Fitzgerald, The Jackson 5, Redd Foxx, Aretha Franklin, Jimi Hendrix, Billie Holiday, John Lee Hooker, Lena Horne, Etta James, B.B. King, Donna Hightower, Patti LaBelle, Moms Mabley, The Delfonics, Gladys Knight & the Pips, Wilson Pickett, Richard Pryor, Otis Redding, Dr. Lonnie Smith, Marvin Gaye, Little Richard, The Miracles, Ike & Tina Turner, The Four Tops, The Isley Brothers, The Supremes, The Temptations, Little Anthony and the Imperials, Tammi Terrell, Muddy Waters, Johnnie Taylor, Tyrone Davis, O.V. Wright, Marvin Sease, Bobby "Blue" Bland, Bobby Rush, Flip Wilson, Jimmie Walker, Robbie Robinson and Roy Hamilton.[citation needed]

Mississippi Blues Trail markerEdit

An historic marker designated by the Mississippi Blues Commission on the Mississippi Blues Trail was placed in front of the 100 Men Hall in Bay Saint Louis, MS. The 100 Men Hall is one of the rare still standing, still active blues venues on the trail. The second historic marker designated by the Mississippi Blues Commission on the Mississippi Blues Trail was placed in front of the Southern Whispers Restaurant on Nelson Street in Greenville, Mississippi, a stop on the Chitlin' Circuit in the early days of the blues. The marker commemorates the importance of this site in the history of the blues in Mississippi.[9][10] In the 1940s and 1950s, this historic strip drew crowds to the flourishing club scene to hear Delta blues, big band jump blues and jazz.

Contemporary useEdit

Ebony magazine prefers the term "urban theater circuit" for recent work like that of playwright and actor Tyler Perry. In a January 2004 interview with Perry, the genre's leading practitioner, Ebony wrote that his work marked

"a new chapter in the urban theater circuit as a whole—a genre that has been dogged by criticism from some Blacks in the traditional theater. Perry, as the most visibly recognized player in the circuit, has felt the brunt of this criticism.
"'They say that Tyler Perry has set the Black race back some 500 years with these types of "Chitlin' Circuit" shows. The problem with the naysayers is that they don't take the opportunity to see my shows,' Perry argues. 'With my shows, I try to build a bridge that marries what's deemed "legitimate theater" and so-called "chitlin' circuit theater," and I think I've done pretty well with that, in bringing people in to enjoy a more elevated level of theater.'"[11]

The North Carolina hip-hop group Little Brother named their mixtape, Chittlin Circuit 1.5, after the venues.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Englehardt, Sheree (August 27, 2015). "Musicians trying to save Legendary Blues Joint". Bay New 9. Retrieved August 29, 2015.
  2. ^ Frederick Douglass Opie, Hog and Hominy: Soul Food from Africa to America (Columbia University Press 2008), Chapter 7.
  3. ^ Henry Louis Gates Jr. (February 3, 1997). "The Chitlin Circuit". The New Yorker. p. 49.
  4. ^ Stober, Karl H. "The Chitlin Circuit Revisited." Cadence Magazine, the Independent Journal of Creative Improvised Music, October 2014: 61–4. ProQuest. September 20, 2018 .
  5. ^ Karla Peterson, "Eastwood Country Club", Handbook of Texas Online, accessed March 2, 2018.
  6. ^ Maliskas, Ed. John Brown to James Brown - The Little Farm Where Liberty Budded, Blossomed, and Boogied, Hagerstown, MD: Hamilton Run Press, 2016
  7. ^ "Why We Should Build the R&B Music Hall of Fame Museum". YouTube. 2013-12-10. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
  8. ^ "Buddy Feyne — Tuxedo Junction page". Retrieved August 29, 2008.
  9. ^ "Blues Matters! - Delta sites to be included on new blues trail". Retrieved May 28, 2008.[dead link]
  10. ^ "Mississippi Blues Commission - Blues Trail". Retrieved May 28, 2008.
  11. ^ Hughes, Zondra (January 2004). "How Tyler Perry rose from homelessness to a $5 million mansion". Ebony.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit