Ebony (magazine)

Ebony is a monthly magazine that focuses on news, culture, and entertainment. Its target audience is the African–American community, and its coverage includes the lifestyles and accomplishments of influential black people, fashion, beauty, and politics.[4][5]

Ebony
EbonyMagazine.jpg
60th anniversary cover with actors Denzel Washington, Halle Berry and Jamie Foxx, November 2005.
Editor-in-chiefTracey Ferguson
Former editorsKierna Mayo
Bryan Monroe
CategoriesLifestyle magazine
FrequencyMonthly
Total circulation
(2017)
1,333,421[1]
FounderJohn H. Johnson
First issueNovember 1, 1945; 74 years ago (1945-11-01)[2]
CompanyEbony Media Operations, LLC
(2016–present)
Johnson Publishing Company
(1945–2016)
CountryUnited States
Based inLos Angeles, California, U.S.[3]
(2017–present)
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
(1945–2017)
LanguageEnglish
Websiteebony.com
ISSN0012-9011

Ebony magazine was founded in 1945 by John H. Johnson, who sought to address African–American issues, personalities and interests in a positive and self-affirming manner.[6] Its cover photography typically showcases prominent African American public figures, including entertainers and politicians, such as Dorothy Dandridge, Lena Horne, Diana Ross, Michael Jackson, former U.S. Senator Carol Moseley Braun of Illinois, U.S. First lady Michelle Obama, Beyoncé Knowles, Tyrese Gibson, and Tyler Perry. Each year, Ebony selects the "100 Most Influential Blacks in America".[7]

After 71 years, in June 2016, Johnson Publishing sold both Ebony and Jet, another Johnson publication, to a private equity firm called Clear View Group. The new publisher is known as Ebony Media Corporation.[8][9]

HistoryEdit

1945–1969Edit

 
Blanche J. Lawrence, "Atom Scientists”, Ebony magazine, September 1949 (Copyright not renewed)

Ebony was founded by John H. Johnson in 1945. The name of the magazine was created by Johnson's wife, Eunice Walker Johnson, in reference to the dark wood.[10] The magazine was patterned after the format of Life magazine.[11] Publishing the first issue on November 1, 1945, The magazine's initial 25,000 copy press run sold out completely.[12] Ebony's content initially focused on African–American sports and entertainment figures, but eventually began including black achievers and celebrities of many different professions.[13]

Editors stated in the first issue:

"We like to look at the zesty side of life. Sure, you can get all hot and bothered about the race question (and don't think we don't), but not enough is said about all the swell things we Negroes can do and will accomplish. Ebony will try to mirror the happier side of Negro life - the positive, everyday achievements from Harlem to Hollywood. But when we talk about race as the No. 1 problem of America, we'll talk turkey."[14]

During the 1960s, the magazine increasingly covered the Civil Rights Movement. Articles published in the magazine were about political events happening all over the U.S., in which activists protested racial violence and advocated for increasing social mobility for African–Americans across the diaspora were. Also published in the magazine was content about the Black Power Movement. In 1965, Lerone Bennett Jr., a executive editor wrote a recurring column entitled, Black Power, which featured an in-depth profile of Stokely Carmichael in 1966.[15]. Ebony also commemorated historical events that contributed to black citizenship and freedom such as the September 1963 issue that honored the 100 year anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation.[16]

1969–1985Edit

Ebony's content and design began to shift in the late–1960s and early–1970s. A new level of competition for subscribers and readers began during the 1970s. Due to the emergence of new African-American oriented magazines such as Essence, Ebony began to cover more political activism and achievements in the 1970s. The magazine's February 1971 cover featured 13 black congressmen and women. Ebony highlighted the black professionals serving in Jimmy Carter's administration in the March 1977 issue.[17]

1985–2005Edit

The magazine reached unprecedented levels of popularity, with marketers estimating that Ebony reached over 40% of the African–American adults in the United States during the 1980s, a feat unmatched by any other general–interest magazine at the time.[18] Beginning in the mid–1970s, advertisers created ads specifically for the magazine which featured African–American models using their products.[19] In 1985, Ebony Man, a monthly men's magazine was created, printing the first issue in September 1985.[5] By the magazine's 40th anniversary in November 1985, it had a circulation of 1.7 million.[14]

2005–presentEdit

In December 2008, Google announced that it was scanning back issues for Google Book Search; all issues from November 1959 to December 2008 are available for free.[20] In 2010, the Johnson Publishing Company sold its historic building at 820 S. Michigan Avenue in Chicago's loop to Columbia College Chicago. The same year, Ebony began a redesign process to update its longtime brand. In the past, the magazine was persistently upbeat, much like its postwar contemporary Life magazine. However, in the 21st century, Ebony has started to feature more controversial content.

The November 2011 cover featured a pregnant Nia Long, reminiscent of the iconic image of actress Demi Moore featured naked while pregnant on a major magazine cover two decades before. Some of Ebony′s more conservative readers disagreed with the cover choice, stating it inappropriate to feature an unwed, pregnant woman on the cover. The cover made national headlines, as it was featured in US Weekly and in a five-minute segment on CNN. Recent issues questioned whether President Obama was still right for black America and whether biracial Americans need more acknowledgement in today's society. In 2018, Ebony's publishing format was changed; it went from being published monthly to a double issue published once each month.

On May 24, 2019, Clear View Group suspended the print edition of the magazine, with Spring 2019 issue the last to be printed.[21][22]

Notable CoverageEdit

100 Most Influential BlacksEdit

One of the most infamous aspects of the magazine was its list of "100 Most Influential Blacks." This list—which began in 1963, took a hiatus until 1971, and has continued on ever since—lists those who have made the greatest impact in the African-American community during the year. Most of those listed were well-educated, with 55 percent having completed a graduate degree.[23] However, some researchers have noted that black scholars, teachers, and higher-education administrators are rarely, if ever, included on the list.[24][25] The list exclusively focuses on entertainment figures, politicians, philanthropists, and entrepreneurs.[26]

25 Coolest Brothers of All TimeEdit

In August 2008, the magazine had published a special eight-cover edition featuring the "25 Coolest Brothers of All Time". The lineup featured popular figures like Jay-Z, Barack Obama, Prince, Samuel L. Jackson, Denzel Washington, Marvin Gaye, Muhammad Ali and Billy Dee Williams.[27]

65th Anniversary EditionEdit

In November 2010, the magazine featured a special 65th-anniversary edition cover featuring Taraji P. Henson, Samuel L. Jackson, Usher and Mary J. Blige. The issue included eight cover recreations from historic and iconic previous covers of Ebony. Blair Underwood posed inside, as did Omar Epps and Jurnee Smollett. National Public Radio marked this anniversary edition as the beginning of redesign of Ebony. Former White House social secretary Desiree Rogers, of the Obama administration, had become the chief executive officer of the magazine.[28]

OwnershipEdit

In 2016, Johnson Publishing Company sold the magazine along with Jet to private equity firm Clear View Group.[29][30][31][32] In May 2017, the editorial staff for the magazine moved from Chicago to Los Angeles along with the editorial staff for Jet magazine.[33]

Other InformationEdit

In July 2019, three months after Johnson Publishing Company filed for Chapter 7 Bankruptcy liquidation, it sold its historic photo archives including the prints and negatives to a consortium of foundations to be made available to the public.[34][35] After suspending the print edition of the magazine in May 2019, Clear View Group and Ebony Media Operations laid-off majority of the editing staff in June 2019.[36][37]

LawsuitsEdit

In 2017, 50 freelance writers created a social media campaign #EbonyOwes due to not being paid by the magazines' current owner, Clear View Group.[22] In response to the campaign, Clear View Group made an effort to pay 11 of the 50 writers $18,000, concluding with only 3 being paid in full. In late-2017, the remaining writers with the help of The National Writers Union filed case against Clear View Group and Ebony Media Operations.[21]

The remaining writers finally settled their lawsuit with the company in February 2018. The magazine owners were ordered to pay $80,000[38] Ebony Media Operations, Clear View Group and the National Writers Union came to an agreement that all unpaid invoices would be compensated in four quarterly payments by the end of 2018.[38] In October 2018, the magazines' owner missed its third quarter payment and another lawsuit was filed in November 2018. Clear View Group then made the final payment due to the writers in December 2018.[21][22]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Circulation of select African American magazines in the United States in 2nd half 2015, by type(in thousands).Retrieved April 21, 2020.
  2. ^ Sharon Shahid (October 29, 2010). "65 Years Ago in News History: The Birth of Ebony Magazine". Newseum.org. Archived from the original on January 27, 2013.
  3. ^ Robert Channick (May 5, 2017). "Ebony cuts a third of its staff, moving editorial operations to LA". Chicagotribune.com. Retrieved June 8, 2019.
  4. ^ Marlo Barnett and Joseph E. Flynn, "A Century of Celebration: Disrupting Stereotypes and Portrayals of Afro Americans in the Media" Archived August 18, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, 0Black History Bulletin, Vol. 77, No. 2, p. 30.
  5. ^ a b Satya P. Krishnan; et al. (1997). "Coverage of AIDS in Popular Afro American Magazines" (PDF). Health Communication. 9 (3). Retrieved February 26, 2016.
  6. ^ Wormley, J. Carlyne, et al. “Uncovering History: An Examination of the Impact of the Ebony Fashion Fair and Ebony Magazine.” Consumer Interests Annual. vol.44. 1998, pp. 148–150.
  7. ^ Editors (November 1992). "From Negro Digest to Ebony, Jet and Em – Special Issue: 50 Years of JPC – Redefining the Black Image". Ebony. Retrieved January 3, 2009.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  8. ^ Kai EL'Zabar, "Ebony Jet Sold!" Archived 2016-06-17 at the Wayback Machine, Chicago Defender, June 16, 2016.
  9. ^ Sydney Ember and Nicholas Fandos, "Pillars of Black Media, Once Vibrant, Now Fighting for Survival", The New York Times, July 2, 2016.
  10. ^ Hevesi, Dennis (2010-01-09). "Eunice Johnson Dies at 93; Gave Ebony Its Name". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-12-11.
  11. ^ Click, J. W. “Comparison of Editorial Content of Ebony Magazine, 1967 and 1974.” Journalism Quarterly, vol. 52, no. 4, Dec. 1975, pp. 716–720. Doi:10.1177/107769907505200416.
  12. ^ "John H. Johnson | American publisher". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-12-09.
  13. ^ "Ebony | American magazine". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-12-09.
  14. ^ a b The New York Times, EBONY, 40, VIEWED AS MORE THAN A MAGAZINE, By E. R. Shipp, Special To the New York Times, Dec. 6, 1985.Retrieved April 20, 2020.
  15. ^ James West (2016) Power is 100 years old: Lerone Bennett Jr., Ebony magazine and the roots of black power, The Sixties, 9:2, pp. 165-188, DOI: 10.1080/17541328.2016.1241601.
  16. ^ Glasrud, Bruce (2007-09-18). "Ebony Magazine • BlackPast". BlackPast. Retrieved 2019-12-09.
  17. ^ Anderson, Mia L. (2015-12-01). ""I Dig You, Chocolate City": Ebony and Sepia Magazines' Coverage of Black Political Progress, 1971–1977". Journal of African American Studies. 19 (4): 398–409. doi:10.1007/s12111-015-9309-x. ISSN 1936-4741.
  18. ^ Staples, Brent (2019-08-11). "Opinion | The Radical Blackness of Ebony Magazine". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-12-09.
  19. ^ Pollay, Richard W.; Lee, Jung S.; M.B.A, David Carter-Whitney (1992-03-01). "Separate, but Not Equal: Racial Segmentation in Cigarette Advertising". Journal of Advertising. 21 (1): 45–57. doi:10.1080/00913367.1992.10673359. ISSN 0091-3367.
  20. ^ Dave Foulser (December 9, 2008). "Search and find magazines on Google Book Search". Retrieved January 3, 2009.
  21. ^ a b c Tin Shingle, July 8, 2019, EBONY Magazine In Flux - Print Magazine Folds, Digital Seems To Continue Yvonne de Salle Shakeups, Magazining, Media Contacts.Retrieved April 21, 2020.
  22. ^ a b c NY Post, Ebony and Jet magazines laying off remaining editorial staff, By Keith J. Kelly, June 20, 2019.Retrieved April 21, 2020.
  23. ^ Henry, Charles P. (1981). "Ebony Elite: America's Most Influential Blacks". Phylon (1960-). 42 (2): 120–132. doi:10.2307/274717. ISSN 0031-8906. JSTOR 274717.
  24. ^ “Demeaning Stereotypes: Ebony's List of the Most Influential Black Americans.” The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, no. 17, 1997, pp. 46–47. JSTOR. www.jstor.org/stable/2963216.
  25. ^ Cross, Theodore. “Ebony Magazine: Sometimes The Bell Curve's Best Friend.” The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, no. 10, 1995, pp. 75–76. JSTOR. www.jstor.org/stable/2962770.
  26. ^ "No Interest in Black Scholars: The Tweedledum and Tweedledee of African-American Publishing". The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (37): 53–54. 2002. doi:10.2307/3134282. ISSN 1077-3711. JSTOR 3134282.
  27. ^ Sewing, Joy (2008-07-09). "Ebony magazine honors the 'coolest' black men ever". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 2019-12-19.
  28. ^ Cheryl Corley, "'Ebony,' 'Jet' Parent Takes A Bold New Tack", NPR, 22 September 2011
  29. ^ Channick, Robert. "Johnson Publishing sells Ebony, Jet magazines to Texas firm". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
  30. ^ "Ebony and Jet magazines have been sold – Northstar News Today". Northstar News Today. 2016-06-15. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
  31. ^ NY Post, MEDIA EXCLUSIVE: Johnson family sells Ebony magazine, Keith J. Kelly, June 14, 2016.Retrieved April 21, 2020.
  32. ^ LA Times, BOOKS, Ebony magazine’s legendary photo archive is up for auction, July 19, 2019.Retrieved April 21, 2020.
  33. ^ New York Amsterdam News, EBONY magazine moves to Los Angeles, EBONY Heads West, Leaves Chicago for Los Angeles, Erick Johnson (Chicago Crusader/NNPA Member), 5/31/2017.Retrieved April 21, 2020.
  34. ^ "Rare look inside the Ebony and Jet magazine photo archive that just sold for $30M". CBS News. July 26, 2019. Retrieved 2019-07-27.
  35. ^ Noyes, Chandra (29 July 2019). "Foundations Unite to Save Ebony Magazine Archives". artandobject.com. Journalistic, Inc. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
  36. ^ USA Today, Ebony magazine's digital staff abruptly laid off without pay as asset auction looms, By N'dea Yancey-Bragg, June 21, 2019.Retrieved April 21, 2020.
  37. ^ The Charlotte Post, Ebony and Jet magazines fire remainder of staff, may close, Legacy publications beset by financial issues, July 7, 2019, by Miana Massey, The Atlanta Voice.Retrieved April 21, 2020.
  38. ^ a b Chicago Tribune, Ebony to pay freelancers $80,000 to settle lawsuit after #EbonyOwes campaign, February 27, 2018. Retrieved April 21, 2020.

External linksEdit