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Joseph Arrington Jr. (better known as Joe Tex; August 8, 1935 – August 13, 1982) was an American singer and musician who gained success in the 1960s and 1970s with his brand of Southern soul, which mixed the styles of funk, country, gospel, and rhythm and blues.
Joe Tex in 1965
|Birth name||Joseph Arrington Jr.|
|Also known as||Yusuf Hazziez|
|Born||August 8, 1935|
Rogers, Texas, U.S.
|Origin||Baytown, Texas, U.S.|
|Died||August 13, 1982 (aged 47)|
Navasota, Texas, United States
His career started after he was signed to King Records in 1955 following four wins at the Apollo Theater. Between 1955 and 1964, he struggled to find hits, and by the time he finally recorded his first hit, "Hold What You've Got" in 1964, he had recorded 30 previous singles that were deemed failures on the charts. He went on to have four million-selling hits, "Hold What You've Got" (1965), "Skinny Legs and All" (1967), "I Gotcha" (1972), and "Ain't Gonna Bump No More (With No Big Fat Woman)" (1977). Joe Tex was nominated for the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame six times, most recently in 2017.
Joe Tex was born Joseph Arrington, Jr. in Rogers, Texas, in Bell County to Joseph Arrington and Cherie Sue (Jackson) Arrington. He and his sister Mary Sue were initially raised by their grandmother, Mary Richardson. After their parents divorced, Cheri Arrington moved to Baytown. Tex played baritone saxophone in the high-school band and sang in a local Pentecostal church choir. He entered several talent shows, and after an important win in Houston, he won $300 and a trip to New York City. Joe Tex took part in the amateur portion of the Apollo Theater, winning first place four times, which led to his discovery by Henry Glover, who offered him a contract with King Records. His mother's wish was that he graduate from high school first, and Glover agreed to wait a year before signing him at age 19.
Tex recorded for King Records between 1955 and 1957 with little success. He later claimed he sold musical rights to the composition "Fever" to King Records staff to get money to pay his rent. The song's credited songwriters, Otis Blackwell (who used the pseudonym John Davenport) and Joe Cooley, disputed Tex's claims. Labelmate Little Willie John had a hit with "Fever", which inspired Tex to write the first of his answer songs, "Pneumonia".
In 1958, he signed with Ace and continued to have relative failures, but he was starting to build a unique stage reputation, opening for artists such as Jackie Wilson, James Brown, and Little Richard. He perfected the microphone tricks and dance moves that defined the rest of his career. Many, including Little Richard, claim that Tex's future nemesis James Brown stole Tex's dance moves and microphone tricks. In 1960, he left Ace and briefly recorded for Detroit's Anna Records label, scoring a Bubbling Under Billboard hit with his cover version of Etta James' "All I Could Do Was Cry". By then, Tex's use of rapping over his music was starting to become commonplace.
In 1961, he recorded his composition "Baby You're Right" for Anna. Later that year, James Brown recorded a cover version, though with different lyrics and a different musical composition, gaining songwriting credit, making it a hit in 1962, and reaching number two on the R&B chart. During this time, Tex first began working with Buddy Killen, who formed the Dial Records label behind Tex. After a number of songs failed to chart, Killen decided to have Atlantic Records distribute his recordings with Dial in 1964. By the time he signed with Atlantic, Tex had recorded 30 songs, all of which had failed to make an impact on the charts.
Tex recorded his first hit, "Hold What You've Got", in November 1964 at FAME Studios in Muscle Shoals, Alabama. He was unconvinced the song would be a hit and advised Killen not to release it. However, Killen felt otherwise and released the song in early 1965. By the time Tex got wind of its release, the song had already sold 200,000 copies. The song eventually peaked at number five on the Billboard Hot 100 and became Tex's first number-one hit on the R&B charts, staying on the charts for 11 weeks and selling more than a million copies by 1966.
Tex placed six top-40 charted singles on the R&B charts in 1965 alone, including two more number-one hits, "I Want To (Do Everything For You)" and "A Sweet Woman Like You". He followed that with two successive albums, Hold On To What You've Got and The New Boss. He placed more R&B hits than any artist, including his rival James Brown. In 1966, five more singles entered the top 40 on the R&B charts, including "The Love You Save" and "S.Y.S.L.J.F.M." or "The Letter Song", which was an answer song to Wilson Pickett's "634-5789 (Soulsville, U.S.A.)".
His 1967 hits included "Show Me", which became an often-covered tune for British rock artists and later some country and pop artists, and his second million-selling hit, "Skinny Legs and All". The latter song, released off Tex's pseudo-live album, Live and Lively, stayed on the charts for 15 weeks and was awarded a gold disc by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) in January 1968. After leaving Atlantic for Mercury, Tex had several more R&B hits including "Buying a Book" in 1970 and "Give the Baby Anything the Baby Wants" in 1971. The intro saxophone riffs in his 1969 song, "You're Right, Ray Charles" later influenced Funkadelic's "Standing on the Verge of Gettin' It On".
Tex recorded his next big hit, "I Gotcha", in December 1971. The song was released in January 1972 and stayed on the charts for 20 weeks, staying at number two on the Hot 100 for two weeks and sold more than 2 million copies, becoming his biggest-selling hit to date. Tex was offered a gold disc of the song on March 22, 1972. The parent album reached number 17 on the pop albums chart. Following this and another album, Tex announced his retirement from show business in September 1972 to pursue life as a minister for Islam. Tex returned to his music career following the death of Elijah Muhammad in 1975, releasing the top-40 R&B hit, "Under Your Powerful Love". His last hit, "Ain't Gonna Bump No More (With No Big Fat Woman)", was released in 1977 and peaked at number 12 on the Hot 100 and number 2 in the UK.
His last public appearances were as part of a revised 1980s version of the Soul Clan in 1981. After that, Tex withdrew from public life, settling at his ranch in Navasota, Texas, and watching football games by his favorite team, the Houston Oilers.
Rivalry with James BrownEdit
The feud between Tex and fellow label mate James Brown allegedly originated sometime in the mid 1950s, when both artists were signed to associated imprints of King Records, when Brown reportedly called out on Tex for a "battle" during a dance at a local juke joint. In 1960, Tex left King and recorded a few songs for Detroit-based Anna Records; one of the songs he recorded was the ballad "Baby, You're Right". A year later, Brown recorded the song and released it in 1961, changing the lyrics and the musical composition, earning Brown co-songwriting credits along with Tex. By then, Brown had recruited singer Bea Ford, who had been married to Tex but had divorced him in 1959. In 1960, Brown and Ford recorded the song, "You've Got the Power". Shortly afterward, Tex got a personal letter from Brown telling him that he was through with Ford and if Tex wanted her back, he could have her. Tex responded by recording the diss record "You Keep Her" in 1962.
In 1963, their feud escalated when Tex and Brown performed a concert in Macon, Georgia. Tex, who opened the show, imitated Brown by appearing in a torn, tattered cape and rolling around on the floor screaming, "Please—somebody help get me out of this cape!" Brown, already angry with Tex over the song "You Keep Her", left the club and returned with guns. Tex had left the club before the shooting had commenced. Tex later claimed that Brown stole his dance moves and his microphone stand tricks. In a few interviews he gave in the 1960s, Tex dismissed the notion of Brown being called "Soul Brother No. 1", insisting that Little Willie John was the original "Soul Brother No. 1". Tex even claimed Brown stopped some radio disc jockeys from playing his hit "Skinny Legs and All", which Tex claimed prevented Tex from taking down one of Brown's number-one songs at the time. During a 1968 tour, Tex had the words "The New Soul Brother No. 1" on his tour bus, but eventually took the name off the bus and had it repainted. Tex challenged Brown to contest who "the real soul brother" was. Brown reportedly refused the challenge, telling the Afro-American newspaper, "I will not fight a black man. You need too much help."
While Tex moved on from his initial feud with Brown, Brown reportedly joked, "Who?" in his Bobby Byrd and Hank Ballard duet "Funky Side of Town" from his Get on the Good Foot album when Ballard mentioned Tex's name as one of the stars of soul music.
Personal life and deathEdit
A convert to Islam in 1966, he changed his name to Yusuf Hazziez, and toured as a spiritual lecturer. He had a daughter, Eartha Doucet, also, a daughter Leslie Arrington and four sons, Joseph Arrington III, Ramadan Hazziez, Jwaade Hazziez, and Joseph Hazziez.
Though he lived most of his life clear and free of drugs and alcohol, according to Tex's longtime producer Buddy Killen, Tex indulged in drug addiction and alcohol abuse during the last four years of his life. Tex's final performances as part of the Soul Clan pictured him as gaunt and looking unwell, which Killen claimed that Tex had "lost his will to live".
In early August 1982, Tex was found at the bottom of his swimming pool at his home in Navasota. After being sent to the hospital, he was revived and sent home.
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Several other artists have covered Tex's work. Johnny Cash covered Tex's "Look at Them Beans" in 1975. US R&B group The Raelettes and UK hard rock band Nazareth covered "I Want To (Do Everything for You)" and Phish performed "You Better Believe It Baby". Jazz blues musician Lawrence "Lipbone" Redding covered "The Love You Save (May Be Your Own)".
- 1964 Hold On! It's Joe Tex (Checker Records LP-2993)
- 1965 Hold What You've Got (Dial Records 8106, distributed by Atlantic Records) – US Pop No. 124, US R&B No. 2
- 1965 The New Boss (Dial/Atlantic 8115) – US No. 142, US R&B No. 3
- 1966 The Love You Save (Dial/Atlantic 8124) – US No. 108
- 1966 I've Got to Do a Little Better (Dial/Atlantic 8133)
- 1967 The Best of Joe Tex (Dial/Atlantic 8144)
- 1968 Live and Lively (Dial/Atlantic 8156) – US No. 84
- 1968 Soul Country (Dial/Atlantic 8187) – US No. 154
- 1969 Happy Soul (Dial/Atlantic 8211)
- 1969 Buying a Book (Dial/Atlantic 8231) – US No. 190
- 1970 With Strings and Things (Dial/Atlantic 8254)
- 1971 From the Roots Came the Rapper (Dial/Atlantic 8292)
- 1972 I Gotcha (Dial 6002) – US # 17
- 1972 Spill the Beans (Dial 6004)
- 1976 Have You Ever (Mercury Netherlands NL-6338.693)
- 1977 Bumps & Bruises (Epic 34666) – US No. 108
- 1978 Rub Down (Epic 35079)
- 1978 He Who Is Without Funk Cast the First Stone (Dial 6100)
|1960||"All I Could Do Was Cry"||102||-||-||-|
|1964||"I'd Rather Have You"||-||44||-||-|
|"Hold What You've Got"||5||1||-||-|
|1965||"You Got What It Takes" /
"You Better Get It"
|"A Woman Can Change a Man"||56||12||–||–|
|"One Monkey Don't Stop No Show"||65||20||–||–|
|"I Want To (Do Everything for You)"||23||1||–||–|
|"A Sweet Woman Like You"||29||1||–||–|
|1966||"The Love You Save (May Be Your Own)"||56||2||–||–|
|"S.Y.S.L.J.F.M. (The Letter Song)"||39||9||–||–|
|"I Believe I'm Gonna Make It"||67||8||–||–|
|"I've Got to Do a Little Bit Better"||64||20||–||–|
|"Papa Was Too"||44||15||–||–|
|"Woman Like That, Yeah"||54||24||–||–|
|"A Woman's Hands"||63||24||–||–|
|"Skinny Legs and All"||10||2||–||–|
|1968||"Men Are Gettin' Scarce"||33||7||–||–|
|"I'll Never Do You Wrong"||59||26||–||–|
|"Keep the One You Got"||52||13||–||–|
|"You Need Me, Baby"||81||29||–||–|
|1969||"Buying a Book"||47||10||–||–|
|"That's the Way"||94||46||–||–|
|"It Ain't Sanitary"||117||–||–||–|
|"I Can't See You No More"||105||–||–||–|
|1971||"Give the Baby Anything the Baby Wants"||102||20||–||–|
|1972||"I Gotcha" /
"A Mother's Prayer"
|"You Said a Bad Word"||41||12||–||–|
|1975||"Under Your Powerful Love"||–||27||–||–|
|1976||"Have You Ever"||–||74||–||–|
|1977||"Ain't Gonna Bump No More (With No Big Fat Woman)"||12||7||2||2|
|"Hungry for Your Love"||–||84||–||–|
In popular cultureEdit
In The Commitments (1991), one of the characters is said to have claimed to have been in America recently and spoken to Joe Tex, but the one telling the story points out that Joe Tex died in 1982, whereas the events in the film are set around the late 1980s.
- "Bio – The World of Joe Tex". Soultex.webs.com. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- "ARRINGTON, JOSEPH, JR. [JOE TEX]". Tshaonline.org. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- Murrells, Joseph (1978). The Book of Golden Discs (2nd ed.). London, UK: Barrie and Jenkins Ltd. p. 183. ISBN 0-214-20512-6.
- Murrells, Joseph (1978). The Book of Golden Discs (2nd ed.). London, UK: Barrie and Jenkins Ltd. p. 231. ISBN 0-214-20512-6.
- Murrells, Joseph (1978). The Book of Golden Discs (2nd ed.). London, UK: Barrie and Jenkins Ltd. p. 322. ISBN 0-214-20512-6.
- "Ain't Gonna Bump No More (With No Big Fat Woman)". RockPopInfo.com. Archived from the original on April 5, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2014.
- "2017 Rock and Roll Hall of fame nominees". Cbsnews.com. Retrieved February 8, 2019.
- "Build up to breakthrough - The World of Joe Tex". Retrieved July 15, 2020.
- "1966: I've got to do a little better". Retrieved July 15, 2020.
- "1967: Skinny legs and all". Retrieved July 15, 2020.
- "KGB, San Diego, California – Survey for week of Wednesday December 20, 1967". Ct30.com. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
- "1970/71: The same old soup". Retrieved July 15, 2020.
- Christgau, Robert (1981). "Consumer Guide '70s: T". Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies. Ticknor & Fields. ISBN 089919026X. Retrieved March 16, 2019 – via robertchristgau.com.
- "1978-82: How do you spell relief?". Retrieved July 15, 2020.
- Gordon, Alex (August 7, 2019). "Pittsburgh-based author celebrates the often overlooked career of soul legend Joe Tex". Pittsburgh City Paper.
- "1968: New Soul Brother". Retrieved July 15, 2020.
- "You Better Believe It Baby History - Phish.net". Phish.net.
- "No filler, no fat. Can't argue with this one, as it has all of his hits up to then. No B-sides, no album cuts. However, Atlantic should have put together a "Vol. 2", because his biggest hit of the sixties was right around the corner." James Porter et al., Joe Tex Album Guide Archived October 26, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- Whitburn, Joel (2003). Top Pop Singles 1955–2002 (1st ed.). Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin: Record Research Inc. p. 705. ISBN 0-89820-155-1.
- Whitburn, Joel (1996). Top R&B Singles: 1942–1995. Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin: Record Research Inc. p. 440. ISBN 0-89820-115-2.
- Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992 (illustrated ed.). St Ives, N.S.W.: Australian Chart Book. p. 307. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
- Betts, Graham (2004). Complete UK Hit Singles 1952–2004 (1st ed.). London: Collins. p. 779. ISBN 0-00-717931-6.