Fever (Little Willie John song)
"Fever" is a song written by Eddie Cooley and Otis Blackwell, who used the pseudonym John Davenport. It was originally recorded by American R&B singer Little Willie John for his debut album, Fever (1956), and released as a single in April of the same year. The song managed to top the Billboard R&B Best Sellers in the US and peak at number 24 on the Billboard Hot 100. It was received positively by music critics and included on several lists of the best songs during the time it was released.
One of US vinyl singles
|Single by Little Willie John|
|from the album Fever|
|B-side||"Letter from My Darling"|
|Genre||Rhythm and blues|
|Little Willie John singles chronology|
It has been covered by numerous artists from various musical genres, most notably by Peggy Lee, whose rendition became the most widely known version of "Fever" and the singer's signature song. Lee's version contained rewritten lyrics different from the original and an altered music arrangement. It became a top-five hit on the music charts in the UK and Australia in addition to entering the top ten in the US and the Netherlands. "Fever" was nominated in three categories at the 1st Annual Grammy Awards in 1959, including Record of the Year and Song of the Year.
Other notable cover versions of "Fever" include those by Elvis Presley, Christina Aguilera, Madonna, Michael Bublé, The McCoys, La Lupe and Beyoncé. Madonna released it as a single from her fifth studio album Erotica (1992) in March 1993 through Warner Bros. It topped the charts in Finland and the Hot Dance Club Songs in the US in addition to charting in the top 50 in many other countries. Madonna promoted "Fever" by filming and releasing a music video directed by Stéphane Sednaoui and performing the song on several television shows as well as her 1993 The Girlie Show World Tour. Various versions of "Fever" have been used in many films, plays and television shows.
Background and receptionEdit
The idea for "Fever" was presented to Otis Blackwell by an old friend, Eddie Cooley, who in 1956 had a hit song called "Priscilla". Blackwell said: "Eddie Cooley was a friend of mine from New York and he called me up and said 'Man, I got an idea for a song called 'Fever', but I can't finish it.' I had to write it under another name because, at that time, I was still under contract to Joe Davis." Little Willie John reportedly disliked the song, but was persuaded to record it, on March 1, 1956, by King Records owner Syd Nathan and arranger and producer Henry Glover. It became the title track for his debut album, Fever, released in 1956. "Fever" is a soul and rhythm and blues minor key opus with an arrangement consisting of low saxophones played by Ray Felder and Rufus "Nose" Gore and guitar by Bill Jennings. The vocal style of Willie John is similar to moaning and he is backed by finger snaps. Bill Dahl from the website AllMusic noted a contrast between the song's "ominous" arrangement and the vocals along with the finger snapping which "marginally lightened the mood".
"Fever" was released as a single in April 1956 and became a double-sided hit along with the top-ten R&B song "Letter from My Darling". "Fever" reached number one for three weeks on the Billboard R&B Best Sellers chart in the United States, peaking at the top on July 21, 1956. It also made the pop charts, peaking at number 24 on the Billboard Hot 100. The song has sold one million copies in the US.
The song was included in Robert Christgau's "Basic Record Library" of 1950s and 1960s recordings, published in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies (1981). He later described it as a very "fervid" song. Bill Dahl from the website AllMusic credited "Fever" for winning the "boisterous teen an across-the-board audience" for Willie John. The writer further opined that the singer's "sweaty case of love-rooted 'Fever' was seemingly grave, judging from his riveting intensity, yet he doesn't sound like he minds at all". NME magazine listed "Fever" as the 96th best song of the 1950s. In his The 1001 Greatest Singles Ever Made list published in 1989, critic Dave Marsh ranked "Fever" at the position of 109. The song was included on the greatest hits albums Fever: The Best of Little Willie John (1993) and The Very Best of Little Willie John (2001).
Peggy Lee versionEdit
One of US vinyl singles
|Single by Peggy Lee|
|from the album Things Are Swingin'|
|B-side||"You Don't Know"|
|Peggy Lee singles chronology|
Background and compositionEdit
In May 1958, Peggy Lee recorded a cover version of the song in Hollywood, which featured significantly rewritten lyrics composed by Lee herself without credit. "Fever" was not included on Lee's album Things Are Swingin' when it was first released in 1959; however it was listed as a bonus track on its 2004 reissue release. The uncopyrighted lyrics by Lee featured historical invocations (including the verses beginning "Romeo loved Juliet," and "Captain Smith and Pocahontas") and are now generally thought of as a standard part of the song; they have been included in most subsequent covers of "Fever".
Lee's cover, most likely arranged by the singer herself (despite the official credit to conductor Jack Marshall), was a slower-tempo version than the original; it was described as being in "torchy lounge" mode, accompanied only by bass (played by Joe Mondragon) and a very limited drum set (played in part with fingers by Shelly Manne), while the finger snaps were provided by the singer herself, by Howard Roberts, the guitarist for the date, who set aside his guitar for this number, or possibly even by the producer, Dave Cavanaugh. Lee's rendition was further described as "smooth, sultry". It is written in the key of A Minor in a medium swing tempo with 135 beats per minute; Lee's vocals span from the musical note of G3 to B4.
Reception and accoladesEdit
A writer of the website NPR deemed "Fever" as Lee's "most memorable tune" and considered it to be "slinky and inimitable". He went on to note that it displayed characteristics which were most remembered about the singer – "her playful delivery, charisma and sexuality". John Bush from the website AllMusic opined that the singer managed to excel in sounding "sizzling" in the song. John Fordham writing for The Guardian felt that the "heated" atmosphere heard on Lee's version of "Fever", "has an underlying suggestion that the person raising the temperature for her right now doesn't have to be the one doing it next week".
Lee's version peaked at number eight on the Billboard Hot 100 in the US and spent a total of 12 weeks on that chart. It reached a peak of number five on the UK Singles Chart where it first appeared on August 15, 1958. A reissue of the single charted again in 1992, appearing at number 75 and staying for only one week. Elsewhere in Europe, Lee's "Fever" managed to peak at number eight on January 3, 1959 on the Dutch Singles Chart in Netherlands for five consecutive weeks before falling off the chart. The song also peaked at number two on the Australian Singles Chart compiled by Kent Music Report and emerged as the twentieth best-selling single of 1958 in that country.
"Fever" was nominated in the categories for Record of the Year, Song of the Year and Best Female Vocal Performance at the 1st Annual Grammy Awards held in 1959. The track became Lee's signature song and her best-known work in addition to becoming her most successful hit. It was ranked at number 100 in the book and the accompanying list 1001 Songs You Must Hear Before You Die by Robert Dimery. Joey Cohn ranked it as the tenth best jazz vocal in a list of 50 Great Jazz Vocals on NPR.
Artwork for all commercial non-US releases
|Single by Madonna|
|from the album Erotica|
|Released||March 6, 1993|
|Madonna singles chronology|
Background and compositionEdit
In 1992, American singer and songwriter Madonna recorded a cover version of "Fever" for her fifth studio album, Erotica. She served as a producer for the song along with Shep Pettibone. Madonna was in the studio putting down tracks for the album and had just recorded a song called "Goodbye to Innocence". She was going through the final stages of production on the song and suddenly started singing the lyrics to "Fever" over "Goodbye to Innocence". Madonna liked the way it sounded so much that she recorded it. In September 2008, Madonna's version of "Fever" was used in television promos for the fifth season of Desperate Housewives.
According to author Rikky Rooksby, Madonna changed the composition of the original version by adding drum rhythms, accompanied by a beatbox sound like snare drums. Removing the chord progression of the original, Madonna introduces original lyrics into the song. Instrumentation of the track includes strings, marimba and finger-pops at various intervals throughout. Rooksby noticed that Madonna sang with a distant and disembodied voice, and relegated it to the dance music accompanying the lyrics. Describing it as "unsexy", Rooksby called it a "sterile track" which is "certainly misplaced as the second track of [Erotica]".
The New York Times editor Stephen Holden wrote that "The album's softer moments include a silky hip-hop arrangement of 'Fever'". The Baltimore Sun's J. D. Considine praised the song as a "sassy, house-style remake" of the original version. He noted that when Madonna and the team of producers that worked on the album "push beyond the expected... [it] really heats up, providing a sound that is body-conscious in the best sense of the term", exemplifying his statements with "Fever". Alfred Soto of Stylus Magazine wrote that this song has its unique, idiosyncratic energy which he compared with material by Joni Mitchell from her album Blue (1971). A writer from Billboard called the song a "house-inflected rendition" and noted it was single-worthy. David Browne of Entertainment Weekly criticized Madonna's voice as "souless": "You and Shep sure do a bang-up job — pun intended — transforming 'Fever,' that old Peggy Lee hit, into a techno drone, but listen to the parched sound emitted from your throat on such tracks. It's cold, deadened, remote."
Jude Rogers from The Guardian called it an "unnecessary trance-era update of pop’s most achingly simple song about sex"; nonetheless, she placed the song at number 72 on her ranking of Madonna's singles, in honor of her 60th birthday. In August 2018, Billboard picked it as the singer's 66th greatest single; "while most versions of this classic smolder, Madonna gets distant and detached, delivering an icy club banger that sounds less like a torch song from yesteryear and more like a soundtrack for anonymous encounters that would make Ms. Lee blush". Slant Magazine' Sal Cinquemani opined that it's "Madonna’s vocal performance that’s the real star here [...] she may lack Peggy Lee’s command, but she exudes a detached confidence and control that is the pitch-perfect embodiment of Erotica's main thesis: love hurts". From the Dallas Observer, Hunter Hauk deemed it "subtly soulful and custom made for Madonna's pre-vocal-lesson voice".
Although "Fever" was never officially released as a single in the United States, it managed to become a dance hit, becoming Madonna's 15th song to hit number one on the Billboard Hot Dance Club Play. It topped the chart for the issue dated May 15, 1993 in its eleventh week of ascending. In the United Kingdom, the song debuted at its peak position of number six on the UK Singles Chart on the issue dated April 3, 1993, and had sold 86,077 copies by August 2008. It peaked at number one on the Finnish Singles Chart on April 15, 1993. In Ireland it managed to enter the top ten of the Irish Singles Chart, peaking at the position of six and charting for four weeks. Elsewhere, it peaked at numbers 12 in Italy, 17 in New Zealand, 22 on the Ultratop chart of the Flanders region in Belgium, 31 in France and 51 in Australia.
Music video and live performancesEdit
The music video for "Fever", directed by Stéphane Sednaoui, was shot on April 10–11, 1993 at Greenwich Studios in Miami, Florida, and received its world premiere on May 11, 1993, on MTV. It has since been made commercially available on the DVD collection, The Video Collection 93:99. The music video alternately features Madonna with a red wig and silver bodypaint in a variety of costumes dancing in front of funky, kaleidoscopic backgrounds. It showcases her posing like ancient goddesses. She is enveloped in a flame-like atmosphere and eventually burns up. According to Sednaoui, he wanted to portray the singer "like a provocative saint, somebody that speaks out and tells the truth, and is ready to burn for it"; he also recalled that the executives from Maverick wanted to do "something that's not the [Madonna] we know – more pop, more disco, more club [...] that's why she went all the way, like, 'OK, let's paint'". Charles Aaron writing for Spin magazine classified the clip as "dub".
To start the promotion for Erotica, Madonna performed "Fever" and "Bad Girl" on Saturday Night Live in January 1993. During the 1000th The Arsenio Hall Show, Madonna performed the original version of "Fever" accompanied by a band, wearing a black classic dress and smoking a cigarette. Madonna also performed "Fever" on the 1993 Girlie Show World Tour as the second song from the setlist. After "Erotica", the singer partially strips and proceeds to straddle and dances suggestively with two half-naked male dancers. At the end of the song, Madonna and the two backup dancers descend into a literal ring of fire. On October 8, 2015 Madonna performed an a cappella version of "Fever" during the Saint Paul stop of her Rebel Heart Tour.
|Promotional single by Beyoncé|
|from the album Heat|
|Released||February 8, 2010|
Background and releaseEdit
American singer Beyoncé included her version of "Fever" on multiple releases. Her original recording of the song was included on the soundtrack album for the 2003 American musical dramedy film, The Fighting Temptations, in which she also had a leading role. The song was also featured in the film itself, during a scene in which the character Beyoncé portrayed, named Lilly, sang the song in a nightclub while her eventual love interest Darrin (played by Cuba Gooding, Jr.) watches her. Beyoncé's version was produced by Damon Elliott and was recorded by her while she was still working on the 2002 film Austin Powers in Goldmember. Elliott suggested to the singer to record "Fever" as it was one of his favorite songs. When she got a role in The Fighting Temptations, the song seemed "perfect" for it as stated by Elliot. Ed Gonzalez of Slant Magazine provided a positive review for the cover, saying: "The seductive iciness of Peggy Lee's 'Fever' is successfully transplanted with a gumbo sound and sexy Southern comfort."
Beyoncé appeared on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno on September 17, 2003 to promote The Fighting Temptations with a live performance of "Fever". In November 2003, the song was included in the set list of the singer's first headlining solo Dangerously in Love Tour. Beyoncé was backed by four male dancers dressed in white, performing a choreography with her. In a review of the show, Dave Simpson from The Guardian felt that the performance of "Fever" was "a note perfect if pointless version" of the original. In 2004, the song was included on the live album Live at Wembley which was filmed during a London concert as part of the tour. Beyoncé's original recording was additionally included on the track-listing of her first mixtape Speak My Mind released in 2005.
After releasing her first fragrance Heat, Beyoncé re-recorded her version of "Fever" as promotion for the fragrance, using the song in its advertisements. The re-recorded 2010 version of the song was produced by Chink Santana and Beyoncé herself. It was released for digital download on the iTunes Store in the US on February 8, 2010. The next day, it was released in the United Kingdom. In February the following year, "Fever" was included on the track-listing of the extended play (EP) Heat, a limited CD released with the perfume.
Usage in mediaEdit
As promotion for the fragrance, a TV commercial for Heat was directed by Jake Nava, who had previously worked with Beyoncé on various of her music videos. The commercial features Beyoncé in a red satin dress sweating in a steamy room while the 2010 cover version of "Fever" plays in the background. Throughout the clip, she is seen lying naked in the middle of a room, touching her body, dancing and leaving a trail of fire as she touches a wall. The commercial concludes with Beyoncé walking away from the camera and melting the floor with her footprints. During the end, she turns and says "Catch the fever", the tagline of the fragrance.
In an interview with Women's Wear Daily, the singer described the sexual tone of the video stating: "My sexiest moments are when I'm just getting out of the tub or the shower and I'm clean, so I wanted to incorporate that in the ads. The dress was this liquid-y satin. The song Fever I did years ago and always loved it. [For the commercial] I got to sing it a bit more whispery, more natural." The silky red dress she wears in the video has been noted for exposing partial cleavage. The commercial for the fragrance found controversy in the United Kingdom with the Advertising Standards Authority where it was banned from daytime TV rotation due to its "sexy imagery".
In the 2007 film Spider Man 3, Peter steals the show when a jazz band in a club attempts to perform it.
- James Brown – Cold Sweat (1967). Music critic Robert Christgau opined that "Fever" placed on the album with several other cover versions "smelled a little fishy at the time".
- Michael Bublé released his cover of this song on his self named debut album in 2003. Aaron Latham at AllMusic considered it one of the highlights on the album, stating that Bublé "gives it a satiny sheen that the song hasn't seen in years".
- Rita Coolidge – for The Lady's Not for Sale (1972) and it became a minor hit in her early career.
- The Cramps covered "Fever" on their debut album Songs the Lord Taught Us (1980) It was praised by Ned Raggett of AllMusic who felt that it challenged the original.
- 1969 Chicago Cubs – A version of the song with the same music but different lyrics, called "Pennant Fever", was recorded by seven members of the 1969 Chicago Cubs: Billy Williams, Randy Hundley, Ron Santo, Don Kessinger, Willie Smith, Gene Oliver, and Nate Oliver.
- Charly García – Estaba en llamas Cuando me Acosté (1995) which included a cover version "Fever".
- The Jam – During their 1982 world tour, the British group covered the song as part of a medley with their own "Pity Poor Alfie" and Ray Charles' 1961 song "Hit the Road Jack". A studio version of this (minus the latter song) was released in September 1982 on the B-side of their single "The Bitterest Pill (I Ever Had to Swallow)". The track dubbed as "Pity Poor Alfie/Fever" was also included on many of the group's compilation releases.
- Madleen Kane released her version in 1978, and it peaked at No. 19 on the Canadian Dance Chart.
- The Kingsmen – on their 1964 debut album The Kingsmen In Person
- Amanda Lear released a single-only cover of the song in 1982. The cover photo of most single releases was taken by Lear's then-husband, Alain-Philippe Malagnac d'Argens de Villèle. Although "Fever" was not a commercial success and did not chart, it appeared on her hits compilation Super 20 in 1989.
- La Lupe – Queen of Latin Soul (1968). Her version became famous worldwide. On the web site NBCNewYork.com Elizabeth Bougerol called it one of the best versions and essential at Boogaloo parties.
- The McCoys in 1965 released a version similar to their previous hit "Hang On Sloopy". The McCoys' version of "Fever" peaked at number seven on the Billboard Hot 100 and 34 on the German Singles Chart.
- Lizzy Mercier Descloux recorded a parody of the song entitled "Tumor" on her 1979 album Press Color.
- Elvis Presley – Elvis Is Back! (1960)
- Suzi Quatro included her own version of "Fever" on Your Mamma Won't Like Me in 1975. Dave Thompson from AllMusic called her cover "lukewarm".
- Paul Revere & the Raiders – for their 1965 album Here They Come!
- Lulu Roman – At Last (2013)
- Helen Shapiro recorded a version of "Fever" in 1964; her cover reached number 38 on the UK Singles Chart on January 23 of the same year.
- Indian singer Usha Uthup performed the song on various of her concerts (including those in 2010) and included it on the album Usha in Nairobi released in 1978.
- Bob Weir of the Grateful Dead – The song appears on two of Weir's live albums: Live (1998) and Fall 1989: The Long Island Sound (2013). Weir performed the song with the Grateful Dead once on September 13, 1987, at the Capital Centre in Landover, Maryland.
- Junior Wells – in 1969 which appears on the album Live at the Golden Bear.
- Bette Midler from her 2005 album Bette Midler Sings the Peggy Lee Songbook. In 2006 it reached #4 on the U.S. Billboard Dance Chart.
In other mediaEdit
- On June 3, 1976, Rita Moreno sang "Fever" on episode 105 of The Muppet Show, accompanied by Animal on the drums who repeatedly and comically distracted her with a more aggressive drumming style than the song required, which caused Moreno to use two cymbals to crush Animal's head in order to stop his wild playing. This resulted in his saying: "That my kind of woman" to the audience, thus ending the musical skit. In a review for The A.V. Club, Erik Adams considered it to be one of the best segments of the series, further hailing it as a "classic of the genre" and suitable for various generations.
- In the seventh-season episode "The Fabulous Robinson Sisters" of Who's the Boss? which aired on October 2, 1990, the character Angela Bower (Judith Light) sings "Fever" in a night club where her mother Mona takes her.
- In the Star Trek: Deep Space Nine April 22, 1998 episode "His Way", the holographic singer modeled on Major Kira (portrayed by Nana Visitor) sings "Fever" for an audience including Constable Odo.
- During the episode "Marge Simpson in: 'Screaming Yellow Honkers'" of The Simpsons' tenth season which aired on February 21, 1999, the character Edna Krabappel is seen performing "Fever" while dancing very seductively.
- In the Gilmore Girls episode "Lorelai? Lorelai?", Babette (Sally Struthers) and Miss Patty (Liz Torres) sing "Fever" as their last karaoke number with Babette dedicating the number to her husband Morey.
- "Fever" was included in the Broadway musical Million Dollar Quartet which opened in New York in April 2010; it was sung in the Broadway production by Elizabeth Stanley as "Dyanne".
- Christina DeRosa sings "Fever" in Jim Wynorski's 2012 film Gila!
- La Lupe's version of "Fever" was featured on the episode "Angels of Death" of the second season of the TV series Magic City which aired on June 21, 2013.
- The documentary film Red Obsession released in 2013 featured Lee's version of "Fever".
- Figure skating world champion Javier Fernández performed part of his Elvis Presley-themed free program to "Fever" during the 2016-17 season.
- On January 30, 2018, reality TV star Dorit Kemsley performed a version of the song with pop star friend Boy George on The Real Housewives of Beverly Hills.
- In Season 5, Episode 20 of Charmed, Rose McGowan's character, Paige, sings Fever in a nightclub at the end of the episode after having lost her voice at the start of the episode and freezing up on stage.
- Little Willie John, "Fever" chart positions. Retrieved June 20, 2015
- Dahl, Bill. "Fever - Little Willie John". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "EDDIE COOLEY". rockabilly.nl. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
- "Peggy Lee - Research About The Song Fever". peggyleediscography.com. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
- "Little Willie John > Fever". AllMusic. Retrieved May 18, 2018.
- "100 Best Songs of the 1950s - #96 Little Willie John, 'Fever'". NME. Time Inc. UK. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- "Little Willie John - Awards". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Whitburn, Joel (2004). Top R&B/Hip-Hop Singles: 1942-2004. Record Research. p. 301.
- Christgau, Robert (1981). "A Basic Record Library: The Fifties and Sixties". Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies. Ticknor & Fields. ISBN 0899190251. Retrieved March 16, 2019 – via robertchristgau.com.
- "Consumer Guide Reviews: Little Willie John". Robert Christgau. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Marsh, Dave. "The 1001 Greatest Singles, by Number". Control.lth.se. Archived from the original on February 4, 2002. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- Wynn, Ron. "Fever: The Best of Little Willie John - Little Willie John". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Phares, Heather. "The Very Best of Little Willie John - Little Willie John". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Bush, John. "Things Are Swingin' - Peggy Lee". AllMusic. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Richmond, Peter (2007). Fever: The Life and Music of Miss Peggy Lee. Macmillan. p. 318. ISBN 978-1-466-81880-4. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- Santiago-Mercado, Iván. "The Peggy Lee Bio-Discography And Videography: Observations About The Song 'Fever'". Retrieved October 5, 2015.
- ""Fever" Singer Peggy Lee Is Hot Again". CBS News. May 17, 2010. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "Peggy Lee "Fever" Sheet Music". Musicnotes.com. BMG Rights Management. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "Delving into Peggy Lee's Steamy Mystique". NPR. May 6, 2006. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- Bush, John. "The Best of Miss Peggy Lee - Peggy Lee". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- Fordham, John (January 22, 2002). "Peggy Lee". The Guardian. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
- "Peggy Lee Chart History (Hot 100)". Billboard. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- "Official Singles Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "Official Singles Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "Dutchcharts.nl – Peggy Lee – Fever" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Kent, David (2005). Australian Chart Book 1940 - 1969. Australian Chart Book Pty Ltd, Turramurra, N.S.W. ISBN 0-646-44439-5.
- "GRAMMY Rewind: 1st Annual Grammy Awards". National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. January 4, 2012. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "The Grammys - Peggy Lee". Peggylee.com. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- Wiederhorn, Jon (January 22, 2002). "Singer Peggy Lee, Who Gave The World 'Fever,' Dies At 81". MTV News. MTV Networks. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Dimery, Robert; Visconti, Tony (2010). 1001 Songs You Must Hear Before You Die. United Kingdom: Quintessence Editions. ISBN 0789320894.
- "The Mix: 50 Great Jazz Vocals". NPR. February 7, 2013. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- "Peggy Lee > Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "1958 Billboard Top 100 Songs". Billboard. Archived from the original on October 13, 2014. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Pettibone, Shep. "Erotica Diaries - Written by Shep Pettibone". ShepPettibone.com. Archived from the original on August 30, 2011. Retrieved July 4, 2011.
- "Sounds and Visions". Billboard. 120 (47): 31. November 22, 2008. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Rooksby 2004, pp. 39–40
- Holden, Stephen (October 18, 1992). "RECORDINGS VIEW; Selling Sex and (Oh, Yes) a Record". The New York Times. Retrieved September 3, 2014.
- Considine, J. D. (October 18, 1992). "Madonna's 'Erotica' delivers more than just sexuality". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- Soto, Alfred (January 17, 2006). "Madonna - Erotica - On Second Thought". Stylus Magazine. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- "Madonna - Erotica". Billboard. 103 (41): 62. October 24, 1992. Retrieved September 3, 2014.
- Browne, David (October 23, 1992). "Music Review: Erotica, by Madonna". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved September 3, 2014.
- Rogers, Jude (August 16, 2018). "Every one of Madonna's 78 singles – ranked!". The Guardian. Retrieved August 26, 2018.
- "The 100 Greatest Madonna Songs: Critics' Picks". Billboard. August 15, 2018. Retrieved November 25, 2018.
- Cinquemani, Sal (August 1, 2018). "The Beat Goes On: Every Madonna Single Ranked". Slant Magazine. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
- Huk, Haunter (February 3, 2012). "The 20 Best Madonna Songs You Won't Hear at the Super Bowl". Dallas Observer. Retrieved June 5, 2019.
- "Dance Club Songs : May 15, 1993". Billboard. Business Media Inc. Retrieved September 3, 2014.
- Jones, Alan (August 19, 2008). "The immaculate guide to 50 years of Madonna". Music Week. Archived from the original on August 25, 2008. Retrieved February 21, 2013.
- "Madonna: Artist Chart History". Official Charts Company. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
- Nyman, Jake (2005). Suomi soi 4: Suuri suomalainen listakirja (in Finnish) (1st ed.). Helsinki: Tammi. ISBN 951-31-2503-3.
- "The Irish Charts – Search Results – Fever". Irish Singles Chart. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
- Ryan, Gavin (2011). Australia's Music Charts 1988-2010. Mt. Martha, VIC, Australia: Moonlight Publishing.
- "Madonna.com > News > Madonna's Fever" video is filmed by Stephane Sednaoui in Miami". Madonna.com. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- "Inlay credits". The Video Collection 93:99 (VHS, DVD, CD). Madonna. Warner Bros. 1999. 9362-49729-6.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Strike a Pose: Madonna's 20 Greatest Videos". Rolling Stone. July 7, 2016. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
- Aaron, Charles (October 1993). "Madonna, "Rain" (Maverick/Sire/Warner Bros.)". Spin. Spin Media LLC. 9 (7). ISSN 0886-3032. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
- Parish & Pitts 2003, p. 525
- "Another 'Bad Girl' Rips Up a Photograph on 'SNL'". Deseret News. January 18, 1993. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- Willman, Chris (May 15, 1993). "Pop Music Review: Madonna Bowls Over Arsenio's Show". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
- Lenig, Stuart (June 16, 2010). The Twisted Tale of Glam Rock. p. 145. ISBN 9780313379864. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- Madonna: The Rolling Stone Files : The Ultimate Compendium of Interviews, Articles, Facts and Opinions from the Files of Rolling Stone. Rolling Stone. 1997. ISBN 978-0786881543. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- Bream, Jon (October 9, 2015). "Madonna more playful than provocative in Xcel show". Star Tribune. Retrieved October 21, 2015.
- "Ultratop.be – Madonna – Fever" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Retrieved September 5, 2014.
- "Eurochart Hot 100" (PDF). Music & Media.
- "Lescharts.com – Madonna – Fever" (in French). Les classement single. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
- "Íslenski Listinn Topp 40 (30.04.1993 - 06.05.1993)" (PDF). Dagblaðið Vísir - Tónlist. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
- "Madonna: Discografia Italiana" (in Italian). Hit Parade Italia. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
- "Madonna - Fever" (in Dutch). top40.nl. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- "Madonna - Fever" (in Dutch). dutchcharts.nl. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- "Charts.nz – Madonna – Fever". Top 40 Singles. Retrieved September 5, 2014.
- "Madonna Chart History (Dance Club Songs)". Billboard. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
- "Dance Singles Sales: Week of April 24, 1993". Billboard. Retrieved June 20, 2018.
- "I singoli più venduti del 1993" (in Italian). Hit Parade Italia. December 31, 1996. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- "1993 Hot Dance Music Club Play Singles". Billboard. December 31, 1993. Archived from the original on October 8, 2012. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- "Beyonce Tunes Lead 'Temptations' Soundtrack". Billboard. August 13, 2003. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Phares, Heather. "The Fighting Temptations". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- Hay, Carla (October 11, 2003). "Beyoncé Tempts Fans with More Movie Songs". Billboard. 115 (34). p. 20. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Fuchs, Cynthia (September 18, 2003). "The Fighting Temptations (2003)". PopMatters. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Wiederhorn, Jon (April 12, 2002). "Damon Elliott Gives Beyonce 'Fever,' Writes Lame Raps". MTV News. MTV Networks. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Ed Gonzalez (September 14, 2003). "The Fighting Temptations Original Soundtrack". Slant Magazine. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- The Tonight Show with Jay Leno. Season 11. Episode 156. September 17, 2003. NBC.
- Simpson, Dave (November 4, 2003). "Beyoncé, Manchester Arena". The Guardian. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- "Live at Wembley - Beyoncé". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- "Speak My Mind". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- "Beyoncé Catches 'Heat' in Fragrance Ads". Rap-Up. December 29, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "Fever - Single by Beyoncé - Download Fever - Single on iTunes". US: iTunes Store. Apple Inc. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "Fever: Beyonce". Amazon.com. Amazon Inc. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- "Fever". Amazon UK. Amazon Inc. Archived from the original on July 18, 2012. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- Heat (Media notes). Beyoncé. Columbia Records/Coty, Inc. 2011.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Dinh, James (November 17, 2010). "Beyonce's Perfume Commercial Banned From Daytime Broadcast In U.K." MTV News. MTV Networks. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
- "Beyoncé Brings Back Sasha Fierce For Vizio Commercial". Rap-Up. November 10, 2010. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "Beyonce Discusses Launch of 'Heat' Fragrance - Beauty Industry and Products News". Women's Wear Daily. Ralph Erardy, Sr. Retrieved March 26, 2010.
- "Beyonce's Heat perfumer advertisement deemed too sexy for UK day-time TV". News.com.au. News Corp Australia. November 18, 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
- Vena, Jocelyn (November 18, 2010). "Beyonce's Banned Perfume Ad Defended By Company". MTV News. MTV Networks. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- Vena, Jocelyn (November 22, 2010). "Beyonce Laughs Off Heat Commercial Controversy". MTV News. MTV Networks. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "James Brown". Robert Christgau. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
- Latham, Aaron. "Michael Bublé". AllMusic. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
- Ginell, Richard S. (July 15, 2004). "A Tribute to Miss Peggy Lee". Variety. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
- Pruett, Jon. "The Lady's Not for Sale". AllMusic. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
- Raggett, Ned. "Songs the Lord Taught Us". AllMusic. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
- Sullivan, Paul (June 27, 2016). "World Series Shuffle: Unlike Bears, '69 Cubs Couldn't Back Up Boastful Song", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 28, 2016. "The tune was borrowed from "Fever," a song originally performed by Little Willie John in 1956 and made popular a couple of years later in a slow-tempo rendition by Peggy Lee.... It was as cheesy as you'd expect, with lyrics like "lawdy how they love to win," and included lame sound effects of a bat hitting a ball and fan applause.... Though Hundley said he couldn't sing a lick, the song was well done, mostly because Nate Oliver and Willie Smith, both good singers, carried the others."
- Estaba en llamas Cuando me Acosté (Compact Disc liner notes). Charly García. Columbia. 1995. 2-478667.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Pity Poor Alfie/Fever". AllMusic. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
- "Dance/Urban". RPM Weekly. Vol. 28 no. 25. March 18, 1978. p. 16. Archived from the original on June 28, 2016. Retrieved May 29, 2017 – via Library and Archives Canada.
- Rabid, Jack. "The Kingsmen in Person". AllMusic. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "Super 20". AllMusic. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
- "Independent Lens". PBS. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- Bougerol, Elizabeth (September 9, 2011). "My Playlist: DJ Turmix Schools Us in Boogaloo". NBCNewYork.com. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- "The McCoys". Billboard. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "Ultratop.be - The McCoys - Fever". Ultratop.be. Hung Medien. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Thompson, Dave. "Your Mamma Won't Like Me". AllMusic. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
- "Here They Come!". AllMusic. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
- "Lulu Roman Recruits Dolly Parton, Georgetta Jones on New Album". Billboard. January 14, 2013. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- Sendra, Tim. "At Abbey Road 1961–1967". AllMusic. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "Helen Shapiro". UK Singles Chart. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Sen, Radhika (October 12, 2010). "Yesterday once more". The Telegraph. ABP Group. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- Scott, John W.; Dolgushkin, Mike; Nixon, Stu (1999). DeadBase XI: The Complete Guide to Grateful Dead Song Lists. Cornish, New Hampshire: DeadBase. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-877657-22-1.
- Dahl, Bill. "Live at the Golden Bear". AllMusic. Retrieved January 24, 2018.
- Adams, Erik (November 15, 2011). "The Muppet Show: "Episode 104: Ruth Buzzi"/"Episode 105: Rita Moreno"". The A.V. Club. The Onion, Inc. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- Who's the Boss?. Season 7. Episode 3. October 2, 1990. American Broadcasting Company.
- Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. Season 6. Episode 20. April 22, 1998.
- Martyn, Warren; Adrian, Wood. "A new car brings out Marge's aggressive side". BBC. Retrieved September 7, 2008.
- ""Lorelai? Lorelai?" Notes". tv.com. Retrieved June 5, 2015.
- "20 - Lorelai, Lorelai". heardontv.com. Retrieved June 5, 2015.
- Zielinski, Peter James. "Photo Coverage: Million Dollar Quartet Opens on Broadway". Posted: 12:04 PM; Monday, April 12, 2010.
- MDQ Merchandising LLC (2010). “Song List” and “Performing Credits”. In Million Dollar Quartet (p. 5) [CD booklet]. New York City: Avatar Studios; and Chicago: Chicago Recording Company.
- Hoosier Hollywood: MG and the Gas City Three | Profiles | NUVO News | Indianapolis, IN. Nuvo.net. Retrieved 2014-05-12.
- Harris, Will (June 21, 2013). "Magic City: "Angels Of Death"". The A.V. Club. The Onion. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- Turan, Kenneth (September 12, 2013). "Review: 'Red Obsession' takes on China and the Bordeaux mania". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- "Biography". April 6, 2017. Archived from the original on May 29, 2017. Retrieved May 10, 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Denninger, Lindsay (February 2018). "Dorit & Boy George's Duet On The Real Housewives Of Beverly Hills Was the Highlight of PK's Birthday". Bustle. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
- "Charmed" Sense and Sense Ability (TV Episode 2003) - IMDb, retrieved July 4, 2019