Elijah Muhammad (born Elijah Robert Poole; October 7, 1897 – February 25, 1975) was an American religious leader, black separatist, and self-proclaimed Messenger of Allah who led the Nation of Islam (NOI) from 1934 until his death in 1975. Muhammad was also the teacher and mentor of Malcolm X, Louis Farrakhan, Muhammad Ali, and his son, Warith Deen Mohammed.
|Leader of the Nation of Islam|
|Preceded by||Wallace Fard Muhammad|
|Succeeded by||Warith Deen Mohammed|
Elijah Robert Poole
October 7, 1897
Sandersville, Georgia, U.S.
|Died||February 25, 1975 (aged 77)|
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
(m. 1917; died 1972)
|Children||at least 23 (8 with Evans, 15 with others), including Jabir, Warith, and Akbar|
|Occupation||Leader of the Nation of Islam|
In the 1930s, Muhammad formally established the Nation of Islam, a religious movement that originated under the leadership and teachings of Wallace Fard Muhammad and that promoted black power, pride, economic empowerment, and racial separation. Elijah Muhammad taught that Master Fard Muhammad is the 'Son of Man' of the Bible, and after Fard's disappearance in 1934, Muhammad assumed control over Fard's former ministry, formally changing its name to the "Nation of Islam".
Under Muhammad's leadership the group grew from a small, local black congregation into an influential nationwide movement. He was unique in his embrace of both black nationalism and pan-Africanism, with traditional Islamic themes. He promoted black self-sufficiency and self-reliance over integration, and he encouraged African Americans to return to their African homeland. Muhammad also rejected the civil rights movement for its emphasis on integration, instead promoting a separate black community.
His views on race and his call for blacks having an independent nation for themselves, made him a controversial figure, both within and outside the Nation of Islam. He has been variously described as a black nationalist, a black supremacist, and a religious leader who fought for the rights of African Americans.
Muhammad died on February 25, 1975, after a period of declining health. He was succeeded as head of the NOI by his son, Wallace Muhammad, who renamed the organization as the World Community of al-Islam in the West. Wallace Muhammad later changed his name as part of his own transition to Sunni Islam and is now known as Imam Warith Deen Mohammed.
Early years and life before Nation of Islam edit
Elijah Muhammad was born Elijah Robert Poole in Sandersville, Georgia, the seventh of thirteen children of William Poole Sr. (1868–1942), a Baptist lay preacher and sharecropper, and Mariah Hall (1873–1958), a homemaker and sharecropper.
Elijah's education ended at the fourth grade, after which he went to work in sawmills and brickyards. To support the family, he worked with his parents as a sharecropper. When he was sixteen years old, he left home and began working in factories and at other businesses.
Elijah married Clara Evans (1899–1972) on March 7, 1917. In 1923, the Poole family was among hundreds of thousands of black families forming the First Great Migration leaving the oppressive and economically troubled South in search of safety and employment. Elijah later recounted that before the age of 20, he had witnessed the lynchings of three black men by white people. He said, "I seen enough of the white man's brutality to last me 26,000 years".
Moving his own family, parents and siblings, Elijah and the Pooles settled in the industrial north of Hamtramck, Michigan. Through the 1920s and 1930s, he struggled to find and keep work as the economy suffered during the post World War I and Great Depression eras. During their years in Detroit, Elijah and Clara had eight children, six boys and two girls.
Conversion and rise to leadership edit
While he was in Detroit, Poole began taking part in various black nationalist movements within the city. In August 1931, at the urging of his wife, Elijah Poole attended a speech on Islam and black empowerment by Wallace Fard Muhammad (Wallace D. Fard). Afterward, Poole said he approached Fard and asked if he was the "Mahdi" (redeemer), Fard responded that he was, but that his time had not yet come. Fard taught that black people, as original Asiatics, had a rich cultural history which was stolen from them in their enslavement. Fard stated that African Americans could regain their freedoms through self-independence and cultivation of their own culture and civilization.[better source needed]
Poole, having strong consciousness of both race and class issues as a result of his struggles in the South, quickly fell in step with Fard's ideology. Poole soon became an ardent follower of Fard and joined his movement, as did his wife and several brothers. Soon afterward, Poole was given a Muslim surname, first "Karriem", and later, at Fard's behest, "Muhammad". He assumed leadership of the Nation's Temple No. 2 in Chicago. His younger brother Kalot Muhammad became the leader of the movement's self-defense arm, the Fruit of Islam.
Fard turned over leadership of the growing Detroit group to Elijah Muhammad, and the Allah Temple of Islam changed its name to the Nation of Islam. Elijah Muhammad and Wallace Fard continued to communicate until 1934, when Wallace Fard disappeared. Elijah Muhammad succeeded him in Detroit and was named "Minister of Islam". After the disappearance, Elijah Muhammad told followers that Allah had come as Wallace Fard, in the flesh, to share his teachings that are a salvation for his followers.
In 1934, the Nation of Islam published its first newspaper, Final Call to Islam, to educate and build membership. Children of its members attended classes at the newly created Muhammad University of Islam, but this soon led to challenges by boards of education in Detroit and Chicago, which considered the children truants from the public school system. The controversy led to the jailing of several University of Islam board members and Elijah Muhammad in 1934 and to violent confrontations with police. Elijah was put on probation, but the university remained open.
Leadership of the Nation of Islam edit
Elijah Muhammad took control of Temple No. 1, but only after battles with other potential leaders, including his brother. In 1935, as these battles became increasingly fierce, Elijah left Detroit and settled his family in Chicago. Still facing death threats, Elijah left his family there and traveled to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where he founded Temple No. 3, and eventually to Washington, D.C., where he founded Temple No. 4. He spent much of his time reading 104 books suggested by Wallace Fard at the Library of Congress.
On May 8, 1942, Elijah Muhammad was arrested for failure to register for the draft during World War II. After he was released on bail, Muhammad fled Washington, D.C., on the advice of his attorney, who feared a lynching, and returned to Chicago after a seven-year absence. Muhammad was arrested there, charged with eight counts of sedition for instructing his followers to not register for the draft or serve in the armed forces. Found guilty, Elijah Muhammad served four years, from 1942 to 1946, at the Federal Correctional Institution in Milan, Michigan. During that time, his wife, Clara, and trusted aides ran the organization; Muhammad transmitted his messages and directives to followers in letters.
Following his return to Chicago, Elijah Muhammad was firmly in charge of the Nation of Islam. While Muhammad was in prison, the growth of the Nation of Islam had stagnated, with fewer than 400 members remaining by the time of his release in 1946. However, through the conversion of his fellow inmates as well as renewed efforts outside prison, he was able to redouble his efforts and continue growing the Nation.
Muhammad preached his own version of Islam to his followers in the Nation. According to him, blacks were known as the "original" human beings, with "evil" whites being an offshoot race that would go on to oppress black people for 6,000 years. The origins of the white race would come to be known as Yacub's History within Elijah Muhammad's teachings. In The Autobiography of Malcolm X, Malcolm X talks about when he first encounters this doctrine, though he would later come to regret that he ever believed in it.
He preached that the Nation of Islam's goal was to return the stolen hegemony of the inferior whites back to blacks across America. Much of Elijah Muhammad's teachings appealed to young, economically disadvantaged, African-American males from Christian backgrounds. Traditionally, black males would not go to church because the church did not address their needs. Elijah Muhammad's program for economic development played a large part in the growth in the Nation of Islam. He purchased land and businesses to provide housing and employment for young black males.
By the 1970s, the Nation of Islam owned bakeries, barber shops, coffee shops, grocery stores, laundromats, night-clubs, a printing plant, retail stores, numerous real estate holdings, and a fleet of tractor trailers, plus farmland in Michigan, Alabama, and Georgia. In 1972 the Nation of Islam took controlling interest in a bank, the Guaranty Bank and Trust Co. Nation of Islam-owned schools expanded until, by 1974, the group had established schools in 47 cities throughout the United States. In 1972, Muhammad told followers that the Nation of Islam had a net worth of $75 million.
Dietary advice edit
Muhammad authored a two volume How to Eat to Live which promoted pseudoscientific views about diet and nutrition. Muhammad argued that only one meal should be eaten a day at the most and if black people eat only one meal every three days they will never get sick and may possibly live for 1000 years. He argued that eating pork will bring about depraved behaviour and culture of White westerners. According to Muhammad beef, lamb and camel were permissible but should be avoided if possible. He stated that "Allah forbids us to eat the flesh of swine or of fish weighing 50 pounds or more".
In regard to fowl, only baby pigeons were seen as clean and if eaten should be taken straight from the nest. According to Muhammad, peas and sweet potatoes are forbidden by Allah and many foods white in colour are automatically bad for health. Muhammad argued that white people were attempting to destroy black people by weakening their health with inappropriate processed foods such as biscuits and white bread. Muhammad considered most fruits and vegetables safe to eat "except collard greens and turnip salad". In regard to beans, only navy beans could be eaten. Lima beans were considered a poison which Muhammad believed made black men's stomachs explode. Rice and spinach were allowed in moderation. There were no restrictions on garlic, onions or whole wheat bread.
Muhammad stated that he obtained his dietary advice from "God in Person Master Fard Muhammad".
Written works edit
On January 30, 1975, Muhammad entered Mercy Hospital in Chicago, Illinois, suffering from a combination of heart disease, diabetes, bronchitis, and asthma. He died there of congestive heart failure nearly one month later at age 77 on February 25, the day before Saviours' Day. He was survived by many children, including his two daughters and six sons by his wife, most notably future leader Warith Deen Muhammad.
He was buried alongside Clara at Mount Glenwood Memory Gardens South in Glenwood, Illinois.
During his time as leader of the Nation of Islam, Muhammad had developed the Nation of Islam from a small movement in Detroit to an empire consisting of banks, schools, restaurants, and stores across 46 cities in America. The Nation also owned over 15,000 acres of farmland, their own truck- and air- transport systems, as well as a publishing company that printed the country's largest black newspaper. As a leader, Muhammad served as a mentor to many notable members, including Malcolm X, Muhammad Ali, Louis Farrakhan and his son Warith Deen Mohammed. The Nation of Islam is estimated to have between 20,000 and 50,000 members, and 130 mosques offering numerous social programs.
Upon his death, his son Warith Deen Mohammed succeeded him. Warith disbanded the Nation of Islam in 1976 and founded an orthodox mainstream Islamic organization, that came to be known as the American Society of Muslims. The organization would dissolve, change names and reorganize many times.
In 1977, Louis Farrakhan resigned from Warith Deen's reformed organization and reinstituted the original Nation of Islam upon the foundation established by Wallace Fard Muhammad and Elijah Muhammad. Farrakhan regained many of the Nation of Islam's original properties including the National Headquarters Mosque #2 (Mosque Maryam) and Muhammad University of Islam in Chicago.
Rift with Ernest 2X McGee edit
Ernest 2X McGee was the first national secretary of the NOI and had been ousted in the late 1950s. McGee went on to form a Sunni Muslim sect and changed his name to Hamaas Abdul Khaalis. Khaalis attracted Lew Alcindor, whom Khaalis renamed Kareem Abdul-Jabbar. Jabbar donated a house for use as the Hanafi Madh-Hab Center. Khaalis sent letters that were critical of Muhammad and Fard to Muhammad, his ministers, and the media.
The letters stated blacks had been better off "from a psychological point of view" before Fard came along because it weaned them from Christianity to a fabricated form of Islam. Both, in his opinion, were bad. His letters also revealed what he knew of Fard, alleging he was John Walker of Gary who had come to America at 27 from Greece, had served prison time for stealing, and raping a 17-year-old girl, and had died in Chicago, Illinois, at 78.
Rift with Malcolm X edit
Rumors were circulating among Nation of Islam members that Elijah was conducting extramarital affairs with young Nation secretaries—which would constitute a serious violation of Nation teachings. After first discounting the rumors, Malcolm X came to believe them after he spoke with Elijah's son Wallace and with the women making the accusations. Malcolm X publicly accused Elijah of "having 8 children with six different teenage girls" who "were his private secretaries." Elijah confirmed the rumors in 1963, attempting to justify his behavior by referring to precedents set by biblical prophets.
Malcolm X's public response to the assassination of President Kennedy edit
On December 1, 1963, when asked for a comment about the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, Malcolm X said that it was a case of "chickens coming home to roost". He added that "chickens coming home to roost never did make me sad; they've always made me glad." The New York Times wrote, "in further criticism of Mr. Kennedy, the Muslim leader cited the murders of Patrice Lumumba, Congo leader, of Medgar Evers, civil rights leader, and of the Negro girls bombed earlier this year in a Birmingham, Alabama, church. These, he said, were instances of other 'chickens coming home to roost'." The remarks prompted a widespread public outcry. The Nation of Islam, which had sent a message of condolence to the Kennedy family and ordered its ministers not to comment on the assassination, publicly censured their former shining star. Malcolm X retained his post and rank as minister, but was prohibited from public speaking for 90 days.
Extramarital affairs with underage girls edit
Rumors were circulating that Elijah was conducting extramarital affairs with young Nation secretaries—which would constitute a serious violation of Nation teachings. After first discounting the rumors, Malcolm X came to believe them after he spoke with Muhammad's son Wallace and with the girls making the accusations. Muhammad confirmed the rumors in 1963, attempting to justify his behavior by referring to precedents set by Biblical prophets. Over a series of national TV interviews between 1964 and 1965, Malcolm X provided testimony of his investigation, corroboration, and confirmation by Elijah Muhammed himself of multiple counts of child rape.
During this investigation, Malcolm X learned that seven of the eight girls had become pregnant by Elijah Muhammed. Malcolm X also spoke of an attempt made to assassinate him, by means of an explosive device discovered in his car, and of death threats he was receiving, which he believed were in response to his exposure of Elijah Muhammad.
Final schism and murder of Malcolm X edit
The extramarital affairs, the suspension, and other factors caused a rift between the two men, with Malcolm X leaving the Nation of Islam in March 1964 to form his own religious organization, Muslim Mosque Inc. After dealing with death threats and attempts on his life for a year, Malcolm X was assassinated on February 21, 1965. Many people suspected that the Nation of Islam was responsible for the killing of Malcolm X. Five days after Malcolm X was murdered, in a public speech at the Nation of Islam's annual Saviours' Day on February 26, Elijah justified the assassination by quoting that "Malcolm got just what he preached", but at the same time denied any involvement with the murder by asserting in the same speech: "We didn't want to kill Malcolm and didn't try to kill him. We know such ignorant, foolish teaching would bring him to his own end."
Cooperation with white supremacists edit
Elijah's pro-separation views were compatible with those of some white supremacist organizations in the 1960s. He met with leaders of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) in 1961 to work toward the purchase of farmland in the Deep South. For more than ten years Elijah received major financial support from white supremacist Texas oil baron H. L. Hunt due to Elijah's belief in racial separation from whites. The money helped Elijah to acquire opulent homes for himself and his family and establish overseas bank accounts.
He eventually established Temple Farms, now Muhammad Farms, on a 5,000-acre (20 km2) tract in Terrell County, Georgia. George Lincoln Rockwell, founder of the American Nazi Party, once called Elijah "the Hitler of the black man." At the 1962 Saviours' Day celebration in Chicago, Rockwell addressed Nation of Islam members. Many in the audience booed and heckled him and his men, for which Elijah rebuked them in the April 1962 issue of Muhammad Speaks.
Personal life edit
Elijah married Clara Muhammad in Georgia in 1917, and he had eight children with her. He also fathered at least nine children from extra-marital relationships. In total, it is estimated that he had 23 children, of whom 21 are documented.
After Elijah's death, nineteen of his children filed lawsuits against the Nation of Islam's successor, the World Community of Islam, seeking status as heirs. Ultimately the court ruled against them.
Children via his wife, Clara Muhammad: Two daughters and six sons including notable:
- Jabir Herbert Muhammad (1929–2008)
- Wallace Delaney Muhammad, later known as Warith Deen Mohammed (1933–2008)
- Akbar Muhammad (1939–2016)
Children via mistresses:
Portrayals on screen edit
Elijah Muhammad was portrayed by Al Freeman Jr. in Spike Lee's 1992 motion picture Malcolm X. Albert Hall, who played the composite character "Baines" in Malcolm X, later played Muhammad in Michael Mann's 2001 film, Ali. He was also portrayed by Clifton Davis in the series Godfather of Harlem.
See also edit
- Corbman, Marjorie (June 2020). Fletcher, Jeannine H. (ed.). "The Creation of the Devil and the End of the White Man's Rule: The Theological Influence of the Nation of Islam on Early Black Theology". Religions. Basel: MDPI. 11 (6: Racism and Religious Diversity in the United States): 305. doi:10.3390/rel11060305. eISSN 2077-1444.
- Curtis IV, Edward E. (August 2016). Wessinger, Catherine (ed.). "Science and Technology in Elijah Muhammad's Nation of Islam: Astrophysical Disaster, Genetic Engineering, UFOs, White Apocalypse, and Black Resurrection". Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions. Berkeley: University of California Press. 20 (1): 5–31. doi:10.1525/novo.2016.20.1.5. hdl:1805/14819. ISSN 1541-8480. S2CID 151927666.
- Berg, Herbert (2011). "Elijah Muhammad's Redeployment of Muḥammad: Racialist and Prophetic Interpretations of the Qurʾān". In Boekhoff-van der Voort, Nicolet; Versteegh, Kees; Wagemakers, Joas (eds.). The Transmission and Dynamics of the Textual Sources of Islam: Essays in Honour of Harald Motzki. Islamic History and Civilization. Vol. 89. Leiden: Brill Publishers. pp. 329–353. doi:10.1163/9789004206786_017. ISBN 978-90-04-20678-6. ISSN 0929-2403.
- "Elijah Muhammad". May 6, 2021.
- Mamiya, Lawrence H. (February 2000). "Muhammad, Elijah". American National Biography Online.
- Claude Andrew Clegg III, An Original Man: The Life and Times of Elijah Muhammad, St. Martin's Griffin, 1998.
- Richard Brent Turner, "From Elijah Poole to Elijah Muhammad", American Visions, October–November 1997.
- Muhammad, Tynetta (March 28, 1996). "Nation of Islam in America: A Nation of Beauty & Peace". Nation of Islam. Retrieved March 13, 2015.
- The Messenger: The Rise and Fall of Elijah Muhammad (2001). This source claims the first encounter between Poole and Fard took place at the Poole's dinner table.
- The Messenger (2001) suggests the name was changed to convince the authorities that Allah's Temple of Islam had disbanded.
- An Original Man: One NOI tenet states: "There is no God but Allah, Master W. D. Fard, Elijah, his prophet"
- Charles Eric Lincoln, The Black Muslims in America, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1994.
- Chronology of the Nation of Islam, Toure Muhammad.
- Richard Brent Turner, Islam in the African-American Experience, University of Indiana Press 1997
- "A Historical Look at the Honorable Elijah Muhammad", Nation of Islam web site.
- E. U. Essien-Udom, Black Nationalism, University of Chicago Press, 1962.
- Bowman, Jeffrey. "Elijah Muhammad". Elijah Muhammad (2006): 1. MasterFILE Premier. Web. December 16, 2013.
- "Autobiography of Malcolm X pg. 110–112" (PDF).
- In the Name of Elijah Muhammad.
- Karl Evanzz, The Messenger: The Rise and Fall of Elijah Muhammad Random House, 2001.
- Tucker, S. D. (2018). Quacks!: Dodgy Doctors and Foolish Fads Throughout History. Amberley Publishing. pp. 94-100. ISBN 978-1-4456-7181-9
- Berg, Herbert. (2009). Elijah Muhammad and Islam. New York University Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-0814791233
- Tipton-Martin, Toni. (2022). The Jemima Code: Two Centuries of African American Cookbooks. University of Texas Press. pp. 122-123. ISBN 978-1477326718
- Fraser, C. Gerald. "Elijah Muhammad Dead; Black Muslim Leader, 77". The New York Times. February 26, 1975.
- MacFarquhar, Neil (February 26, 2007). "Nation of Islam at a Crossroad as Leader Exits". The New York Times. Retrieved February 8, 2013.
- "Nation of Islam". Southern Poverty Law Center.
- Evanzz, Karl (2001). The Messenger: The Rise and Fall of Elijah Muhammad was a greatleader. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. pp. 380–83. ISBN 978-0679774068.
- Smothers, David (July 21, 1974). "Black Muslims The Faces Belie the Aura of Menace". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 12, 2017.
- "The Lost Tapes: Malcolm X. Malcolm X's Explosive Comments About Elijah Muhammed". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved February 26, 2023.
- Perry, Bruce (1991). Malcolm: The Life of a Man Who Changed Black America. Barrytown, N.Y.: Station Hill. pp. 230–34. ISBN 978-0-88268-103-0.
- "Malcolm X Scores U.S. and Kennedy". The New York Times. December 2, 1963. p. 21. Retrieved October 2, 2014.
- Natambu, Kofi (2002). The Life and Work of Malcolm X. Indianapolis: Alpha Books. pp. 288–90. ISBN 978-0-02-864218-5.
- Perry, p. 242.
- Perry 1991, pp. 230–234.
- "Malcolm X Exposes Elijah Muhammad". YouTube. Retrieved August 24, 2022.
- Perry, pp. 251–52.
- Carson, Clayborne (1991). Malcolm X: The FBI File. New York: Carroll & Graf. p. 473. ISBN 978-0-88184-758-1.
- Evanzz, Karl (1992). The Judas Factor: The Plot to Kill Malcolm X. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press. pp. 248, 264. ISBN 978-1-56025-049-4.
- Karim, Benjamin (1992). Remembering Malcolm. with Peter Skutches and David Gallen. New York: Carroll & Graf. pp. 159–60. ISBN 978-0-88184-881-6.
- Kondo, Zak A. (1993). Conspiracys: Unravelling the Assassination of Malcolm X. Washington, D.C.: Nubia Press. p. 170. OCLC 28837295.
- Evanzz, p. 301. "Malcolm X got just what he preached", Elijah Muhammad said self-assuredly.
- Clegg III, Claude Andrew (1997). An Original Man: The Life and Times of Elijah Muhammad. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. p. 232. ISBN 978-0-312-18153-6.
'We didn't want to kill Malcolm and didn't try to kill him,' he explained. 'We know such ignorant, foolish teachings would bring him to his own end.'
- Malcolm X, February 1965, The Final Speeches, Pathfinder Press, 1992, pp. 146–147; Herbert Berg, Elijah Muhammad and Islam, NYU Press, 2009, p. 41.
- Evanzz, Karl, The Judas Factor, The Plot to Kill Malcolm X, pp. 205–206, Thunder's Mouth Press, NY, 1992; Marable, Manning, Along the Color Line Archived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, reprinted in the Columbus Free Press, January 17, 1997.
- Washington Post, May 6, 1967, p. E-15, July 2, 1967, January 30, 1975, p. B7; Hakim Jamal, From the Dead Level, pp. 247–48; Louis Lomax To Kill a Black Man, pp. 108–09; Karl Evanzz, The Judas Factor, pp. 284–86, The Messenger, p. 303.
- Rolinson, Mary, Grassroots Garveyism, p. 193, UNC Press Books, 2007.
- "The Messenger Passes", Time, March 10, 1975.
- The Messenger, The Rise and Fall of Elijah Muhammad, pp. 241–242, Vintage Books, NY 2001. "George Lincoln Rockwell Meets Elijah Muhammad". anthonyflood.com.
- Malcolm X, February 1965, The Final Speeches, pp. 144–145, 148,155. "Defending the Indefensible, in Feathers and All". March 19, 2017.
- The Autobiography of Malcolm X, pp. 301–03; The Messenger, pp. 452–54.
- "Gladys Towles Root and families". 1964.
- "19 Children of Muslim Leader Battle a Bank for $5.7 Million". The New York Times. November 3, 1987.
- "Court Gives Leader's Money to Black Muslims", The New York Times. January 2, 1988.
- Broken Legacy, Chicago, December 1991.
- Asante, Molefi Kete (2002), 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-963-8.
- bluetunehead (December 25, 2001). "Ali (2001)". IMDb.
Further reading edit
|Booknotes interview with Claude Andrew Clegg III on An Original Man: The Life and Times of Elijah Muhammad, March 30, 1997, C-SPAN|
- Berg, Herbert. Elijah Muhammad and Islam (NYU Press, 2009)
- Clegg, Claude Andrew. An Original Man: The Life and Times of Elijah Muhammad (Macmillan, 1998)
- Walker, Dennis. Islam and the Search for African American Nationhood: Elijah Muhammad, Louis Farrakhan, and the Nation of Islam (registration required) (Clarity Press, 1995)