City of Adelaide
The City of Adelaide is a local government area in the metropolitan area of Adelaide, South Australia. It covers the original Adelaide city centre, (also known as the city, the CBD and [inaccurately] the square mile), North Adelaide, and the Adelaide Park Lands which surround North Adelaide and the city centre.
|City of Adelaide|
|Population||22,063 (2016 census)|
|• Density||1,417.0/km2 (3,670.1/sq mi)|
|Area||15.57 km2 (6.0 sq mi)|
|Council seat||Adelaide city centre|
|State electorate(s)||Electoral district of Adelaide|
|Federal Division(s)||Division of Adelaide|
|Website||City of Adelaide|
Established in 1840, the organisation (known until c.2010 as the Adelaide City Council (ACC)) was the first municipal authority in Australia. At its time of establishment, Adelaide's (and Australia's) first mayor, James Hurtle Fisher, was elected. From 1919 onwards, the municipality has had a Lord Mayor, the current being Sandy Verschoor who replaced Martin Haese in 2018.
Initially the new province was managed by colonisation commissioners. Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836. The first municipality was established in 1840 as The City of Adelaide Municipal Corporation. However, due to a combination of constitutional difficulties arising from the mayor's resignation, hostility of the incoming Governor Grey and falling revenues due to the onset of the colony's first economic crisis, the corporation became moribund in 1843. From 1843 to 1849, control and management reverted to the colonial government, and from 1849 to 1852 the municipality was managed by a Commission with five members. With the positive economic effects of the Victorian gold-rush, a formal municipality was re-established in 1852, and "has operated continuously ever since". However, The city's relationship with the state and federal government has been described as being 'a continually abrasive relationship'.
The Council started in 1840 with nineteen members, who chose four of their number to be Aldermen, and then one of these (James Hurtle Fisher) to be Mayor. In 1852 the municipality was divided into four wards. Three Councillors and one Alderman were chosen, who in turn selected the Mayor. In 1861 the Mayor was chosen by all the electors and the position of Alderman was temporarily abolished. In 1873 the municipality was divided into six Wards, each represented by two Councillors. In 1880 the office of Alderman was recreated; they were chosen by electors of all Wards. The office of Mayor was raised to the stature of Lord Mayor by Royal Letters Patent in 1919. The Lord Mayor received the right to be styled ‘The Right Honourable’ in 1927.
In 2015, the Council became the first government of any kind in Australia to offer a financial incentive for installing battery systems.
At the end of the 20th century, the city had little more than thirty per cent of the population it had in 1915 (when the population reached more than 43,000), and about 5,000 less than the 1855 population of 18,259. In proposing reforms and his advocacy for town planning legislation, Charles Reade illustrated the Adelaide slums associated with the City's high population levels with lantern-slides accompanying his lecture "Garden cities v. Adelaide slums and suburbs" in the Adelaide Town Hall on 8 Oct 1914. Reade was attacked by the Adelaide City Council who fought against the Town Planning and Housing Bill reforms and the press pointed out the wickedness of families being forced to 'herd together more and more in overcrowded conditions of living' and the 'sheer nonsense on the part of the City Council to pretend' that there were no slums in the city:
The City Council does not want to learn. It seems to want the slum owners to be left untouched so that the landlords may reap their harvest of gold while the poor of this city reap their harvest of suffering, disease, and other ills associated with bad housing.
In seeking a return to higher density population levels, Adelaide City Council launched its 'New Directions' with its three themes of Capacity, Vivacity and Audacity on 3 July 2001. The "Capacity" theme proposed doubling the City's population by 2010 and increasing the number of City visitors and workers.
According to the Annual Reports, the population has increased rapidly, due to the targets stated in the strategic plans developed at about that time.
- The population figures have been extracted from Adelaide City Council Annual reports. The data is summarised on pages 149-150 of A Thematic History. Additional data not in that summary can be found in the reports on the council's "Annual Reports" page.
- 1840 The initial Annual Report noted a population of 8,480, with 1,615 buildings in the city.
- 1844 The second available figure (6,107) is also the minimum recorded in council reports.
- 1880s There are no figures available for the period between 1881 and 1912. South Australia suffered a severe depression in the 1880s when the State population, (and probably the city's population too), declined.
- 1915 The peak population was 43,133.
- 1921 The State population passes 500,000. The city population was 39,458.
- 1963 The State population passes 1,000,000. The city population was 23,000.
- 1993 There is only one figure available between 1976 and 1999 - 11,405 in 1993. It was in the late 1990s that the council developed and started implementing its plans to increase the city's population, and not until 2004 when it started regularly updating the population estimates based on figures supplied by the Bureau of Census and Statistics.
- 2001 In 2001, the council set targets for population numbers for 2006 and 2010. These targets were raised considerably in 2003. In 2009, targets were set for 2012.
|Year||2016-17||2015-16||2014-15||2013-14||2012-13||2011-12||2010-11||2009-10||2008-09||2007-08||2006-07||2005-06||2004-05||2003-04||2002-03||2001-02||2000-01||2006 goal||2010 goal||2012 goal|
* Visitors to the city from the Adelaide Metropolitan area, for all purposes
** Square kilometres (millions of square metres) of office space. i.e. 1.503 km2 = 1,503,000 sq. metres.
2016-17 2015-16 2014-15 2013-14 2012-13 2010-11 2009-10 2008-09 2007-08 2006-07 2005-06 2004-05 2003-04 2002-03 2001-02 2000-01 1999-00 1998-99 1997-98
Adelaide Park LandsEdit
The city's 2010-11 Annual Report noted that the total area of the City of Adelaide is 15.6 km2, of which 7.6 km2 is Park Lands. Other sources put the Park Lands area closer to 7.0 km2. The original area was 2,300 acres (9.3 km2), a number the Council still regularly quotes.
Services and amenitiesEdit
Apart from providing the usual services like rubbish collection and controlling local development, the City of Adelaide owns and operates a number of city services and amenities, including:
- A network of 9 car parking stations (Central Market, Grote, Gawler, Pirie Flinders, Light Square, Rundle, Topham, Wyatt and Frome) branded as UPark. 
- Adelaide Central Market, a popular tourist attraction and working market selling cheap fruit and vegetables and other products.
- Adelaide Aquatic Centre, offering several indoor heated swimming pools, diving facilities, and a health club. 
- A network of local library and community centres from which local residents can borrow books, music, videos and computer programs, and gain access to computers and the internet.
- Free bus services, 98C and 98A,(operated as The Connector until 2014), which runs through the CBD and North Adelaide, with stops at every major tourist attraction and council library. A new Connector bus, with more seating capacity, entered service in 2007, replacing one of the smaller buses that used to ply the route. The bus is named Tindo (after the Kaurna word for sun) and is hailed as the world's first solar powered bus. The 98C is a clockwise loop while the 98A is anti-clockwise and the service has now been modified to better suit everyone's needs.
The City of Adelaide has been involved in the Sister Cities program since 1972 and has international partnership arrangements with: 
- Christchurch, New Zealand since 1972 - Sister city
- George Town, Penang, Malaysia since 1973 - Sister city
- Himeji, Hyogo, Japan since 1982 - Sister city
- Austin, Texas, USA since 1983 - Sister city
- Dalian, Liaoning, China since 2001 - Friendship city
- Chengdu, Sichuan, China since 2001 - Friendship city
- Qingdao, Shandong, China since 2013 - Sister city
The armorial flag of Adelaide, was approved on 2 August 1982.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Adelaide (C)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
- home page, City of Adelaide website
- History Archived 28 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine, City of Adelaide
- Lord Mayors & Mayors Archived 2 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine, City of Adelaide
- Books mentioned on the City of Adelaide history webpages: Those Turbulent Years. A History of the City of Adelaide 1929–1979, Pubs, pews and powerbrokers, The City of Adelaide - A Thematic History Archived 19 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- A Thematic History, pp81-82.
- Morton, After Light p. 10
- The city's relationship with the state and federal government has been described as being 'a continually abrasive relationship'. Until 1877 the relationship with the colonial government was described as 'a grudging tolerance, breaking out occasionally into active resentment whenever the council felt its rights were being infringed'. Moreover, matters such as alienation of the Park Lands by the state government, and threats to do so by the federal government, together with the fact that the federal and state government were exempt from rates for the many city buildings they owned, did nothing to enhance the relationship between them and the city corporation.
- Sophie Vorrath (23 June 2015). "Adelaide City Council offers energy storage incentive, Australia's first". Renew Economy. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- Where are the Slums? Mr. Reade on Garden Cities. The Journal, 9 October 1914, p 1.
- Leonie Sandercock. 'Adelaide: Property, Privilege and Power' in Property, Politics, and Urban Planning: A History of Australian City Planning 1890-1990. p 81.
- City Council, Slums, and Town Planning.Daily Herald, 11 September 1916, p 4B.
- City Council, Slums, and Town Planning.Daily Herald, 11 September 1916, p 4C.
- Annual Report 2001/2002, Adelaide City Council, p 2.
- Annual Reports, City of Adelaide
- A Thematic History, pp149-150.
- Annual Report 2010-11, City of Adelaide, p. 1.
- Fiction and Facts about the Adelaide Park Lands, Adelaide Parklands Preservation Association.
- "The Park Lands". The Herald. 6 September 1902. p. 7 – via Trove.
- Our Parks, adelaideparklands.com.au
- "UPark". City of Adelaide. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
- "Adelaide Aquatic Centre". City of Adelaide. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
- "All-Electric, Solar-Powered, Free Bus!!!". Ecogeek.org. 27 December 2007. Archived from the original on 8 September 2009. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
- "New free City connector bus service". Adelaide City Council. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- Sister Cities - Adelaide, South Australia, c.2014, Adelaide City Council, Retrieved 7 May 2018
- History of Council - The Armorial Flag, City of Adelaide website
- "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915: William Bragg, Lawrence Bragg". Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005: Barry J. Marshall, J. Robin Warren". Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- McDougall & Vines (2006) The City of Adelaide - A Thematic History, www.adelaidecitycouncil.com. (PDF, 780Kb, 156 pages)
- Peter Morton (1996) After Light: A History of the City of Adelaide and its Council, 1878-1928