14th Dalai Lama

The 14th Dalai Lama[note 1] (spiritual name Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso, known as Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Dhondup),[note 2] is the current Dalai Lama, the highest spiritual leader of Tibet, and a retired political leader of Tibet.[4] Born on 6 July 1935, or in the Tibetan calendar, in the Wood-Pig Year, 5th month, 5th day.[5] Based on his biography, he is a simple Buddhist monk. Based on the Charter of Tibetans In Exile, he is manifestation of Avalokiteśvara, divine lord of Trailokya, and the master of all Buddhist teachings. He is also the leader of the Gelug school, the newest and currently most dominant of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism,[6] formally headed by the Ganden Tripa. The government of Tibet, Kashag, rule of the Ganden Phodrang, invested the Dalai Lama with temporal duties until his exile in 1959.[7][8] On 29 April 1959, the Dalai Lama re-established the Kashag in the north Indian hill station of Mussoorie, which then moved in May 1960 to Dharamshala, where he resides. In 1963, he promulgated Constitution of Tibet, and he became permanent head of state of Tibet.[9] In 1974, he rejected calls for Tibetan independence, [10] and he became permanent head of the Tibetan Administration and the executive functions for Tibetans-in-exile in 1991. In March 2011, at 71 years of age, he decided not to assume any political and administrative authority, the Charter of Tibetans in Exile was updated immediately in May 2011, and all articles related to regents were also repealed.[11][12][13]

Tenzin Gyatso
Tenzin Gyatso speaking
The Dalai Lama in 2012
14th Dalai Lama
Reign22 February 1940 – present
PredecessorThubten Gyatso
RegentFifth Reting Rinpoche Jamphel Yeshe Gyaltsen, 3rd Taktra Rinpoche
Head of the Tibetan Administration for Tibetans-in-exile
In office14 June 1991 – 2011
PredecessorPosition established
Head of state of the Kashag of Tibet
In office10 March 1963 – 13 June 1991
PredecessorPosition established
Director of the Preparatory Committee for the Tibet Autonomous Region
In office1956–1959
PredecessorOffice established
Successor10th Panchen Lama (acting)
1st, 2nd Vice Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China
In office15 September 1954 – 17 December 1964[1]
Exile to India in March 1959
BornLhamo Thondup
(1935-07-06) 6 July 1935 (age 86)
Taktser, Amdo, Tibet[2][3]
FatherChoekyong Tsering
MotherDiki Tsering
ReligionTibetan Buddhism (Gelug school)
SignatureTenzin Gyatso's signature

The 14th Dalai Lama was born as one of three reincarnated rinpoches in one farming family, in Taktser (Hongya in Chinese), in Amdo (Qinghai in Chinese), northeastern Tibet.[2][3] He was selected as one of 3 reincarnated soul boys of the 13th Dalai Lama in 1937, but declared as the 14th Dalai Lama by Kashag on August 23, 1939 by ignoring the other two candidates before sitting-in-the-bed.[14][15] As with the approval process for the 13th Dalai Lama, request to exempt Lhamo Thondup from lot-drawing process using Golden Urn to become the 14th Dalai Lama was approved by the Central Government on February 5th 1940. [16][17][18][19] His sitting-in-the-bed ceremony as the Dalai Lama was held in Lhasa on 22 February 1940. On 17 November 1950, he was enthroned hastily based on advice of oracles after news of the PLA victories in Battle of Chamdo, before the Seventeen Point Agreement was signed and ratified. [16] [15]

During the 1959 Tibetan uprising, the Dalai Lama escaped to India, where he currently lives in exile while remaining the most important spiritual leader of Tibet. The Dalai Lama advocates for the welfare of Tibetans while continuing to call for the Middle Way Approach to negotiations with China for the autonomy of Tibet and the protection of Tibetan culture, including for the religious rights of Tibetans.

The Dalai Lama also meets with other world leaders, religious leaders, philosophers and scientists, and travels worldwide giving Tibetan Buddhist teachings. His work includes focus on the environment, economics, women's rights, nonviolence, interfaith dialogue, physics, astronomy, Buddhism and science, cognitive neuroscience,[20][21][22] reproductive health and sexuality. Along with his teachings on Tibetan Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism, the Dalai Lama's Kalachakra teachings and initiations are international events. He is the chief Patron of the Maha Bodhi Society of India, conferred upon him at the 2008 Annual General Meeting of the Maha Bodhi Society of India.[23] The Dalai Lama was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989, and the US Congressional Gold Medal in 2006. Time magazine named the Dalai Lama one of the "Children of Mahatma Gandhi" and Gandhi's spiritual heir to nonviolence.[24][25]

Early life and backgroundEdit

Lhamo Thondup[26] was born on 6 July 1935 to a farming and horse trading family in the small hamlet of Taktser,[note 3] or Chija Tagtser[31] (Chinese: 红崖村; pinyin: Hóngyá Cūn; lit. 'Redcliff Village'), at the edge of the traditional Tibetan region of Amdo in Qinghai Province.[27] He was one of seven siblings to survive childhood, one of the three reincarnated Rinpoches in the same family. The eldest was his sister Tsering Dolma, eighteen years his senior. His eldest brother, Thupten Jigme Norbu, had been recognised at the age of three by the 13th Dalai Lama as the reincarnation of the high Lama, the 6th Taktser Rinpoche.[32] His fifth brother, Tendzin Choegyal (Chinese:达拉·洛桑三旦), had been recognised as the 16th Ngari Rinpoche. His sister, Jetsun Pema, spent most of her adult life on the Tibetan Children's Villages project. The Dalai Lama has said that his first language was "a broken Xining language which was (a dialect of) the Chinese language", a form of Central Plains Mandarin, and his family speak neither Amdo Tibetan nor Lhasa Tibetan.[33][34][35]

 
The Dalai Lama as a child

After the demise of the 13th Dalai Lama, Reting Rinpoche and Langdun (nephew of the 13th Dalai Lama) became regent and vice regent of Tibet, this was approved by the Central Government, and in 1935, title “Zen Master of the Nation and Propagator of the Doctrine (Chinese:辅国普化禅师)” was conferred to Reting Rinpoche.[36] In 1935, the Ordinance of Lama Temple Management (Chinese: 管理喇嘛寺廟條例)[37][38] was published by the Central Government. In 1936, the Method of Reincarnation of Lamas (Chinese: 喇嘛轉世辦法)[39][40] was published by the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission of the Central Government. Article 3 states that death of lamas including the Dalai Lama, the Panchen Lama should be reported to Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission, soul boys should be found, reported to and checked by Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission, lot-drawing ceremony with Golden Urn system should be held. Article 6 states that local governments should invite official from the Central Government to take care of the sitting-in-the-bed ceremony. Article 7 states that soul boys should not be searched from the current lama families. Article 7 echos what the Qianlong Emperor described in The Discourse of Lama to eliminate greedy family with multiple reincarnated rinpoches, lamas.[41] Based on custom and regulation, regent was actively involved in the search for the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama. Following reported signs and visions, three search teams were sent out to the north-east, the east, and the south-east to locate the new incarnation when the boy who was to become the 14th Dalai Lama was about two years old.[42] Sir Basil Gould, British delegate to Lhasa in 1936, related his account of the north-eastern team to Sir Charles Alfred Bell, former British resident in Lhasa and friend of the 13th Dalai Lama. Amongst other omens, the head of the embalmed body of the thirteenth Dalai Lama, at first facing south-east, had turned to face the north-east, indicating, it was interpreted, the direction in which his successor would be found. The Regent, Reting Rinpoche, shortly afterwards had a vision at the sacred lake of Lhamo La-tso which he interpreted as Amdo being the region to search. This vision was also interpreted to refer to a large monastery with a gilded roof and turquoise tiles, and a twisting path from it to a hill to the east, opposite which stood a small house with distinctive eaves. The team, led by Kewtsang Rinpoche, went first to meet the Panchen Lama, who had been stuck in Jyekundo, in northern Kham.[42] The Panchen Lama had been investigating births of unusual children in the area ever since the death of the 13th Dalai Lama.[43] He gave Kewtsang the names of three boys whom he had discovered and identified as candidates. Within a year the Panchen Lama had died. Two of his three candidates were crossed off the list but the third, a "fearless" child, the most promising, was from Taktser village, which, as in the vision, was on a hill, at the end of a trail leading to Taktser from the great Kumbum Monastery with its gilded, turquoise roof. There they found a house, as interpreted from the vision—the house where Lhamo Thondup lived.[42][43]

The 14th Dalai Lama claims that at the time, the village of Taktser stood right on the "real border" between the region of Amdo and China.[44] When the team visited, posing as pilgrims, its leader, a Sera Lama, pretended to be the servant and sat separately in the kitchen. He held an old mala that had belonged to the 13th Dalai Lama, and the boy Lhamo Dhondup, aged two, approached and asked for it. The monk said "if you know who I am, you can have it." The child said "Sera Lama, Sera Lama" and spoke with him in a Lhasa accent, in a dialect the boy's mother could not understand. The next time the party returned to the house, they revealed their real purpose and asked permission to subject the boy to certain tests. One test consisted of showing him various pairs of objects, one of which had belonged to the 13th Dalai Lama and one which had not. In every case, he chose the Dalai Lama's own objects and rejected the others.[45]

 
House where the 14th Dalai Lama was born in Taktser, Amdo

From 1936 the Hui 'Ma Clique' Muslim warlord Ma Bufang ruled Qinghai as its governor under the nominal authority of the Republic of China central government.[46] According to an interview with the 14th Dalai Lama, in the 1930s, Ma Bufang had seized this north-east corner of Amdo in the name of Chiang Kai-shek's weak government and incorporated it into the Chinese province of Qinghai.[47] Before going to Taktser, Kewtsang had gone to Ma Bufang to pay his respects.[43] When Ma Bufang heard a candidate had been found in Taktser, he had the family brought to him in Xining.[48] He first demanded proof that the boy was the Dalai Lama, but the Lhasa government, though informed by Kewtsang that this was the one, told Kewtsang to say he had to go to Lhasa for further tests with other candidates. They knew that if he was declared to be the Dalai Lama, the Chinese government would insist on sending a large army escort with him, which would then stay in Lhasa and refuse to budge.[49] Ma Bufang, together with Kumbum Monastery, then refused to allow him to depart unless he was declared to be the Dalai Lama, but withdrew this demand in return for 100,000 Chinese dollars ransom in silver to be shared amongst them, to let them go to Lhasa.[49][50] Kewtsang managed to raise this, but the family was only allowed to move from Xining to Kumbum when a further demand was made for another 330,000 dollars ransom: one hundred thousand each for government officials, the commander-in-chief, and the Kumbum Monastery; twenty thousand for the escort; and only ten thousand for Ma Bufang himself, he said.[51]

Two years of diplomatic wrangling followed before it was accepted by Lhasa that the ransom had to be paid to avoid the Chinese getting involved and escorting him to Lhasa with a large army.[52] Meanwhile, the boy was kept at Kumbum where two of his brothers were already studying as monks and recognised incarnate lamas.[53] The payment of 300,000 silver dollars was then advanced by Muslim traders en route to Mecca in a large caravan via Lhasa. They paid Ma Bufang on behalf of the Tibetan government against promissory notes to be redeemed, with interest, in Lhasa.[53][54] The 20,000-dollar fee for an escort was dropped, since the Muslim merchants invited them to join their caravan for protection; Ma Bufang sent 20 of his soldiers with them and was paid from both sides since the Chinese government granted him another 50,000 dollars for the expenses of the journey. Furthermore, the Indian government helped the Tibetans raise the ransom funds by affording them import concessions.[54]

On 22 September 1938, representatives of Tibet Office in Beijing informed Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission that 3 candidates were found and ceremony of Golden Urn would be held in Tibet.[55]

In October 1938, the Method of Using Golden Urn for the 14th Dalai Lama (Chinese: 十四世达赖喇嘛转世掣签征认办法) was drafted by Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission. [56]

On 12 December 1938, regent Reting Rinpoche informed Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission that 3 candidates were found and ceremony of Golden Urn would be held.[57]

Vice Regent Langdun actively supported son of his relative to be the 14th Dalai Lama. From the perspective of the regent Reting Rinpoche, the selection of the Qinghai soul boy was mainly due to his merits. Therefore, he hoped that the Qinghai soul boy could be selected as the reincarnation of the 14th Dalai Lama. In April 1939, Vice Regent Langdun was forced to resign. [58]

Released from Kumbum, on 21 July 1939 the party travelled across Tibet on a journey to Lhasa in the large Muslim caravan with Lhamo Thondup, now 4 years old, riding with his brother Lobsang in a special palanquin carried by two mules, two years after being discovered. As soon as they were out of Ma Bufang's area, he was declared to be the 14th Dalai Lama by Kashag on 23 August by ignoring the other 2 candidates.

On 17 September 1939, the Regent Reting Rinpoche told Wu Zhongxin that all procedures would follow based on Wu Zhongxin's advice when Wu Zhongxin arrived Tibet. [59] Lhamo Thondup arrived in Lhasa on 8 October 1939.[60]

On 23 November 1939, haircut ceremony, naming ceremony of monastic name of Tenzin Gyatso were performed without Wu's presence.[61]

On January 26, 1940, the Regent Reting Rinpoche requested the Central Government to exempt Lhamo Dhondup from lot-drawing process using Golden Urn to become the 14th Dalai Lama.[62][63]

One January 31st 1940, Wu Zhongxin inspected Lhamo Thondup.[64]

On February 5th 1940, request to exempt Lhamo Thondup from lot-drawing process to become the 14th Dalai Lama was approved by the Central Government[65][66]

400 thousand yuans [67] were allocated by the Central Government for the sitting-in-the-bed ceremony which was handled by Reting Rinpoche,[62][68] and presided by Wu Zhongxin based on the custom and religious rituals of the Qing Dynasty.[69] Reting Rinpoche was forced indirectly to resign in 1941, decision was sent to Central Government, in February 1941, the 3rd Taktra Rinpoche informed the Central Government he would continue the work as Regent of Tibet.[70] Both Choekyong Tsering (father of Lhamo Dhondup) and Reting Rinponche were poisoned and died in 1947.[71][72] Since Golden Urn was not used for the selection of the 14th Dalai Lama, there was rumor that a child of relative of the 13th Dalai Lama was the real 14th Dalai Lama. Lot-drawing process ceremony was ordered to be held between that child and Lhamo Dhondup.[73] There was very limited Chinese involvement at this time.[74]

Tibetan Buddhists normally refer to him as Yishin Norbu (Wish-Fulfilling Gem), Kyabgon (Saviour), or just Kundun (Presence). His devotees, as well as much of the Western world, often call him His Holiness the Dalai Lama, the style employed on the Dalai Lama's website. According to the Dalai Lama, he had a succession of tutors in Tibet including Reting Rinpoche, Tathag Rinpoche, Ling Rinpoche and lastly Trijang Rinpoche, who became junior tutor when he was nineteen.[75] At the age of 11 he met the Austrian mountaineer Heinrich Harrer, who became his videographer and tutor about the world outside Lhasa. The two remained friends until Harrer's death in 2006.[76]

In 1959, at the age of 23, he took his final examination at Lhasa's Jokhang Temple during the annual Monlam or Prayer Festival.[note 4] He passed with honours and was awarded the Lharampa degree, the highest-level geshe degree, roughly equivalent to a doctorate in Buddhist philosophy.[78][79]

Life as the Dalai LamaEdit

 
Lhasa's Potala Palace, today a UNESCO World Heritage site, pictured in 2019

Historically the Dalai Lamas or their regents held political and religious leadership over Tibet from Lhasa with varying degrees of influence depending on the regions of Tibet and periods of history. This began with the 5th Dalai Lama's rule in 1642 and lasted until the 1950s (except for 1705–1750), during which period the Dalai Lamas headed the Tibetan government or Ganden Phodrang. Until 1912 however, when the 13th Dalai Lama declared the complete independence of Tibet, their rule was generally subject to patronage and protection of firstly Mongol kings (1642–1720) and then the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1720–1912).[80]

During the Dalai Lama's recognition process, the cultural Anthropologist Goldstein writes that "it seems inconceivable that they (Tibetan government) would ask China's permission to dispense with the Chinese-instituted Golden Urn selection process that had in fact already been ignored in the selection of the 13th Dalai Lama".[16][81] In 1877, request to exempt Lobu Zangtab Kaijia Mucuo (Chinese: 罗布藏塔布开甲木措) from using lot-drawing process to become the 13th Dalai Lama was approved by the Central Government.[82]

Afterwards in 1939, at the age of four, the Dalai Lama was taken in a procession of lamas to Lhasa. The traditional sitting-in-the-bed ceremony enthroning the 14th Dalai Lama was attended by observing foreign dignitaries after a traditional Tibetan recognition processes. Sir Basil Gould, the British representative of the Government of India, has left a highly detailed account of the ceremonies surrounding the enthronement of the 14th Dalai Lama in Chapter 16 of his memoir, The Jewel in the Lotus.[83] Despite historical records of eyewitness accounts, China's Kuomintang government later presented false claims to have ratified the Dalai Lama, and that a Kuomintang representative, General Wu Zhongxin, presided over the ceremony.

The British representative Sir Basil Gould, who was also at the enthronement ceremony, disputes the Chinese claim to have presided over it. He criticised the Chinese account as follows:

The report was issued in the Chinese Press that Mr Wu had escorted the Dalai Lama to his throne and announced his installation, that the Dalai Lama had returned thanks, and prostrated himself in token of his gratitude. Every one of these Chinese claims was false. Mr Wu was merely a passive spectator. He did no more than present a ceremonial scarf, as was done by the others, including the British Representative. But the Chinese have the ear of the world, and can later refer to their press records and present an account of historical events that is wholly untrue. Tibet has no newspapers, either in English or Tibetan, and has therefore no means of exposing these falsehoods.[84]

 
Territorial extent of Tibet and approximate line of the Chinese Communist advance in 1950

Tibetan scholar Nyima Gyaincain wrote that based on Tibetan tradition, there was no such thing as presiding over an event, and wrote that the word "主持 (preside or organize)" was used in many places in communication documents. The meaning of the word was different than what we understand today. He added that Wu Zhongxin spent a lot of time and energy on the event, his effect of presiding over or organizing the event was very obvious.[clarification needed][85]

After his enthronement, the Dalai Lama's childhood was then spent between the Potala Palace and Norbulingka, his summer residence, both of which are now UNESCO World Heritage sites.

Chiang Kai Shek ordered Ma Bufang to put his Muslim soldiers on alert for an invasion of Tibet in 1942.[86] Ma Bufang complied, and moved several thousand troops to the border with Tibet.[87] Chiang also threatened the Tibetans with aerial bombardment if they worked with the Japanese. Ma Bufang attacked the Tibetan Buddhist Tsang monastery in 1941.[88] He also constantly attacked the Labrang monastery.[89]

In October 1950 the army of the People's Republic of China marched to the edge of the Dalai Lama's territory and sent a delegation after defeating a legion of the Tibetan army in warlord-controlled Kham. On 17 November 1950, at the age of 15, the 14th Dalai Lama assumed full temporal (political) power as ruler of Tibet.[15]

Cooperation and conflicts with the People's Republic of ChinaEdit

 
An iconic photo showing Panchen Lama (left), Mao and Dalai Lama (right) at Qinzheng Hall on 11 September 1954, four days before they attended the 1st National People's Congress.
 
Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai meeting with Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama to celebrate Tibetan New Year, 1955
 
Rare shot of an adult Dalai Lama (right) and Panchen Lama (left) without eyeglasses. 1954-1955.

The Panchen Lama and Dalai Lama had many conflicts throughout Tibetan history, after liberation of the Northwest of China and establishment of new Central Government in 1949, the 10th Panchen Lama was excited to see the coming liberation of Tibet.[90] Dalai Lama's formal rule was brief. He sent a delegation to Beijing, which signed the Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet on 23 May 1951. The 14th Dalai Lama ratified the agreement on 24 October 1951.[91][92] He worked with the Chinese government: in September 1954, together with the 10th Panchen Lama he went to the Chinese capital to meet Mao Zedong and attend the first session of the National People's Congress as a delegate, primarily discussing China's constitution.[93][94] On 27 September 1954, the Dalai Lama was selected as a Vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.[95][96]

The United States informed the Dalai Lama in 1951 that in order to receive assistance and support from the United States, he must depart from Tibet and publicly disavow "agreements concluded under duress" between the representatives of Tibet and China. The United States also informed the Dalai Lama in 1951 to approach India informally to obtain clarification of the attitude of his departure from Tibet and related problems, it's the understanding of the United States that the Indian Government would be prepared to permit him to pass through or to reside in India. [97]

In 1956, on a trip to India to celebrate the Buddha's Birthday, the Dalai Lama asked the Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, if he would allow him political asylum should he choose to stay. Nehru discouraged this as a provocation against peace, and reminded him of the Indian Government's non-interventionist stance agreed upon with its 1954 treaty with China.[79]

On 18 April 1959, the 14th Dalai Lama issued statement that the agreement was made under pressure of the Chinese Government.[98] He would later claim that the delegation signed agreement without his authorization.[79][99][100]

In 1964, decision of the State Council of China on revocation of duties of the Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso was made and published.[101][102]

Long called a "splitist" and "traitor" by China,[103] the Dalai Lama has attempted formal talks over Tibet's status in China.[104] In 2019, after the United States passed a law requiring the US to deny visas to Chinese officials in charge of implementing policies that restrict foreign access to Tibet, the US Ambassador to China "encouraged the Chinese government to engage in substantive dialogue with the Dalai Lama or his representatives, without preconditions, to seek a settlement that resolves differences".[105]

The Chinese Foreign Ministry has warned the US and other countries to "shun" the Dalai Lama during visits and often uses trade negotiations and human rights talks as an incentive to do so.[106][107][108][109][110][111][112][113][114] China sporadically bans images of the Dalai Lama and arrests citizens for owning photos of him in Tibet.[115][116][117] Tibet Autonomous Region government job candidates must strongly denounce the Dalai Lama, as announced on the Tibet Autonomous Region government's online education platform, "Support the (Communist) Party’s leadership, resolutely implement the [Chinese Communist] Party’s line, line of approach, policies, and the guiding ideology of Tibet work in the new era; align ideologically, politically, and in action with the Party Central Committee; oppose any splittist tendencies; expose and criticize the Dalai Lama; safeguard the unity of the motherland and ethnic unity and take a firm stand on political issues, taking a clear and distinct stand".[118]

The Dalai Lama is a target of Chinese state sponsored hacking. Security experts claim "targeting Tibetan activists is a strong indicator of official Chinese government involvement" since economic information is the primary goal of private Chinese hackers.[119] In 2009 the personal office of the Dalai Lama asked researchers at the Munk Center for International Studies at the University of Toronto to check its computers for malicious software. This led to uncovering GhostNet, a large-scale cyber spying operation which infiltrated at least 1,295 computers in 103 countries, including embassies, foreign ministries, other government offices, and organizations affiliated with the Dalai Lama in India, Brussels, London and New York, and believed to be focusing on the governments of South and Southeast Asia.[120][121][122] A second cyberspy network, Shadow Network, was discovered by the same researchers in 2010. Stolen documents included a years worth of the Dalai Lama's personal email, and classified government material relating to Indian, West Africa, the Russian Federation, the Middle East, and NATO. "Sophisticated" hackers were linked to universities in China, Beijing again denied involvement.[123][124] Chinese hackers posing as The New York Times, Amnesty International and other organization's reporters targeted the private office of the Dalai Lama, Tibetan Parliament members, and Tibetan nongovernmental organizations, among others, in 2019.[125]

Exile to IndiaEdit

 
Abandoned former quarters of the Dalai Lama at the Potala. The empty vestment placed on the throne symbolises his absence
 
In 1967, Dalai Lama was out of India for the first time since he resided there from 1959. The Japanese government granted him visa on the condition he would not attack PRC while in Japan.[126]

At the outset of the 1959 Tibetan uprising, fearing for his life, the Dalai Lama and his retinue fled Tibet with the help of the CIA's Special Activities Division,[127] crossing into India on 30 March 1959, reaching Tezpur in Assam on 18 April.[128] Some time later he set up the Government of Tibet in Exile in Dharamshala, India,[129] which is often referred to as "Little Lhasa". After the founding of the government in exile he re-established the approximately 80,000 Tibetan refugees who followed him into exile in agricultural settlements.[78] He created a Tibetan educational system in order to teach the Tibetan children the language, history, religion, and culture. The Tibetan Institute of Performing Arts was established[78] in 1959 and the Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies[78] became the primary university for Tibetans in India in 1967. He supported the refounding of 200 monasteries and nunneries in an attempt to preserve Tibetan Buddhist teachings and the Tibetan way of life.

The Dalai Lama appealed to the United Nations on the rights of Tibetans. This appeal resulted in three resolutions adopted by the General Assembly in 1959, 1961, and 1965,[78] all before the People's Republic was allowed representation at the United Nations.[130] The resolutions called on China to respect the human rights of Tibetans.[78]

In 1961, the Dalai Lama sponsored draft constitution of Tibet which stated that the Dalai Lama would be the head of state. In 1963, he promulgated a democratic constitution which is based upon the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, creating an elected parliament and an administration to champion his cause, constitution was published and the Dalai Lama became the head of state. In 1991, the Tibetan government in exile improved constitution which designated the head of state to be the Dalai Lama.[131][132]

In 1970, he opened the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives in Dharamshala which houses over 80,000 manuscripts and important knowledge resources related to Tibetan history, politics and culture. It is considered one of the most important institutions for Tibetology in the world.[133]

In 2016, there were demands from Indian citizens and politicians of different political parties to confer the Dalai Lama the prestigious Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian honour of India, which has only been awarded to a non-Indian citizen twice in its history.[134]

In 2021, it was revealed that the Dalai Lama’s inner circle were listed in the Pegasus project data.[135]

International advocacyEdit

 
The flag of Tibet (designed by the 13th Dalai Lama) shares the stage with Kundun on 10 April 2010 in Zurich, Switzerland

At the Congressional Human Rights Caucus in 1987 in Washington, D.C., the Dalai Lama gave a speech outlining his ideas for the future status of Tibet. The plan called for Tibet to become a democratic "zone of peace" without nuclear weapons, and with support for human rights.[citation needed] The plan would come to be known as the "Strasbourg proposal", because the Dalai Lama expanded on the plan at Strasbourg on 15 June 1988. There, he proposed the creation of a self-governing Tibet "in association with the People's Republic of China." This would have been pursued by negotiations with the PRC government, but the plan was rejected by the Tibetan Government-in-Exile in 1991.[citation needed] The Dalai Lama has indicated that he wishes to return to Tibet only if the People's Republic of China agrees not to make any precondition for his return.[136] In the 1970s, the Paramount leader Deng Xiaoping set China's sole return requirement to the Dalai Lama as that he "must [come back] as a Chinese citizen ... that is, patriotism".[137]

The Dalai Lama celebrated his seventieth birthday on 6 July 2005. About 10,000 Tibetan refugees, monks and foreign tourists gathered outside his home. Patriarch Alexius II of the Russian Orthodox Church alleged positive relations with Buddhists. However, later that year, the Russian state prevented the Dalai Lama from fulfilling an invitation to the traditionally Buddhist republic of Kalmykia.[138] The President of the Republic of China (Taiwan), Chen Shui-bian, attended an evening celebrating the Dalai Lama's birthday at the Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall in Taipei.[139] In October 2008 in Japan, the Dalai Lama addressed the 2008 Tibetan violence that had erupted and that the Chinese government accused him of fomenting. He responded that he had "lost faith" in efforts to negotiate with the Chinese government, and that it was "up to the Tibetan people" to decide what to do.[140]

Thirty Taiwanese indigenous peoples protested against the Dalai Lama during his visit to Taiwan after Typhoon Morakot and denounced it as politically motivated.[141][142][143][144]

The Dalai Lama is an advocate for a world free of nuclear weapons, and currently serves on the Advisory Council of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation.

The Dalai Lama has voiced his support for the Campaign for the Establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, an organisation which campaigns for democratic reformation of the United Nations, and the creation of a more accountable international political system.[145] 

Teaching activities, public talksEdit

 
Gyatso during a visit to Washington, D.C. in 1997
 
His Holiness giving teachings at Sissu, Lahaul

Despite becoming 80 years old in 2015, he maintains a busy international lecture and teaching schedule.[146] His public talks and teachings are usually webcast live in multiple languages, via an inviting organisation's website, or on the Dalai Lama's own website. Scores of his past teaching videos can be viewed there, as well as public talks, conferences, interviews, dialogues and panel discussions.[147]

The Dalai Lama's best known teaching subject is the Kalachakra tantra which, as of 2014, he had conferred a total of 33 times,[148] most often in India's upper Himalayan regions but also in the Western world.[149] The Kalachakra (Wheel of Time) is one of the most complex teachings of Buddhism, sometimes taking two weeks to confer, and he often confers it on very large audiences, up to 200,000 students and disciples at a time.[149][150]

The Dalai Lama is the author of numerous books on Buddhism,[151] many of them on general Buddhist subjects but also including books on particular topics like Dzogchen,[152] a Nyingma practice.

In his essay "The Ethic of Compassion" (1999), the Dalai Lama expresses his belief that if we only reserve compassion for those that we love, we are ignoring the responsibility of sharing these characteristics of respect and empathy with those we do not have relationships with, which cannot allow us to "cultivate love." He elaborates upon this idea by writing that although it takes time to develop a higher level of compassion, eventually we will recognize that the quality of empathy will become a part of life and promote our quality as humans and inner strength.[153]

He frequently accepts requests from students to visit various countries worldwide in order to give teachings to large Buddhist audiences, teachings that are usually based on classical Buddhist texts and commentaries,[154] and most often those written by the 17 pandits or great masters of the Nalanda tradition, such as Nagarjuna,[155][156] Kamalashila,[157][158] Shantideva,[159] Atisha,[160] Ayradeva[161] and so on.

 
The Dalai Lama's main teaching room at Dharamshala
 
Dalai Lama conferring Kalachakra initiation at Bodh Gaya, India, December 1985
 
Overview of teaching venue at Bodh Gaya Kalachakra, 1985

The Dalai Lama refers to himself as a follower of these Nalanda masters,[162] in fact he often asserts that 'Tibetan Buddhism' is based on the Buddhist tradition of Nalanda monastery in ancient India,[163] since the texts written by those 17 Nalanda pandits or masters, to whom he has composed a poem of invocation,[164] were brought to Tibet and translated into Tibetan when Buddhism was first established there and have remained central to the teachings of Tibetan Buddhism ever since.[165]

As examples of other teachings, in London in 1984 he was invited to give teachings on the Twelve Links of Dependent Arising, and on Dzogchen, which he gave at Camden Town Hall; in 1988 he was in London once more to give a series of lectures on Tibetan Buddhism in general, called 'A Survey of the Paths of Tibetan Buddhism'.[166] Again in London in 1996 he taught the Four Noble Truths, the basis and foundation of Buddhism accepted by all Buddhists, at the combined invitation of 27 different Buddhist organisations of all schools and traditions belonging to the Network of Buddhist Organisations UK.[167]

In India, the Dalai Lama gives religious teachings and talks in Dharamsala[160] and numerous other locations including the monasteries in the Tibetan refugee settlements,[154] in response to specific requests from Tibetan monastic institutions, Indian academic, religious and business associations, groups of students and individual/private/lay devotees.[168] In India, no fees are charged to attend these teachings since costs are covered by requesting sponsors.[154] When he travels abroad to give teachings there is usually a ticket fee calculated by the inviting organization to cover the costs involved[154] and any surplus is normally to be donated to recognised charities.[169]

He has frequently visited and lectured at colleges and universities,[170][171][172] some of which have conferred honorary degrees upon him.[173][174]

Dozens of videos of recorded webcasts of the Dalai Lama's public talks on general subjects for non-Buddhists like peace, happiness and compassion, modern ethics, the environment, economic and social issues, gender, the empowerment of women and so forth can be viewed in his office's archive.[175]

Interfaith dialogueEdit

The Dalai Lama met Pope Paul VI at the Vatican in 1973. He met Pope John Paul II in 1980, 1982, 1986, 1988, 1990, and 2003. In 1990, he met a delegation of Jewish teachers in Dharamshala for an extensive interfaith dialogue.[176] He has since visited Israel three times, and in 2006 met the Chief Rabbi of Israel. In 2006, he met Pope Benedict XVI privately. He has met the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Robert Runcie, and other leaders of the Anglican Church in London, Gordon B. Hinckley, who at the time was the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), as well as senior Eastern Orthodox Church, Muslim, Hindu, Jewish, and Sikh officials. The Dalai Lama is also currently a member of the Board of World Religious Leaders as part of The Elijah Interfaith Institute[177] and participated in the Third Meeting of the Board of World Religious Leaders in Amritsar, India, on 26 November 2007 to discuss the topic of Love and Forgiveness.[178]

In 2009, the Dalai Lama inaugurated an interfaith "World Religions-Dialogue and Symphony" conference at Gujarat's Mahuva religions, according to Morari Bapu.[179][180]

In 2010, the Dalai Lama, joined by a panel of scholars, launched the Common Ground Project,[181] in Bloomington, Indiana (USA),[182] which was planned by himself and Prince Ghazi bin Muhammad of Jordan during several years of personal conversations. The project is based on the book Common Ground between Islam and Buddhism.[183]

In 2019, the Dalai Lama fully-sponsored the first-ever 'Celebrating Diversity in the Muslim World' conference in New Delhi on behalf of the Muslims of Ladakh.[184]

Interest in science, and Mind and Life InstituteEdit

 
Remains of Dalai Lama's Baby Austin car. Lhasa, 1993
 
Remains of Dalai Lama's Dodge car. Lhasa, 1993

The Dalai Lama's lifelong interest in science[185][186] and technology[187] dates from his childhood in Lhasa, Tibet, when he was fascinated by mechanical objects like clocks, watches, telescopes, film projectors, clockwork soldiers[187] and motor cars,[188] and loved to repair, disassemble and reassemble them.[185] Once, observing the Moon through a telescope as a child, he realised it was a crater-pocked lump of rock and not a heavenly body emitting its own light as Tibetan cosmologists had taught him.[185] He has also said that had he not been brought up as a monk he would probably have been an engineer.[189] On his first trip to the west in 1973 he asked to visit Cambridge University's astrophysics department in the UK and he sought out renowned scientists such as Sir Karl Popper, David Bohm and Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker,[188] who taught him the basics of science.

The Dalai Lama sees important common ground between science and Buddhism in having the same approach to challenge dogma on the basis of empirical evidence that comes from observation and analysis of phenomena.[190]

His growing wish to develop meaningful scientific dialogue to explore the Buddhism and science interface led to invitations for him to attend relevant conferences on his visits to the west, including the Alpbach Symposia on Consciousness in 1983 where he met and had discussions with the late Chilean neuroscientist Francisco J. Varela.[188] Also in 1983, the American social entrepreneur and innovator R. Adam Engle,[191] who had become aware of the Dalai Lama's deep interest in science, was already considering the idea of facilitating for him a serious dialogue with a selection of appropriate scientists.[192] In 1984 Engle formally offered to the Dalai Lama's office to organise a week-long, formal dialogue for him with a suitable team of scientists, provided that the Dalai Lama would wish to fully participate in such a dialogue. Within 48 hours the Dalai Lama confirmed to Engle that he was "truly interested in participating in something substantial about science" so Engle proceeded with launching the project.[193] Francisco Varela, having heard about Engle's proposal, then called him to tell him of his earlier discussions with the Dalai Lama and to offer his scientific collaboration to the project.[193] Engle accepted, and Varela assisted him to assemble his team of six specialist scientists for the first 'Mind and Life' dialogue on the cognitive sciences,[194] which was eventually held with the Dalai Lama at his residence in Dharamsala in 1987.[188][193] This five-day event was so successful that at the end the Dalai Lama told Engle he would very much like to repeat it again in the future.[195] Engle then started work on arranging a second dialogue, this time with neuroscientists in California, and the discussions from the first event were edited and published as Mind and Life's first book, "Gentle Bridges: Conversations with the Dalai Lama on the Sciences of Mind".[196]

As Mind and Life Institute's remit expanded, Engle formalised the organisation as a non-profit foundation after the third dialogue, held in 1990, which initiated the undertaking of neurobiological research programmes in the United States under scientific conditions.[195] Over the following decades, as of 2014 at least 28 dialogues between the Dalai Lama and panels of various world-renowned scientists have followed, held in various countries and covering diverse themes, from the nature of consciousness to cosmology and from quantum mechanics to the neuroplasticity of the brain.[197] Sponsors and partners in these dialogues have included the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,[198] Johns Hopkins University,[199] the Mayo Clinic,[200] and Zurich University.[201]

Apart from time spent teaching Buddhism and fulfilling responsibilities to his Tibetan followers, the Dalai Lama has probably spent, and continues to spend, more of his time and resources investigating the interface between Buddhism and science through the ongoing series of Mind and Life dialogues and its spin-offs than on any other single activity.[187] As the institute's Cofounder and the Honorary chairman he has personally presided over and participated in all its dialogues, which continue to expand worldwide.[202]

These activities have given rise to dozens of DVD sets of the dialogues and books he has authored on them such as Ethics for the New Millennium and The Universe in a Single Atom, as well as scientific papers and university research programmes.[203] On the Tibetan and Buddhist side, science subjects have been added to the curriculum for Tibetan monastic educational institutions and scholarship.[204] On the Western side, university and research programmes initiated by these dialogues and funded with millions of dollars in grants from the Dalai Lama Trust include the Emory-Tibet Partnership,[205] Stanford School of Medicine's Centre for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education (CCARES)[206] and the Centre for Investigating Healthy Minds,[207] amongst others.

In 2019, Emory University's Center for Contemplative Sciences and Compassion-Based Ethics, in partnership with The Dalai Lama Trust and the Vana Foundation of India, launched an international SEE Learning (Social, Emotional and Ethical Learning) program in New Delhi, India, a school curriculum for all classes from kindergarten to Std XII that builds on psychologist Daniel Goleman's work on emotional intelligence in the early 1990s. SEE learning focuses on developing critical thinking, ethical reasoning and compassion and stresses on commonalities rather than on the differences.[208][209][210][211]

In particular, the Mind and Life Education Humanities & Social Sciences initiatives have been instrumental in developing the emerging field of Contemplative Science, by researching, for example, the effects of contemplative practice on the human brain, behaviour and biology.[203]

In his 2005 book The Universe in a Single Atom and elsewhere, and to mark his commitment to scientific truth and its ultimate ascendancy over religious belief, unusually for a major religious leader the Dalai Lama advises his Buddhist followers: "If scientific analysis were conclusively to demonstrate certain claims in Buddhism to be false, then we must accept the findings of science and abandon those claims."[212] He has also cited examples of archaic Buddhist ideas he has abandoned himself on this basis.[185][213]

These activities have even had an impact in the Chinese capital. In 2013 an 'academic dialogue' with a Chinese scientist, a Tibetan 'living Buddha' and a Professor of Religion took place in Beijing. Entitled "High-end dialogue: ancient Buddhism and modern science" it addressed the same considerations that interest the Dalai Lama, described as 'discussing about the similarities between Buddhism and modern science'.[214]

Personal meditation practiceEdit

The Dalai Lama uses various meditation techniques, including analytic meditation.[215] He has said that the aim of meditation is "to maintain a very full state of alertness and mindfulness, and then try to see the natural state of your consciousness."[216]

Social stancesEdit

AbortionEdit

The Dalai Lama has said that, from the perspective of the Buddhist precepts, abortion is an act of killing.[217] He has also clarified that in certain cases abortion could be considered ethically acceptable "if the unborn child will be retarded or if the birth will create serious problems for the parent", which could only be determined on a case-by-case basis.[218]

Democracy, nonviolence, religious harmony, and Tibet's relationship with IndiaEdit

 
Tenzin Gyatso in Vienna, Austria, in 2012

The Dalai Lama says that he is active in spreading India's message of nonviolence and religious harmony throughout the world. "I am the messenger of India's ancient thoughts the world over." He has said that democracy has deep roots in India. He says he considers India the master and Tibet its disciple, as great scholars went from India to Tibet to teach Buddhism. He has noted that millions of people lost their lives in violence and the economies of many countries were ruined due to conflicts in the 20th century. "Let the 21st century be a century of tolerance and dialogue."[219]

The Dalai Lama has also critiqued proselytization and certain types of conversion, believing the practices to be contrary to the fundamental ideas of religious harmony and spiritual practice.[220][221][222][223] He has stated that "It’s very important that our religious traditions live in harmony with one another and I don’t think proselytizing contributes to this. Just as fighting and killing in the name of religion are very sad, it’s not appropriate to use religion as a ground or a means for defeating others."[224] In particular, he has critiqued Christian approaches to conversion in Asia, stating that he has "come across situations where serving the people is a cover for proselytization."[225] The Dalai Lama has labeled such practices counter to the "message of Christ" and has emphasized that such individuals "practice conversion like a kind of war against peoples and cultures."[222] In a statement with Hindu religious leaders, he expressed that he opposes "conversions by any religious tradition using various methods of enticement."[223]

In 1993, the Dalai Lama attended the World Conference on Human Rights and made a speech titled "Human Rights and Universal Responsibility".[226]

In 2001, in response to a question from a Seattle schoolgirl, the Dalai Lama said that it is permissible to shoot someone in self-defense (if the person was "trying to kill you") and he emphasized that the shot should not be fatal.[227]

In 2013, the Dalai Lama criticised Buddhist monks' attacks on Muslims in Myanmar and rejected violence by Buddhists, saying: "Buddha always teaches us about forgiveness, tolerance, compassion. If from one corner of your mind, some emotion makes you want to hit, or want to kill, then please remember Buddha's faith. ... All problems must be solved through dialogue, through talk. The use of violence is outdated, and never solves problems."[228] In May 2013, he said "Really, killing people in the name of religion is unthinkable, very sad."[229] In May 2015, the Dalai Lama called on Myanmar's Nobel Peace Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi to do more to help the Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar, said that he had urged Suu Kyi to address the Rohingyas' plight in two previous private meetings and had been rebuffed.[230]

In 2017, after Chinese dissident and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Liu Xiaobo died of organ failure while in Chinese government custody, the Dalai Lama said he was "deeply saddened" and that he believed that Liu's "unceasing efforts in the cause of freedom will bear fruit before long."[231]

In October 2020, the Dalai Lama stated that he did not support Tibetan independence and hoped to visit China as a Nobel Prize winner. He said "I prefer the concept of a 'republic' in the People's Republic of China. In the concept of republic, ethnic minorities are like Tibetans, The Mongols, Manchus, and Xinjiang Uyghurs, we can live in harmony".[232]

Diet and animal welfareEdit

People think of animals as if they were vegetables, and that is not right. We have to change the way people think about animals. I encourage the Tibetan people and all people to move toward a vegetarian diet that doesn't cause suffering.

— Dalai Lama[233]

The Dalai Lama advocates compassion for animals and frequently urges people to try vegetarianism or at least reduce their consumption of meat. In Tibet, where historically meat was the most common food, most monks historically have been omnivores, including the Dalai Lamas. The Fourteenth Dalai Lama was raised in a meat-eating family but converted to vegetarianism after arriving in India, where vegetables are much more easily available and vegetarianism is widespread.[234] He spent many years as a vegetarian, but after contracting hepatitis in India and suffering from weakness, his doctors told him to return to eating meat which he now does twice a week.[235] This attracted public attention when, during a visit to the White House, he was offered a vegetarian menu but declined by replying, as he is known to do on occasion when dining in the company of non-vegetarians, "I'm a Tibetan monk, not a vegetarian".[236] His own home kitchen, however, is completely vegetarian.[237]

Economics and political stanceEdit

The Dalai Lama has referred to himself as a Marxist and has articulated criticisms of capitalism.[238][239][240]

I am not only a socialist but also a bit leftist, a communist. In terms of social economy theory, I am a Marxist. I think I am farther to the left than the Chinese leaders. [Bursts out laughing.] They are capitalists.[238]

He reports hearing of communism when he was very young, but only in the context of the destruction of Communist Mongolia. It was only when he went on his trip to Beijing that he learned about Marxist theory from his interpreter Baba Phuntsog Wangyal.[241] At that time, he reports, "I was so attracted to Marxism, I even expressed my wish to become a Communist Party member", citing his favorite concepts of self-sufficiency and equal distribution of wealth. He does not believe that China implemented "true Marxist policy",[242] and thinks the historical communist states such as the Soviet Union "were far more concerned with their narrow national interests than with the Workers' International".[243] Moreover, he believes one flaw of historically "Marxist regimes" is that they place too much emphasis on destroying the ruling class, and not enough on compassion.[243] He finds Marxism superior to capitalism, believing the latter is only concerned with "how to make profits", whereas the former has "moral ethics".[244] Stating in 1993:

Of all the modern economic theories, the economic system of Marxism is founded on moral principles, while capitalism is concerned only with gain and profitability. Marxism is concerned with the distribution of wealth on an equal basis and the equitable utilisation of the means of production. It is also concerned with the fate of the working classes—that is, the majority—as well as with the fate of those who are underprivileged and in need, and Marxism cares about the victims of minority-imposed exploitation. For those reasons the system appeals to me, and it seems fair. I just recently read an article in a paper where His Holiness the Pope also pointed out some positive aspects of Marxism.[239][243]

EnvironmentEdit

The Dalai Lama is outspoken in his concerns about environmental problems, frequently giving public talks on themes related to the environment. He has pointed out that many rivers in Asia originate in Tibet, and that the melting of Himalayan glaciers could affect the countries in which the rivers flow.[245] He acknowledged official Chinese laws against deforestation in Tibet, but lamented they can be ignored due to possible corruption.[246] He was quoted as saying "ecology should be part of our daily life";[247] personally, he takes showers instead of baths, and turns lights off when he leaves a room.[245] Around 2005, he started campaigning for wildlife conservation, including by issuing a religious ruling against wearing tiger and leopard skins as garments.[248][249] The Dalai Lama supports the anti-whaling position in the whaling controversy, but has criticized the activities of groups such as the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society (which carries out acts of what it calls aggressive nonviolence against property).[250] Before the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference, he urged national leaders to put aside domestic concerns and take collective action against climate change.[251]

SexualityEdit

A monk since childhood, the Dalai Lama has said that sex offers fleeting satisfaction and leads to trouble later, while chastity offers a better life and "more independence, more freedom".[252] He has said that problems arising from conjugal life sometimes even lead to suicide or murder.[253] He has asserted that all religions have the same view about adultery.[254]

In his discussions of the traditional Buddhist view on appropriate sexual behavior, he explains the concept of "right organ in the right object at the right time", which historically has been interpreted as indicating that oral, manual and anal sex (both homosexual and heterosexual) are not appropriate in Buddhism or for Buddhists. However, he also says that in modern times all common, consensual sexual practices that do not cause harm to others are ethically acceptable and that society should accept and respect people who are gay or transgender from a secular point of view.[255] In a 1994 interview with OUT Magazine, the Dalai Lama clarified his personal opinion on the matter by saying, "If someone comes to me and asks whether homosexuality is okay or not, I will ask 'What is your companion's opinion?' If you both agree, then I think I would say, 'If two males or two females voluntarily agree to have mutual satisfaction without further implication of harming others, then it is okay.'"[256] However, when interviewed by Canadian TV news anchor Evan Solomon on CBC News: Sunday about whether homosexuality is acceptable in Buddhism, the Dalai Lama responded that "it is sexual misconduct".[257]

In his 1996 book Beyond Dogma, he described a traditional Buddhist definition of an appropriate sexual act as follows: "A sexual act is deemed proper when the couples use the organs intended for sexual intercourse and nothing else ... Homosexuality, whether it is between men or between women, is not improper in itself. What is improper is the use of organs already defined as inappropriate for sexual contact."[258] He elaborated in 1997, explaining that the basis of that teaching was unknown to him. He also conveyed his own "willingness to consider the possibility that some of the teachings may be specific to a particular cultural and historic context".[259]

In 2006, the Dalai Lama has expressed concern at "reports of violence and discrimination against" LGBT people and urged "respect, tolerance and the full recognition of human rights for all".[260]

Women's rightsEdit

In 2007, he said that the next Dalai Lama could possibly be a woman: "If a woman reveals herself as more useful the lama could very well be reincarnated in this form."[261]

In 2009, on gender equality and sexism, the Dalai Lama proclaimed at the National Civil Rights Museum in Memphis, Tennessee: "I call myself a feminist. Isn't that what you call someone who fights for women's rights?" He also said that by nature, women are more compassionate "based on their biology and ability to nurture and birth children". He called on women to "lead and create a more compassionate world", citing the good works of nurses and mothers.[262]

At a 2014 appearance at the Tata Institute of Social Sciences in Mumbai, the Dalai Lama said, "Since women have been shown to be more sensitive to others' suffering, their leadership may be more effective."[263]

In 2015, he said in a BBC interview that if a female succeeded him, "that female must be attractive, otherwise it is not much use," and when asked if he was joking, replied, "No. True!" He followed with a joke about his current success being due to his own appearance.[264]

HealthEdit

In 2013, at the Culture of Compassion event in Derry, Northern Ireland, the Dalai Lama said that "Warm-heartedness is a key factor for healthy individuals, healthy families and healthy communities."[265]

Response to COVID-19Edit

In a 2020 statement in Time magazine on the COVID-19 pandemic, the Dalai Lama said that the pandemic must be combated with compassion, empirical science, prayer, and the courage of healthcare workers. He emphasized "emotional disarmament" (seeing things with a clear and realistic perspective, without fear or rage) and wrote: "The outbreak of this terrible coronavirus has shown that what happens to one person can soon affect every other being. But it also reminds us that a compassionate or constructive act – whether working in hospitals or just observing social distancing – has the potential to help many."[266][267]

ImmigrationEdit

In September 2018, speaking at a conference in Malmö, Sweden home to a large immigrant population, the Dalai Lama said "I think Europe belongs to the Europeans", but also that Europe was "morally responsible" for helping "a refugee really facing danger against their life". He stated that Europe has a responsibility to refugees to "receive them, help them, educate them", but that they should aim to return to their places of origin and that "they ultimately should rebuild their own country".[268][269]

Speaking to German reporters in 2016, the Dalai Lama said there are "too many" refugees in Europe, adding that "Europe, for example Germany, cannot become an Arab country." He also said that "Germany is Germany".[270][271]

Retirement and succession plansEdit

In May 2011, the Dalai Lama retired from the Central Tibetan Administration.[272]

In September 2011, the Dalai Lama issued the following statement concerning his succession and reincarnation:

When I am about ninety I will consult the high Lamas of the Tibetan Buddhist traditions, the Tibetan public, and other concerned people who follow Tibetan Buddhism, and re-evaluate whether the institution of the Dalai Lama should continue or not. On that basis we will take a decision. If it is decided that the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama should continue and there is a need for the Fifteenth Dalai Lama to be recognized, responsibility for doing so will primarily rest on the concerned officers of the Dalai Lama's Gaden Phodrang Trust. They should consult the various heads of the Tibetan Buddhist traditions and the reliable oath-bound Dharma Protectors who are linked inseparably to the lineage of the Dalai Lamas. They should seek advice and direction from these concerned beings and carry out the procedures of search and recognition in accordance with past tradition. I shall leave clear written instructions about this. Bear in mind that, apart from the reincarnation recognized through such legitimate methods, no recognition or acceptance should be given to a candidate chosen for political ends by anyone, including those in the People's Republic of China.[273][274]

In October 2011, the Dalai Lama repeated his statement in an interview with Canadian CTV News. He added that Chinese laws banning the selection of successors based on reincarnation will not impact his decisions. "Naturally my next life is entirely up to me. No one else. And also this is not a political matter," he said in the interview. The Dalai Lama also added that he has not decided on whether he would reincarnate or be the last Dalai Lama.[275]

In an interview with the German newspaper Welt am Sonntag published on 7 September 2014 the Dalai Lama stated "the institution of the Dalai Lama has served its purpose", and that "We had a Dalai Lama for almost five centuries. The 14th Dalai Lama now is very popular. Let us then finish with a popular Dalai Lama."[276]

Gyatso has also expressed fear that the Chinese government would manipulate any reincarnation selection in order to choose a successor that would go along with their political goals.[277] In response the Chinese government implied that it would select another Dalai Lama regardless of his decision.[278]

In October 2019, the 14th Dalai Lama stated that because of the feudal origin of the Dalai Lama reincarnation system, the reincarnation system should end.[279]

CIA Tibetan programEdit

In October 1998, the Dalai Lama's administration acknowledged that it received $1.7 million a year in the 1960s from the U.S. government through a Central Intelligence Agency program.[280] When asked by CIA officer John Kenneth Knaus in 1995 to comment on the CIA Tibetan program, the Dalai Lama replied that though it helped the morale of those resisting the Chinese, "thousands of lives were lost in the resistance" and further, that "the U.S. Government had involved itself in his country's affairs not to help Tibet but only as a Cold War tactic to challenge the Chinese."[281]

His administration's reception of CIA funding has become one of the grounds for some state-run Chinese newspapers to discredit him along with the Tibetan independence movement.

In his autobiography Freedom in Exile, the Dalai Lama criticized the CIA again for supporting the Tibetan independence movement "not because they (the CIA) cared about Tibetan independence, but as part of their worldwide efforts to destabilize all communist governments".[282]

In 1999, the Dalai Lama said that the CIA Tibetan program had been harmful for Tibet because it was primarily aimed at serving American interests, and "once the American policy toward China changed, they stopped their help."[283]

CriticismEdit

Ties to IndiaEdit

 
Stone Plaque at a plantation by Tenzin in Amaravathi

The Chinese press has criticized the Dalai Lama for his close ties with India. His 2010 remarks at the International Buddhist Conference in Gujarat saying that he was "Tibetan in appearance, but an Indian in spirituality" and referral to himself as a "son of India" in particular led the People's Daily to opine, "Since the Dalai Lama deems himself an Indian rather than Chinese, then why is he entitled to represent the voice of the Tibetan people?"[284] Dhundup Gyalpo of the Tibet Sun replied that Tibetan religion could be traced back to Nalanda in India, and that Tibetans have no connection to Chinese "apart ... from a handful of culinary dishes".[285] The People's Daily stressed the links between Chinese Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism had accused the Dalai Lama of "betraying southern Tibet to India".[284] In 2008, the Dalai Lama said for the first time that the territory India claims and administers as part of Arunachal Pradesh is part of India, citing the disputed 1914 Simla Accord.[286]

Shugden controversyEdit

The Dorje Shugden Controversy reappeared in the Gelug school by the publication of the Yellow Book in 1976, containing stories about wrathful acts of Dorje Shugden against Gelugpas who also practiced Nyingma teachings. In response, the 14th Dalai Lama, a Gelugpa himself and advocate of an "inclusive" approach to the teachings of Tibetan Buddhism,[287][288] started to speak out against the practice of Dorje Shugden in 1978.[289]

The controversy has attracted attention in the West because of demonstrations held in 2008 and 2014 by Dorje Shugden practitioners. A 2015 Reuters investigation determined "that the religious sect behind the protests has the backing of the Communist Party" and that the "group has emerged as an instrument in Beijing's long campaign to undermine support for the Dalai Lama".[290] After the Reuters investigation revealed that China backs it, the Shugden group halted operations and disbanded.[291]

Gedhun Choekyi NyimaEdit

In April 2018, the Dalai Lama confirmed the official Chinese claims about Gedhun Choekyi Nyima by saying that he knew from "reliable sources" that the Panchen Lama he had recognized was alive and receiving normal education. He said he hoped that the Chinese-recognised Panchen Lama (Gyaincain Norbu) studied well under the guidance of a good teacher, adding that there were instances in Tibetan Buddhist tradition, of a reincarnated lama taking more than one manifestation.[292][293]

Public imageEdit

 
The Dalai Lama meeting with U.S. President Barack Obama in 2016
 
Buddhist temple in Kalmykia, Russia

The Dalai Lama places highly in global surveys of the world's most admired men, ranking with Pope Francis as among the world's religious leaders cited as the most admired.[294][295]

The Dalai Lama's appeal is variously ascribed to his charismatic personality, international fascination with Buddhism, his universalist values, and international sympathy for the Tibetans.[296] In the 1990s, many films were released by the American film industry about Tibet, including biopics of the Dalai Lama. This is attributed to both the Dalai Lama's 1989 Nobel Peace Prize as well as to the euphoria following the Fall of Communism. The most notable films, Kundun and Seven Years in Tibet (both released in 1997), portrayed "an idyllic pre-1950 Tibet, with a smiling, soft-spoken Dalai Lama at the helm – a Dalai Lama sworn to non-violence": portrayals the Chinese government decried as ahistorical.[297]

The Dalai Lama has his own pages on Twitter,[298] Facebook,[299] and Instagram.[300]

 
The Dalai Lama meeting with Congressional leaders Nancy Pelosi and John Boehner in 2011

The Dalai Lama has tried to mobilize international support for Tibetan activities.[301] The Dalai Lama has been successful in gaining Western support for himself and the cause of greater Tibetan autonomy, including vocal support from numerous Hollywood celebrities, most notably the actors Richard Gere and Steven Seagal, as well as lawmakers from several major countries.[302] Photos of the Dalai Lama were banned after March 1959 Lhasa protests until after the end of the Cultural Revolution in 1976. In 1996 the Chinese Communist Party once again reinstated the total prohibition of any photo of the 14th Dalai Lama. According to the Tibet Information Network, "authorities in Tibet have begun banning photographs of the exiled Dalai Lama in monasteries and public places, according to reports from a monitoring group and a Tibetan newspaper. Plainclothes police went to hotels and restaurants in Lhasa, the Tibetan capital, on 22 and 23 April and ordered Tibetans to remove pictures of the Dalai Lama ..."[303] The ban continues in many locations throughout Tibet today.

In the mediaEdit

The 14th Dalai Lama has appeared in several non-fiction films including:

He has been depicted as a character in various other movies and television programs including:

The Dalai Lama was featured on 5 March 2017, episode of the HBO late-night talk show Last Week Tonight, in which host John Oliver conducted a comedic interview with the Dalai Lama, focusing on the topics of Tibetan sovereignty, Tibetan self-immolations, and his succession plans.[306][relevant?]

He has been the subject of many books including:

Awards and honoursEdit

 
The Congressional Gold Medal was awarded to Tenzin Gyatso in 2007
 
The Dalai Lama receiving a Congressional Gold Medal in 2007. From left: Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Nancy Pelosi, Senate President pro tempore Robert Byrd and U.S. President George W. Bush

The Dalai Lama has received numerous awards and honors worldwide over his spiritual and political career.[310][311][312] For a more complete list see Awards and honors presented to the 14th Dalai Lama.

After the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, the Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded him the 1989 Nobel Peace Prize.[313] The Committee officially gave the prize to the Dalai Lama for "the struggle of the liberation of Tibet and the efforts for a peaceful resolution"[314] and "in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi"[315] although the president of the committee also said that the prize was intended to put pressure on China,[316] which was reportedly infuriated that the award was given to a separatist.[313]

He has also been awarded the:

In 2006, he became one of only six people ever to be granted Honorary Citizenship of Canada. In 2007 he was named Presidential Distinguished Professor at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, the first time he accepted a university appointment.[323]

PublicationsEdit

DiscographyEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ US: /ˈdɑːl ˈlɑːmə/, UK: /ˈdæl ˈlɑːmə/
  2. ^ Tibetan: ལྷ་མོ་དོན་འགྲུབ།, Wylie: Lha-mo Don-'grub, ZYPY: Lhamo Tönzhub, Lhasa dialect: [9 ˈl̥ámo ˈtʰø̃ ̀ɖup]; simplified Chinese: 拉莫顿珠; traditional Chinese: 拉莫頓珠; pinyin: Lāmò Dùnzhū
  3. ^ At the time of Tenzin Gyatso's birth, Taktser was a town located in the Chinese province of Tsinghai (Qinghai) and was controlled by Ma Lin, a warlord allied with Chiang Kai-shek and appointed as governor of Qinghai Province by the Kuomintang.[27][28][29][30]
  4. ^ It has been noted that one of the examining debate partners of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama was Kyabje Choden Rinpoche of Sera monastery (Jey College), who debated with His Holiness on the topic of the two truths doctrine (Wylie: bden pa gnyis).[77]

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ https://zh.m.wikisource.org/zh-hans/%E5%9B%BD%E5%8A%A1%E9%99%A2%E5%85%B3%E4%BA%8E%E6%92%A4%E9%94%80%E8%BE%BE%E8%B5%96%E5%96%87%E5%98%9B%C2%B7%E4%B8%B9%E5%A2%9E%E5%98%89%E6%8E%AA%E8%81%8C%E5%8A%A1%E7%9A%84%E5%86%B3%E5%AE%9A 一九六四年十二月十七日国务院全体会议第一五一次会议通过: 西藏自治区筹备委员会主任委员达赖喇嘛·丹增嘉措,一九五九年发动叛国的反革命武装叛乱。在逃往国外以后,组织流亡伪政府,公布伪宪法,支持印度反动派对我国的侵略,并积极组织和训练逃亡国外的残匪骚扰祖国边境。这一切都证明他早已自绝于祖国和人民,是一个死心塌地为帝国主义和外国反动派作走狗的叛国分子。国务院根据西藏地方人民的要求,决定撤销达赖喇嘛·丹增嘉措的西藏自治区筹备委员会主任委员和委员的职务。 On December 17, 1964, the 151st meeting of the plenary session of the State Council approved: The Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso, chairman of the Tibet Autonomous Region Preparatory Committee, launched a treasonous counter-revolutionary armed rebellion in 1959. After fleeing abroad, he organized a pseudo-government in exile, promulgated a pseudo-constitution, supported the Indian reactionaries’ aggression against our country, and actively organized and trained bandits who fled abroad to harass the motherland’s borders. All this proves that he has terminated himself from the motherland and the people, and he is a traitor who is desperately running for the imperialism and foreign reactionaries. The State Council decided to remove the Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso’s duties as chairman and member of the Tibet Autonomous Region Preparatory Committee in accordance with the request of the local people in Tibet.
  2. ^ a b "Brief Biography". DalaiLama.com. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  3. ^ a b "A Brief Biography of His Holiness the Dalai Lama". fmpt.org. Archived from the original on 30 June 2020. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  4. ^ "His Holiness the Dalai Lama Speaks to Tibetan Students in Delhi". Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama. 26 January 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  5. ^ "Chronology of Events". Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  6. ^ Van Schaik, Sam (2011). Tibet: A History. Yale University Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-300-15404-7.
  7. ^ Buswell, Robert E.; Lopez, Donald S., Jr. (2013). The Princeton dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9781400848058. Entries on "Dalai Lama" and "Dga' ldan pho brang".
  8. ^ "Definition of Dalai Lama in English". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 2 May 2015. The spiritual head of Tibetan Buddhism and, until the establishment of Chinese communist rule, the spiritual and temporal ruler of Tibet
  9. ^ https://www.google.com/books/edition/%E5%8D%81%E5%9B%9B%E4%B8%96%E8%BE%BE%E8%B5%96%E5%96%87%E5%98%9B/etOVRV2Lr6oC?hl=en&gbpv=1&pg=PA53&printsec=frontcover
  10. ^ https://time.com/longform/dalai-lama-60-year-exile/ He has rejected calls for Tibetan independence since 1974 — acknowledging the geopolitical reality that any settlement must keep Tibet within the People’s Republic of China.
  11. ^ "Life in exile". britannica.com. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  12. ^ Yardley, Jim; Wong, Edward (10 March 2011). "Dalai Lama Gives Up Political Role". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  13. ^ "About Central Tibetan Administration". tibet.net/. Central Tibetan Administration. Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  14. ^ http://media.tibet.cn/culture/history/1320039900161.shtml 即将抵达西藏那曲(黑河)时,西藏噶厦和民众大会(春都)于8月23日突然宣布青海灵童拉木顿珠为转世的十四世达赖喇嘛,并按十四世达赖喇嘛的规格迎请拉木顿珠至拉萨 When he was about to arrive in Nagqu (Heihe), Tibet, the Kashag of Tibet and the People’s Assembly (Chundu) suddenly announced on August 23 that Qinghai’s soul boy Lhamo Dhondup was the reincarnated 14th Dalai Lama, and according to the 14th Dalai Lama’s specifications/standard to welcome Lhamo Dhondup to Lhasa
  15. ^ a b c "Chronology of Events". The 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet. Office of the Dalai Lama. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  16. ^ a b c Melvyn C. Goldstein (18 June 1991). A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951: The Demise of the Lamaist State. University of California Press. pp. 328 ff. ISBN 978-0-520-91176-5.
  17. ^ "Report to Wu Zhongxin from the Regent Reting Rinpoche Regarding the Process of Searching and Recognizing the Thirteenth Dalai lama's Reincarnated Soul Boy as well as the Request for an Exemption to Drawing Lots – – The Reincarnation of Living Buddhas". www.livingbuddha.us.com. Archived from the original on 31 March 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  18. ^ "The National Government's Decree on the Special Approval of Recognizing Lhamo Thondup as the Fourteenth Dalai Lama with an Exemption of Drawing Lots and the Appropriation of the Expenditure for His Enthronement – – The Reincarnation of Living Buddhas". www.livingbuddha.us.com. Archived from the original on 1 April 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  19. ^ "Beijing: Dalai Lama's Reincarnation Must Comply with Chinese Laws".
  20. ^ Davidson, Richard J.; Lutz, Antoine (1 January 2008). "Buddha's Brain: Neuroplasticity and Meditation". IEEE Signal Process Magazine. 25 (1): 174–176. doi:10.1109/msp.2008.4431873. PMC 2944261. PMID 20871742.
  21. ^ Koch, Christof (1 July 2013). "Neuroscientists and the Dalai Lama Swap Insights on Meditation". Scientific American. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  22. ^ Foley, Ryan J. (14 May 2010). "Scientist, Dalai Lama Share Research Effort". NBC News. Associated Press. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  23. ^ Sep 28, Ratnottama Sengupta | TNN |; 2008; Ist, 04:30. "Now, Hindus can't head Mahabodhi Society | Kolkata News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 16 February 2021.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  24. ^ "The Children of Gandhi" (excerpt). Time. 31 December 1999. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013.
  25. ^ "Congressional Gold Medal Recipients". history.house.gov. United States House of Representatives. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  26. ^ Thondup, Gyalo; Thurston, Anne F. (2015). The Noodle Maker of Kalimpong: The Untold Story of My Struggle for Tibet. Gurgaon: Random House Publishers India Private Limited. p. 20. ISBN 978-81-8400-387-1. Lama Thubten named my new brother Lhamo Thondup.
  27. ^ a b Thomas Laird, The Story of Tibet. Conversations with the Dalai Lama, Grove Press: New York, 2006.
  28. ^ Li, T.T. Historical Status of Tibet, Columbia University Press, p. 179.
  29. ^ Bell, Charles, "Portrait of the Dalai Lama", p. 399.
  30. ^ Goldstein, Melvyn C. Goldstein, A history of modern Tibet, pp. 315–317.
  31. ^ A 60-Point Commentary on the Chinese Government Publication: A Collection of Historical Archives of Tibet, DIIR Publications, Dharamsala, November 2008: "Chija Tagtser born holy precious child Lhamo Dhondup ... the holy reincarnate child in Chija Tagtser."
  32. ^ https://news.ifeng.com/history/1/renwu/200810/1011_2665_826144.shtml 3岁时被第十三世达赖喇嘛确认为塔泽仁波切的转世灵童
  33. ^ Thomas Laird, The Story of Tibet: Conversations With the Dalai Lama, p. 262 (2007) "At that time in my village", he said, "we spoke a broken Chinese. As a child, I spoke Chinese first, but it was a broken Xining language which was (a dialect of) the Chinese language." "So your first language", I responded, "was a broken Chinese regional dialect, which we might call Xining Chinese. It was not Tibetan. You learned Tibetan when you came to Lhasa." "Yes", he answered, "that is correct ..."
  34. ^ The economist, Volume 390, Issues 8618–8624. Economist Newspaper Ltd. 2009. p. 144.
  35. ^ Politically incorrect tourism, The Economist, 26 February 2009: "When the Dalai Lama was born, the region, regarded by Tibetans as part of Amdo, a province of their historic homeland, was under the control of a Muslim warlord, Ma Bufang. The Dalai Lama and his family didn't learn Tibetan until they moved to Lhasa in 1939."
  36. ^ http://livingbuddha.us.com/cn/view-0da8ca9d53614b2d93cedc7171ed8cfa.html
  37. ^ 管理喇嘛寺廟條例  [Regulations on the Management of Lama Temples] (in Chinese). 1935 – via Wikisource.
  38. ^ 廢 管理喇嘛寺廟條例 [Abolish the Regulations on Management of Lama Temples]. Laws & Regulations Database of The Republic of China. 11 June 1992.
  39. ^ 喇嘛轉世辦法  [Lama reincarnation method] (in Chinese). 1936 – via Wikisource.
  40. ^ 廢 喇嘛轉世辦法 [Abolish the method of reincarnation]. Laws & Regulations Database of The Republic of China. 20 February 1993.
  41. ^ 去转生一族之私
  42. ^ a b c Bell 1946, p. 397.
  43. ^ a b c Laird 2006, p. 265.
  44. ^ Laird 2006, pp. 262–263.
  45. ^ Laird 2006, pp. 265–266.
  46. ^ Piper Rae Gaubatz (1996). Beyond the Great Wall: urban form and transformation on the Chinese frontiers. Stanford University Press. p. 36. ISBN 0-8047-2399-0. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  47. ^ Laird 2006, p. 262.
  48. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 459.
  49. ^ a b Bell 1946, p. 398.
  50. ^ Richardson 1984, p. 152.
  51. ^ Bell 1946, pp. 398–399.
  52. ^ Richardson 1984, pp. 152–153.
  53. ^ a b Laird 2006, p. 267.
  54. ^ a b Richardson 1984, p. 153.
  55. ^ 1938年9月22日,西藏驻京办事处代表阿旺桑丹、格登恪典、图丹桑结等电告蒙藏委员会报告寻获灵儿,并将其送西藏掣签认定,电称:“达赖佛转世事,经民众代表寻访结果,西藏内部寻得灵异幼童2名,西宁塔尔寺方面寻得灵异幼童1名。依照西藏宗教仪式,所寻选之幼童应聚集西藏,降驾掣签,认定真正达赖之转世,既多灵异后,复经庄严之金本巴瓶内典礼拈之。现典礼期将近,关于西宁塔尔寺地方所寻选者,请中央政府俯允该主持人员,迅将寻选幼童送至西藏,参加典礼并恳发给执照,以利行程。” [As for the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama, as a result of a search by representatives of the people, two supernatural children were found in Tibet, and one supernatural child was found in Xining. According to Tibetan religious ceremonies, the selected young children should gather in Tibet, Golden Urn ceremony should be held, and determine that the true reincarnation of the Dalai Lama. The ceremony is approaching. Regarding the candidates for the Taer Monastery in Xining, the central government is requested to host, and promptly send the selected children to Tibet, participate in the ceremony and issue approval to facilitate the itinerary. "]
  56. ^ https://www.sohu.com/a/461098896_523177 蒙藏委员会于1938年10月拟定了《十四世达赖喇嘛转世掣签征认办法》The Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission drafted the "Method of Using Golden Urn for the 14th Dalai Lama" in October 1938.
  57. ^ {{citation |script-title=zh:1938年12月12日热振摄政致蒙藏委员会电报称“达赖大师转世之化身三灵儿,已蒙转电青海省政府督促纪仓佛速将西宁所选灵儿送来拉萨,良深感慰。所有中央派员参加办法一则,业经与司伦、噶厦商议,三灵儿迎到后,举行掣签典礼之际,为昭大信,悦遐迩计,中央当派员参加。” |trans-title=For the 3 candidates of reincarnation of the Dalai Lama, request has been sent to the Qinghai Provincial Government to urge to send candidate of Xining to Lhasa, which is deeply gratified. All members of the Central Committee, along with Kashag, when 3 candidates arrived, lottery ceremony would be held, the Central (Government) should dispatch officials to participate.
  58. ^ https://max.book118.com/html/2015/1105/28570011.shtm 国内藏学研究学者周伟洲先生:从摄政热振活佛方面来看,青海灵童的选定主要是他的功绩,因此他希望青海灵童选为转世的十四世达赖喇嘛。而作为助理摄政的郎堆对此表示异议,积极支持另一名灵童,即他的亲戚尧西颇本之子。这自然使原来事事要与郎堆商议的热振与郎堆的矛盾激化。因此,在1939年4月,热振活佛提出要辞去摄政职务,而民众大会(春都)为挽留热振,决定让郎堆辞去助理摄政之职,从此热振就独揽西藏地方大权。Domestic Tibetology research scholar Mr. Zhou Weizhou wrote: From the perspective of Reting Rinpoche, the Qinghai soul boy was selected mainly because of his merits. Therefore, he hopes that the Qinghai soul boy will be selected as the reincarnation of the 14th Dalai Lama. As the Vice Regent, Langdun expressed dissent and actively supported another soul boy, the son of his relative Yaoxipoben. This naturally aggravated the contradiction between Langdun and Reting Rinpoche who had to discuss everything with Langdun. Therefore, in April 1939, Regent Rinpoche proposed to resign from the post of regent, and the People's Assembly (Chundu) decided to let Langdun resign from the post of Vice Regent in order to retain Regent Rinpoche. Since then, Regent Rinpoche has taken over the power of Tibet.
  59. ^ http://media.tibet.cn/culture/history/1320039900161.shtml 在1939年9月17日吴忠信未启程离渝时,曾接到热振活佛来电,内除了感谢蒙藏委员会“屡饬催促青海省政府,此恩此德,始由青海派官兵护送,将灵儿并佛眷父母及纪仓佛人等护送前来”外,还郑重表示:“至于灵儿入藏后所有一切应行征认、剃发、坐床等大小典礼,均俟中央代表吴委员长到拉萨时,应如何办理,再当次第呈报。” On September 17, 1939, when Wu Zhongxin was about to leave Chongqing, he received call from the Living Buddha Reting Rinpoche. In addition to thanking the Mongolian and Tibetan Committee for "repeatingly urging the Qinghai Provincial Government, this kind of grace was only escorted by Qinghai's officers and soldiers. Reincarnated soul boy came with the escorts of the parents," and solemnly stated: "As for all the ceremonies for identification, haircut, sitting-in-the- bed, etc., of the reincarnated soul boy, will be reported to the Central Representative Wu when he arrives in Lhasa"
  60. ^ Laird 2006, pp. 268–269.
  61. ^ http://media.tibet.cn/culture/history/1320039900161.shtml 在藏历十月十三日(公历11月23日)又按例为拉木顿珠剃发、赠号、受戒 On October 13th of the Tibetan calendar (November 23rd of the Gregorian calendar), according to the convention, Lhamo Thondup was shaved, was named, and received ordination. )
  62. ^ a b Goldstein 1991, p. 328–.
  63. ^ "Report to Wu Zhongxin from the Regent Reting Rinpoche Regarding the Process of Searching and Recognizing the Thirteenth Dalai lama's Reincarnated Soul Boy as well as the Request for an Exemption to Drawing Lots". The Reincarnation of Living Buddhas. Museum of Tibetan Culture of China Tibetology Research Center. 1940.
  64. ^ https://news.ifeng.com/history/1/renwu/200804/0411_2665_486506_2.shtml 吴忠信当日召见贡觉仲尼,要其立即向热振转达,必须照旧议办理,否则中央人员不惜全体回京。经此波折后,热振态度顿趋软化。第二天即派员到行辕道歉,“说明顾嘉总堪布不明底里,至有误会”,请吴忠信指定察看灵童的时间和地点。吴忠信遂派人转告热振决定于1月31晨在罗布林卡荷亭内察看。Wu Zhongxin summoned Gongjue Zhongni on the same day and asked him to convey to Regent immediately, he must proceed based on traditional custom, otherwise officials of the Central (Government) would not hesitate to return to Beijing. After these twists and turns, Regent's attitude suddenly softened. On the second day, staff were sent to Xingyuan to apologize, "It shows that there is a misunderstanding", and asked Wu Zhongxin to designate the time and place to inspect the soul boy. Wu Zhongxin then sent someone to tell Regent that he had decided to check in the Norbulingkahe Pavilion on the morning of January 31.
  65. ^ 1940年2月5日,国民政府正式颁发命令:“青海灵童拉木登珠,慧性湛深,灵异特著,查系第十三辈达赖喇嘛转世,应即免予抽签,特准继任为第十四辈达赖喇嘛。此令。” [On February 5, 1940, the National Government formally issued an order: "The Qinghai soul boy, Lamu Dengzhu, has profound wisdom, and a special book. The reincarnation of the 13th generation of the Dalai Lama should be exempted from drawing lots and succeeded to the 14th generation of Dalai Lama. By order."]
  66. ^ "Executive Yuan's Report to the National Government Regarding the Request to Approve Lhamo Thondup to Succeed the Fourteenth Dalai lama and to Appropriate Expenditure for His Enthronement". The Reincarnation of Living Buddhas. Museum of Tibetan Culture of China Tibetology Research Center. 1940.
  67. ^ https://www.google.com/books/edition/%E4%B8%AD%E5%9B%BD%E8%A5%BF%E8%97%8F%E7%9A%84%E5%8E%86%E5%8F%B2%E5%9C%B0%E4%BD%8D/eWCa0NSILSsC?hl=en&gbpv=1&&pg=PA133 正式拨款四十万元作为坐床典礼经费
  68. ^ "Report to Wu Zhongxin from the Regent Reting Rinpoche Regarding the Process of Searching and Recognizing the Thirteenth Dalai lama's Reincarnated Soul Boy as well as the Request for an Exemption to Drawing Lots". The Reincarnation of Living Buddhas. Museum of Tibetan Culture of China Tibetology Research Center. 1940.
  69. ^ https://news.ifeng.com/history/1/renwu/200804/0411_2665_486506_3.shtml
  70. ^ https://www.google.com/books/edition/%E8%A5%BF%E8%97%8F%E5%8E%86%E5%8F%B2/u-n3TYQWqKcC?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=%E7%83%AD%E6%8C%AF+1941&pg=PP116&printsec=frontcover
  71. ^ http://phtv.ifeng.com/phinfo/200805/0512_45_534443.shtml
  72. ^ http://qnck.cyol.com/content/2008-09/16/content_2359746.htm
  73. ^ Diki Tsering (2001). Dalai Lama, My Son: A Mother's Story. Penguin Publishing. ISBN 978-1-101-19943-5.
  74. ^ Banyan (19 March 2015). "The Golden Urn: Even China Accepts That Only the Dalai Lama Can Legitimise Its Rule in Tibet". The Economist. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  75. ^ Lama, Dalai (1990). Freedom in Exile: The Autobiography of the Dalai Lama (1st ed.). New York, NY: HarperCollins. p. 18. ISBN 0-06-039116-2.
  76. ^ Peter Graves (host) (26 April 2005). Dalai Lama: Soul of Tibet. A&E Television Networks. Event occurs at 08:00.
  77. ^ "Debating with the Dalai Lama".
  78. ^ a b c d e f "Profile: The Dalai Lama". BBC News. 25 February 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2009.
  79. ^ a b c Marcello, Patricia Cronin (2003). The Dalai Lama: A Biography. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-32207-5. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  80. ^ Smith, Warren W. Jr. (1997). Tibetan Nation: A History of Tibetan Nationalism and Sino-Tibetan Relations. New Delhi: HarperCollins. pp. 107–149. ISBN 0-8133-3155-2.
  81. ^ Powers, John. The Buddha Party: How the People's Republic of China Works to Define and Control Tibetan Buddhism.
  82. ^ 光绪三年(一八七七年),由八世班禅丹白旺秀和摄政王公德林呼图克图、三大寺和扎什伦布寺的全体僧俗官员,联名要求驻藏大臣转奏朝廷,以只选定了一名灵童,且经各方公认,请免予金瓶制签。当年三月,光绪帝谕旨∶“贡噶仁钦之子罗布藏塔布开甲木措,即作为达赖喇嘛之呼毕勒罕,毋庸制签,钦此。” [In the third year of Guangxu (1877), the eighth Panchen Lama Danbai Wangxiu and the regent Delin Hutuktu, all monks and lay officials from the Three Great Temples and Tashilhunpo Monastery jointly asked the Minister in Tibet to transfer to the court. Since only one soul boy has been selected, and it has been recognized by all parties, please be exempt from signing the golden bottle. In March of that year, Emperor Guangxu issued a decree: "Lob Zangtab, son of Gongga Rinqin, opened Jiamucuo, that is, as the call of the Dalai Lama, Bielehan, there is no need to make a lottery."]
  83. ^ Gould, B.J., The Jewel In The Lotus London: Chatto and Windus, 1957
  84. ^ Bell 1946, p. 400.
  85. ^ 王家伟; 尼玛坚赞 (1997). 中国西藏的历史地位 [Wang Jiawei; Nima Gyaltsen (1997). The historical position of Tibet in China. China Communication Publishing House]. 五洲传播出版社. pp. 133–. ISBN 978-7-80113-303-8.
  86. ^ Lin, Hsiao-ting (2006). "War or Stratagem? Reassessing China's Military Advance towards Tibet, 1942–1943". The China Quarterly. 186: 446–462. doi:10.1017/S0305741006000233. S2CID 154376402.
  87. ^ David P. Barrett; Lawrence N. Shyu (2001). China in the anti-Japanese War, 1937–1945: politics, culture and society. Peter Lang. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-8204-4556-4. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  88. ^ University of Cambridge. Mongolia & Inner Asia Studies Unit (2002). Inner Asia, Volume 4, Issues 1–2. The White Horse Press for the Mongolia and Inner Asia Studies Unit at the University of Cambridge. p. 204. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
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  90. ^ 西藏现代史 [History of Tibet]. 香港大學出版社 [Hong Kong University Publisher]. July 2014. ISBN 9789888139699. "北京中央人民政府毛主席、中国人民解放军朱德司令钧鉴:钧座以大智大勇之略,成救国救民之业,义师所至,全国欢腾,班禅世受国恩,备荷优崇。二十余年来,为了西藏领土主权之完整,呼吁奔走,未尝稍懈。第以未获结果,良用疚心。刻下羁留青海,待命返藏。兹幸在钧座领导之下,西北已获解放,中央人民政府成立,凡有血气,同声鼓舞。今后人民之康乐可期,国家之复兴有望。西藏解放,指日可待。班禅谨代表全藏人民,向钧座致崇高无上之敬意,并矢拥护爱戴之忱。”—十世班禅致中华人民共和国中央人民政府电报 [To President Mao of the Central People's Government of Beijing and Commander Zhu De of the Chinese People's Liberation Army: The scorpion is based on the wisdom of the great wisdom and the courage to save the country and the people. The whole country is full of joy, and the Panchen Lama is blessed by the country. For more than 20 years, I have been dealing with integrity of Tibet territorial sovereignty, without rest. Since result has not been obtained, I felt guilty. I will stay in Qinghai and wait for possible return. Fortunately, under your leadership, the northwest has been liberated, and the Central People’s Government has been established, we're all excited. In the future, the people’s well-being can be expected, and the country’s revival is expected. The liberation of Tibet is just around the corner. On behalf of the entire Tibetan people, please accept my supreme respect and support. " ---- The 10th Panchen Lama to the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China]
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  92. ^ 今年西藏地方政府,特派全权代表噶伦阿沛等五人,于1951年4月底抵达北京,与中央人民政府指定的全权代表进行和谈。双方代表在友好基础上,已于1951年5月23日签订了关于和平解放西藏办法的协议。西藏地方政府及藏族僧俗人民一致拥护,并在毛主席及中央人民政府领导下,积极协助人民解放军进藏部队,巩固国防,驱逐帝国主义势力出西藏,保护祖国领土主权的统一,谨电奉闻。This year, the plenipotentiary of the Tibetan Local Government, Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme and other five people, arrived in Beijing at the end of April 1951 to conduct peace talks with the plenipotentiary designated by the Central People’s Government. On the basis of friendship, representatives of the both sides signed the agreement on measures for the peaceful liberation of Tibet on 23 May 1951. The Tibet Local Government, as well as ecclesiastic and secular folk, unanimously support this agreement, and under the leadership of Chairman Mao and the Central People's Government, will actively support the People's Liberation Army in Tibet in consolidating national defense, drive out imperialist influences from Tibet, and safeguard the unification of the territory and the sovereignty of the Motherland.
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  101. ^ https://zh.m.wikisource.org/zh-hans/%E5%9B%BD%E5%8A%A1%E9%99%A2%E5%85%B3%E4%BA%8E%E6%92%A4%E9%94%80%E8%BE%BE%E8%B5%96%E5%96%87%E5%98%9B%C2%B7%E4%B8%B9%E5%A2%9E%E5%98%89%E6%8E%AA%E8%81%8C%E5%8A%A1%E7%9A%84%E5%86%B3%E5%AE%9A 西藏自治区筹备委员会主任委员达赖喇嘛·丹增嘉措,一九五九年发动叛国的反革命武装叛乱。在逃往国外以后,组织流亡伪政府,公布伪宪法,支持印度反动派对我国的侵略,并积极组织和训练逃亡国外的残匪骚扰祖国边境。这一切都证明他早已自绝于祖国和人民,是一个死心塌地为帝国主义和外国反动派作走狗的叛国分子。国务院根据西藏地方人民的要求,决定撤销达赖喇嘛·丹增嘉措的西藏自治区筹备委员会主任委员和委员的职务。The Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso, chairman of the Tibet Autonomous Region Preparatory Committee, launched a treasonous counter-revolutionary armed rebellion in 1959. After fleeing abroad, he organized a pseudo-government in exile, promulgated a pseudo-constitution, supported the Indian reactionaries’ aggression against our country, and actively organized and trained bandits who fled abroad to harass the motherland’s borders. All this proves that he has terminated himself from the motherland and the people, and he is a traitor who is desperately running for the imperialism and foreign reactionaries. The State Council decided to remove the Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso’s chairman and member of the Tibet Autonomous Region Preparatory Committee in accordance with the request of the local people in Tibet.
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  163. ^ "About the Seventeen Paṇḍitas of Nālandā". Bodhimarga. Archived from the original on 24 April 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2015. they came to shape the very meaning of Buddhist philosophy and religious practice, both in India and Tibet
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SourcesEdit

External linksEdit

14th Dalai Lama
Born: 6 July 1935
Buddhist titles
Preceded by
Thubten Gyatso
Dalai Lama
1935–present
Recognised in 1937; enthroned in 1940
Incumbent
Heir:
15th Dalai Lama
Political offices
Preceded by
Ngawang Sungrab Thutob
Regent
Ruler of Tibet
1950–1959
Part of the People's Republic of China from 1951
fled to India during the 1959 rebellion
New office Director of the Preparatory Committee for the Tibet Autonomous Region
1956–1959
Succeeded by
Choekyi Gyaltsen, 10th Panchen Erdeni
as Acting Director
New office Head of state of the
Central Tibetan Administration

1959–2012
Succeeded by
Lobsang Sangay
as Sikyong
Awards and achievements
Preceded by
United Nations
Peacekeeping Forces
Laureate of the Nobel Peace Prize
1989
Succeeded by
Mikhail Gorbachev