Open main menu

The SASM/GNC/SRC romanization of Tibetan, commonly known as Tibetan pinyin, is the official transcription system for the Tibetan language in the People's Republic of China for personal names and place names.[citation needed] It is based on the Lhasa dialect of Standard Tibetan and reflects the pronunciation[citation needed] except that it does not mark tone. It is used within China as an alternative to the Wylie transliteration for writing Tibetan in the Latin script[citation needed] within academic circles; Wylie transliteration (with a v replacing the apostrophe) is more commonly used.

Contents

OverviewEdit

Onsets overviewEdit

Independent onsets in the initial syllable of a word are transcribed as follows:

ཀ་ ཁ་
ག་
ང་ ཅ་ ཆ་
ཇ་
ཉ་ ཏ་ ཐ་
ད་
ན་ པ་ ཕ་
བ་
མ་ ཙ་ ཚ་
ཛ་
ཝ་ ཞ་
ཤ་
ཟ་
ས་
ཡ་ ར་ ལ་ ཧ་ ཀྱ་ ཁྱ་
གྱ་
ཀྲ་ ཁྲ་
གྲ་
ཧྲ་ ལྷ་ རྷ་
g k ng j q ny d t n b p m z c w x s y r l h gy ky zh ch sh lh rh

For more general case, see #Onsets.

Vowels and final consonantEdit

The 17 vowels of the Lhasa dialect are represented in as follows:

IPA Tibetan
pinyin
IPA Tibetan
pinyin
i i ĩ in
e ê en
ɛ ai/ä ɛ̃ ain/än
a a ã an
u u ũ un
o o õ on
ɔ o
y ü ün
ø oi/ö ø̃ oin/ön

Ending a syllable, -r is usually not pronounced, but it lengthens the preceding vowel. In the same place, -n usually nasalises the preceding vowel. Consonants at the end of a syllable are transcribed as follows:

IPA Tibetan
pinyin
p b
ʔ g/—
r r
m m
ŋ ng

Single syllable orthographyEdit

The tone of a syllable depends mostly on its initial consonant. In this table, each initial is given in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) with the vowel a and a tone mark to present tone register (high/low).

OnsetsEdit

Below is a comprehensive transcription table of onsets of an initial syllable of a word. If the syllable to transcribe is not the first syllable of a word, see #Onset variation.

IPA Wylie transliteration Tibetan pinyin
p, sp, dp, lp b
rb, sb, sbr b
mpà lb, ’b b
pʰá ph, ’ph p
pʰà b p
rm, sm, dm, smr m
m, mr m
w, db, b[1] w
t, rt, lt, st, tw, gt, bt, brt, blt, bst, bld d
ntá lth d
rd, sd, gd, bd, brd, bsd d
ntà zl, bzl, ld, md, ’d d
tʰá th, mth, ’th t
tʰà d, dw t
rn, sn, gn, brn, bsn, mn n
n n
kl, gl, bl, rl, sl, brl, bsl l
l, lw l
l̥á lh lh
tsá ts, rts, sts, rtsw, stsw, gts, bts, brts, bsts z
tsà rdz, gdz, brdz z
ntsà mdz, ’dz z
tsʰá tsh, tshw, mtsh, ’tsh c
tsʰà dz c
s, sr, sw, gs, bs, bsr s
z, zw, gz, bz s
ʈʂá kr, rkr, lkr, skr, tr, pr, lpr, spr, dkr, dpr, bkr, bskr, bsr zh
ʈʂà rgr, lgr, sgr, dgr, dbr, bsgr, rbr, lbr, sbr zh
ɳʈʂà mgr, ’gr, ’dr, ’br zh
ʈʂʰá khr, thr, phr, mkhr, ’khr, ’phr ch
ʈʂʰà gr, dr, br, grw ch
ʂá hr sh
r, rw r
r̥á rh rh
ky, rky, lky, sky, dky, bky, brky, bsky gy
rgy, lgy, sgy, dgy, bgy, brgy, bsgy gy
ɲcà mgy, ’gy gy
cʰá khy, mkhy, ’khy ky
cʰà gy ky
tɕá c, cw, gc, bc, lc, py, lpy, spy, dpy j
tɕà rby, lby, sby, rj, gj, brj, dby j
ɲtɕà lj, mj, ’j, ’by j
tɕʰá ch, mch, ’ch, phy, ’phy q
tɕʰà j, by q
ɕá sh, shw, gsh, bsh x
ɕà zh, zhw, gzh, bzh x
ɲá rny, sny, gny, brny, bsny, mny, nyw, rmy, smy ny
ɲà ny, my ny
g.y y
y y
k, rk, lk, sk, kw, dk, bk, brk, bsk g
rg, lg, sg, dg, bg, brg, bsg g
ŋkà lg, mg, ’g g
kʰá kh, khw, mkh, ’kh k
kʰà g, gw k
ŋá rng, lng, sng, dng, brng, bsng, mng ng
ŋà ng ng
ʔá —, db
ʔà
h, hw h

RimesEdit

Below is a comprehensive transcription table of rimes of a final syllable of a word, with IPA transcription for the Lhasa dialect.[2] If the syllable to transcribe is not the final syllable of a word, see Coda variation.

Take "ཨ" to be the consonant (not "◌").

ཨ། ཨའུ། ཨར། ཨལ།
ཨའི།
ཨག།
ཨགས།
ཨབ།
ཨབས།
ཨད།
ཨས།
ཨང༌།
ཨངས།
ཨམ།
ཨམས།
ཨན།
a au ar ai/ä ag ab ai/ä ang am ain/än
[a] [au̯] [aː] [ɛ:] [aʡ] [əp̚] [ɛ] [aŋ] [am] [ɛ̃ː]
ཨི། ཨིའུ།
ཨེའུ།
ཨིར། ཨིལ།
ཨའི།
ཨིག།
ཨིགས།
ཨིབ།
ཨིབས།
ཨིད།
ཨིས།
ཨིང༌།
ཨིངས།
ཨིམ།
ཨིམས།
ཨིན།
i iu ir i ig ib i ing im in
[i] [iu̯] [iː] [iː] [iʡ] [ip̚] [i] [iŋ] [im] [ĩː]
ཨུ། ཨུར། ཨུལ།
ཨུའི།
ཨུག།
ཨུགས།
ཨུབ།
ཨུབས།
ཨུད།
ཨུས།
ཨུང༌།
ཨུངས།
ཨུམ།
ཨུམས།
ཨུན།
u ur ü ug ub ü ung um ün
[u] [uː] [yː] [uʡ] [up̚] [y] [uŋ] [um] [ỹː]
ཨེ། ཨེར། ཨེལ།
ཨེའི།
ཨེག།
ཨེགས།
ཨེབ།
ཨེབས།
ཨེད།
ཨེས།
ཨེང༌།
ཨེངས།
ཨེམ།
ཨེམས།
ཨེན།
ê êr ê êg êb ê êng êm ên
[e] [eː] [eː] [eʡ] [ep̚] [e] [eŋ] [em] [ẽː]
ཨོ། ཨོར། ཨོལ།
ཨོའི།
ཨོག།
ཨོགས།
ཨོབ།
ཨོབས།
ཨོད།
ཨོས།
ཨོང༌།
ཨོངས།
ཨོམ།
ཨོམས།
ཨོན།
o or oi/ö og ob oi/ö ong om oin/ön
[o] [oː] [øː] [oʡ] [op̚] [ø] [oŋ] [om] [ø̃ː]

Intersyllable influenceEdit

Onset variationEdit

Bare low aspirated variation
  • k*, q*, t*, p*, x*, s*, ky*, ch* become g*, j*, d*, b*, ?*, ?*, gy*, zh* respectively
  • pa* (་བ) and po* (་བོ) become wa and wo respectively

Coda variationEdit

Ngoinjug of next syllable
Prenasalization of next syllable

ExamplesEdit

Sometimes there is intersyllablic influence:

Tibetan script Tibetan pinyin Wylie (EWTS) Lhasa IPA Explanation
མ་ཕམ་གཡུ་མཚོ། Mapam Yumco ma-pham g.yu-mtsho [mapʰam jumtsʰo] forward shift of prefix མ
ཁྲ་འབྲུག་དགོན་པ། Changzhug Gönba khra-’brug dgon-pa [ʈ͡ʂʰaŋʈ͡ʂ˭uk k˭ø̃p˭a]

ExamplesEdit

Tibetan Script Wylie Tibetan pinyin Tournadre other transcriptions
གཞིས་ཀ་རྩེ Gzhis-ka-rtse Xigazê Zhikatse Shigatse, Shikatse
བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྷུན་པོ་ Bkra-shis-lhun-po Zhaxilhünbo Trashilhünpo Tashilhunpo, Tashilhümpo, etc.
འབྲས་སྤུང་ ’Bras-spung Zhaibung Dräpung Drebung
ཆོས་ཀྱི་རྒྱལ་མཚན་ Chos-kyi Rgyal-mtshan Qoigyi Gyaicain Chökyi Gyältshän Choekyi Gyaltsen
ཐུབ་བསྟན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་ Thub-bstan Rgya-mtsho Tubdain Gyaco Thuptän Gyatsho Thubten Gyatso, Thubtan Gyatso, Thupten Gyatso

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ as in Namjagbarwa
  2. ^ Brush, Beaumont. "The Status of Coronal in the Historical Development of Lhasa Tibetan Rhymes" (PDF). SIL. Retrieved 9 May 2015.

ReferencesEdit