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Ma Lin (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ لٍ‎ , simplified Chinese: 马麟; traditional Chinese: 馬麟; pinyin: Mǎ Lín; Wade–Giles: Ma Lin; 1873 – 26 January 1945) was the governor of Qinghai from 1931–38 and the brother of Ma Qi.[1] A Muslim born in 1873, Linxia County, Gansu, he mainly acceded to the posts of his brother, being general of southeastern Gansu province, as well as councillor of the Qinghai provincial government and acting head of the Construction Bureau of Qinghai province. His father was Ma Haiyan.[2]

Ma Lin
馬麟
Ma Lin.jpg
General Ma Lin
Governor of Qinghai
In office
May 1931 – 5 Mar 1938
Preceded byMa Qi
Succeeded byMa Bufang
Personal details
Born1873
Linxia County, Gansu
Died26 January 1945(1945-01-26) (aged 71–72)
Qinghai
NationalityHui
Political partyKuomintang
Military service
Allegiance Qing Dynasty
 China
Years of service1890s–1945
Rankgeneral
CommandsGeneral
Battles/warsBoxer Rebellion
Ma Lin (date unknown)

CareerEdit

Ma Lin's father Ma Haiyan fought in the Boxer Rebellion at the Battle of Langfang and died of natural causes in 1900.

Ma Lin assisted the Xidaotang in filing a lawsuit against Ma Anliang after his death in 1919, to gain recognition for them as a legitimate Muslim sect.[3]

His great-nephew Ma Zhongying seized the city of Hezhou in the 1920s in a battle during the Muslim conflict in Gansu (1927–1930), and vanquished Ma Lin's army, which was sent to retake the city.[4] Ma Lin defeated Ma Ting-hsiang (Ma Tingxiang).[5]

Ma Lin succeeded his brother Ma Qi as Governor of Qinghai following his death in 1931, but real military power remained in the hands of his nephew, Gen. Ma Bufang, who succeeded his father Ma Qi as military commander.[6]

In 1932, during his administration of Qinghai, the Sino–Tibetan War broke out. Ma Lin's personal representative was Chao Pei-lei.[7]

Ma Lin held the position of Civil Governor, while Ma Bufang was Military Governor. They feuded with and disliked each other. People did not admire Ma Bufang as much as his uncle Ma Lin, who was adored by the people.[8] Ma Lin worked in the governor's yamen during his reign. His secretary was named Feng.[9]

In autumn of 1936 Ma Bufang made his move to expel his uncle from power and replace him.[10] Ma Bufang made his position unstable and unbearable until Ma Lin resigned from power by making the Hajj to Mecca. Ma Lin's next position was to be part of the National Government Committee. In an interview he was described as having "high admiration and unwavering loyalty to Chiang Kai-shek", and was interested in the progress of the anti Japanese war.[11]

He was reported to be pious and his family mosque was in good shape.[12] The new Yihewani (Ikhwan) sect was patronized and backed by Ma Lin and Ma Bufang to help modernize society, education, and reform old traditions.[13]

In 1942 Ma Lin was serving on the 36-seat State Council; the only other Muslim member was the Uyghur Masud Sabri.[14]

He went on a Hajj to Mecca.[15] Approximately 123 persons accompanied him, including the Imams Ma Debao and Ma Zhengqing, who brought Salafi/Wahhabi ideology back to China, which the Yihewani Imams promptly rejected as heretical.[16] Ma Lin's nephew, Ma Bufang, the governor of Qinghai, persecuted the new Salafi Wahhabis.[17]

He died on 26 January 1945.

Ma Lin's eldest son Ma Burong (Ma Pu-jung) 馬步榮 defected to the Communists after 1949 and donated 10,000 Yuan to support Chinese troops in the Korean War.[2] He had another son, Ma Buyuan (Ma Pu-yüan) 馬步援.[18]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Jonathan Oliver Edmund Clubb (1968). Communism in China: as reported from Hankow in 1932. Columbia University Press. p. 110. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  2. ^ a b 民国少数民族将军(组图)2 - 360Doc个人图书馆
  3. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 195. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  4. ^ Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political Jistory of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 334. ISBN 0-521-25514-7.
  5. ^ Who's who in China; biographies of Chinese leaders. Shanghai: THE CHINA WEEKLY REVIEW. 1936. p. 185. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  6. ^ The China monthly review, Volume 67. J.W. Powell. 1933. p. 189.
  7. ^ The China monthly review, Volume 61. FJ.W. Powell. 1932. p. 142. Retrieved 2011-06-01.
  8. ^ Violet Olivia Rutley Cressy-Marcks (1942). Journey into China. E.P. Dutton & co., inc. p. 292. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  9. ^ Ella Maillart (2003). Forbidden journey: from Peking to Kashmir (illustrated ed.). Northwestern University Press. p. 53. ISBN 0-8101-1985-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  10. ^ American Asiatic Association (1940). Asia: journal of the American Asiatic Association, Volume 40. Asia Pub. Co. p. 660. Retrieved 2011-05-08.
  11. ^ Hartford Seminary Foundation (1941). The Moslem World, Volumes 31-34. Hartford Seminary Foundation. p. 183. Retrieved 2011-05-08.
  12. ^ American Asiatic Association (1940). Asia: journal of the American Asiatic Association, Volume 40. Asia Pub. Co. p. 660. Retrieved 2011-05-08.
  13. ^ Yang, Fenggang; Tamney, Joseph, eds. (2011). Confucianism and Spiritual Traditions in Modern China and Beyond. Volume 3 of Religion in Chinese Societies (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 222. ISBN 9004212396. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  14. ^ Howard L. Boorman; Richard C. Howard; Joseph K. H. Cheng (1970). Biographical dictionary of Republican China, Volume 3. Columbia University Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-231-08957-0. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  15. ^ Lipman, Jonathan N. (July 1984). "Ethnicity and Politics in Republican China: The Ma Family Warlords of Gansu". Sage Publications, Inc. JSTOR 189017. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  16. ^ Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press. p. 104. ISBN 0-7007-1026-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  17. ^ BARRY RUBIN (2000). Guide to Islamist Movements. M.E. Sharpe. p. 79. ISBN 0-7656-1747-1. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  18. ^ 甘、寧、青三馬家族世系簡表

External linksEdit