Gurgaon (Hindi: [ɡʊɽɡãːw]), officially named Gurugram [ɡʊɾʊɡɾaːm], is a planned city and administrative headquarters of Gurugram District, located in the northern Indian state of Haryana. It is situated near the Delhi–Haryana border, about 30 kilometres (19 mi) southwest of the national capital New Delhi and 268 km (167 mi) south of Chandigarh, the state capital. It is one of the major satellite cities of Delhi and is part of the National Capital Region of India. As of 2011[update], Gurgaon had a population of 1,153,000.
from top, left to right: Gateway Towers, Kingdom of Dreams, DLF CyberCity, Gurgaon city Skyline along with the Rapid Metro
|Coordinates: 28°27′22″N 77°01′44″E / 28.456°N 77.029°E|
|• Body||Municipal Corporation of Gurugram|
|• Mayor||Madhu Azad|
|• MLA||Sudhir Singla (BJP)|
|• Lok Sabha constituency||Gurgaon Lok Sabha Constituency|
|• Vidhan Sabha constituency||Gurgaon City|
|• Planning agency||Gurugram Metropolitan Development Authority|
|• Total||732.0 km2 (282.6 sq mi)|
|Elevation||217 m (711.9 ft)|
|• Density||1,600/km2 (4,100/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Vehicle registration||HR-26 (City) |
HR-72 (Sohna )
HR-76 Pataudi (Gurgaon)
|HDI (2017)||0.889 very high|
Gurgaon is India's second largest information technology hub and third largest financial and banking hub. Gurgaon is also home to one of India's largest medical tourism industry. Despite being India's 56th largest city in terms of population, Gurgaon is the 8th largest city in the country in terms of total wealth. Gurgaon serves as the headquarters of many of India's largest companies, is home to thousands of startup companies and has local offices for more than 250 Fortune 500 companies. It accounts for almost 70% of the total annual economic investments in Haryana state, which has helped it become a leading hub for high-tech industry in northern India. Gurgaon is categorised as very high on the Human Development Index, with an HDI of 0.889 (2017).
Gurgaon's economic growth started in the 1970s when Maruti Suzuki India Limited established a manufacturing plant and gathered pace after General Electric established its business outsourcing operations in the city in collaboration with real-estate firm DLF. New Gurgaon, Manesar and Sohna serve as adjoining manufacturing and upcoming real estate hubs for Gurgaon. Despite rapid economic and population growth, Gurgaon continues to battle socio-economic issues, such as high-income inequality and high air pollution. It also has a flood problem due to the limited drainage capacity.
The region of Gurgaon originally fell under the Kuru Kingdom. Early people to inhabit the region were Hindus ruled over by the Ahir clan. Yadu tribes were a part of this clan and today their descendants commonly hold the last name Yadav. In late 4th century BCE, the city was absorbed by the Maurya Empire as part of Chandragupta Maurya's earliest expansions of his kingdom.
Gurgaon may be same as the Gudapura town mentioned in the 12th century text Prithviraja Vijaya. According to the text, Nagarjuna, a cousin of the Chahamana king Prithviraj Chauhan, rebelled against the king and captured the town. Prithviraj crushed the rebellion and recaptured the town.
During the Mughal and initially during the British colonial era, Gurgaon was just a small village in Jharsa paragana of Delhi subah. Report of a Tour in Eastern Rajputana in 1882–83 (published in 1885) by Alexander Cunningham, the then Director-General of Archaeological Survey of India, he mentions a stone pillar at Gurgaon of a local feudal lord "Durgga Naga" with a 3-line inscription "Samvat 729 or 928, Vaisakh badi 4, Durgga Naga lokatari bhuta" dating back to 672 CE or 871 CE. Jharsa paragana passed to Begum Samru in 1776–77 and came under direct British rule in 1836 after her death when her territory was taken over by the British who established a civil lines at Jharsa and a cavalry cantonment at nearby Hiyadatpur. A 1882 land revenue settlement report records that the idol of Sitla Mata was brought to Gurgaon 400 years earlier (15th century). Begum Samru claimed the offering to Sitla Mata temple during the Chaitra month and the revenue from the offerings given to the deity for rest of the month was distributed among the prominent Jat zamindars of the area. In 1818, Bharawas district was disbanded and Gurgaon was made a new district. In 1821, the Bharaswas cantonment was also moved to Hidayatpur in Gurgaon. "Aliwardi mosque" in Gurgaon, "Badshahpur baoli" (1905). and "Bhondsi" (16th to 17th century) were built during mughal and British era. The "Church of the Epiphany" and "Kaman Serai" (Corrupted form of the "Command Serai" or Officer's Mess") was built by the Britishers in 1925 inside the civil lines.
Other British colonial era historic buildings The Gurgaon Club, a 3-room building surrounded by the lawn and currently run by the Zila Parishad, the erstwhile Coronation School—now renamed to the Government Boys’ Senior Secondary School, one of the 13 school established in India in 1911 to commemorate the coronation of King George V. During 1980s, the airstrip and hangar, air conditioned yoga ashram and TV studio were built on outskirts of the city by former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's yoga mentor Dhirendra Brahmachari. The former Prime Minister Chandra Shekhar established his own ashram near this airstrip in 1983 on 600 acre of panchayat land, where another godman Chandraswami and notorious Saudi arms dealer Adnan Khashoggi used to visit him.
On 12 April 2016, Chief Minister of Haryana Manohar Lal Khattar announced a proposal to officially rename the city Gurugram (Sanskrit: गुरुग्राम, lit. village of the Guru), subject to the approval of the Haryana cabinet and the Union Government. He argued that the new name would help to preserve the "rich heritage" of the city by emphasising its history and mythological association with Drona. On 27 September 2016, he officially announced that the Union Government had approved the name change, and thus the city and district would henceforth be known as Gurugram, though the old name "Gurgaon" still lingers in the colloquial usage.
Gurgaon is located in Gurgaon district in the Indian state of Haryana and is situated in the southeastern part of the state, and northern part of the country. The city is located on the border with Delhi with New Delhi to its northeast. The city has a total area of 232 square kilometres (90 sq mi).
The average land elevation is 217 metres (712 ft) above sea level.
Gurgaon lies on the Sahibi River, a tributary of Yamuna which originates from the Aravalli range in Rajasthan and flows through west and South Haryana into Delhi where it is also known as the Najafgarh drain. The paleochannel and the current course of the Sahibi river have series of biodiversity hotspots and Important Bird Area (IBA) wetlands and forests within Gurugam, including the Outfall Drain Number 6 (canalised portion in Haryana of Sahibi river), Outfall Drain Number 8 (canalised portion in Haryana of Dohan river which is a tributary of Sahibi river), Sarbashirpur wetland, Sultanpur National Park, Basai wetland, Najafgarh lake and Najafgarh drain bird sanctuary, Ghata lake, Badshahpur lake, Khandsa lake and The Lost lake of Gurgaon. Other IBA wetlands along the Saibi river, outside Gurgaon district, are the Masani barrage wetland, Matanhail forest, Chhuchhakwas-Godhari, Khaparwas Wildlife Sanctuary, Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary, etc. All of these are home to endangered and migratory birds. Most of these largely remain unprotected. These are under extreme threat mainly from the colonisers and builders.
Mangar Bani, a sacred grove and forest with wetlands between Gurgaon and Faridabad, is one of the last surviving natural forest in NCR is protected by Gurjars of nearby area. contiguous to Mangar bani are Gwal Pahari and Bandhwari forested area. All of these lie on the Southern Delhi Ridge of Aravalli range.
Under the Köppen climate classification, Gurgaon experiences a hot semi-arid climate (BSh). The city experiences four distinct seasons – spring (February–March), summer (April–August), autumn (October–November) and winter (December–January) – along with the monsoon season (June–September) setting in towards the latter half of the summer. Summers, from early April to September, are typically hot and humid, with an average daily June high temperature of 40 °C (104 °F). The season experiences heat indices easily breaking 43 °C (109 °F). Winters are cool and foggy with few sunny days. The Western Disturbance brings some rain in winters that further adds to the chill. Spring and autumn are mild and pleasant seasons with low humidity. The monsoon season usually starts in the first week of July and continues till August. Thunderstorms are not uncommon during the Monsoon. The average annual rainfall is approximately 714 millimetres (28.1 in). The highest ever temperature recorded is 49.0 °C (120.2 °F) on 10 May 1966 and lowest ever is −0.4 °C (31.3 °F) on 5 December 1966. On 15 May 2022 Gurugram recorded maximum temperature of 48.1 °C (118.6 °F), hottest day in May in 56 years.
|Climate data for Gurgaon (1981–2010, extremes 1965–2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||28.0
|Mean maximum °C (°F)||24.9
|Average high °C (°F)||20.7
|Average low °C (°F)||6.4
|Mean minimum °C (°F)||2.4
|Record low °C (°F)||0.0
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||15.0
|Average rainy days||1.2||1.6||1.2||1.1||2.2||3.6||7.6||8.3||4.6||1.0||0.8||0.8||34.2|
|Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)||54||45||37||28||31||40||63||69||59||45||47||55||48|
|Average dew point °C (°F)||8
|Average ultraviolet index||5||5||7||9||9||9||8||7||7||7||6||4||6.9|
|Source 1: India Meteorological Department Time and Date (dewpoints, 1985-2015)|
|Source 2: Weather Atlas|
The Gurugram district area has an estimated population of 11,53,000, according to the 2011 Census of India.
|Religion in Gurugram City (2011)|
Hinduism is the most popular religion in Gurgaon, followed by Islam, and Sikhism. There are small numbers of Christian, and Buddhist followers. Gurgaon has adherents of Hinduism, Sikhism, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity and the Baháʼí Faith, amongst others. There are several places of worship for major religions, including mandirs, gurdwaras, mosques and churches.
Sheetla Mata Mandir, located at the heart of Gurgaon, is a temple dedicated to the wife of Guru Dronacharya, Kripi. The temple hosts fairs and people come to seek blessings of Sheetla Mata, earlier known as Kripi. Sai Ka Aangan temple, spread over an area of 36,000 square feet, is dedicated to Shirdi Sai Baba and has life size idol of him.
Gurgaon has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time periods. Gurgaon's skyline with its many skyscrapers is nationally recognised, and the city has been home to several tall buildings with modern planning. Gurgaon has an estimated 1,892 high-rises. The average cost of a 93-square-metre (1,000 sq ft) two-bedroom apartment at a decent condominium in Gurgaon is at least $160,130 (₹ One crore).
Gurgaon is divided into 36 wards, with each ward further divided into blocks. The housing type in the city consists largely of attached housing, though many attached multi-dwelling units, including apartments, condominiums and high rise residential towers are getting popular.
Gurgaon has a complex park system, with various lands operated by the Gurgaon Metropolitan Development Authority. The key parks are Leisure Valley Park in Sector 29, which is over 15 hectares (36 acres); Tau Devi Lal Biodiversity Botanical Garden in Sector 52; Navisha Park in Malibu Towne, Sector-47; Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Park in Sector 14, popularly known as HUDA Garden; Tau Devi Lal park in Sector 23; and Aravali Biodiversity Park on MG Road. There are local parks in almost all sectors in Old Gurgaon.
Entertainment and performing arts
Notable performing art venues in the city include Epicentre in Sector 44 and Nautanki Mehal at the Kingdom of Dreams near IFFCO Chowk. Bollywood actor Rajkummar Rao was born in Gurgaon.
Languages and dialect
The main language spoken in Gurgaon is Hindi, though a segment of the population understands and speaks English. The dialect used in Hindi is similar to that of Delhi, and is considered neutral, though the regional influences from the states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab adds an accent to the language. English is spoken with an Indian accent, with a primarily North Indian influence. Since Gurgaon has many international call centres, the employees are usually given formal training in neutral pronunciation in order to be understandable to native English speakers. Haryanvi and Punjabi are other popular languages spoken in the city.
Gurgaon has adherents of Hinduism, Sikhism, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity and the Baháʼí Faith, amongst others. There are several places of worship for major religions, including mandirs, gurdwaras, mosques and churches.
Sheetla Mata Mandir, located at the heart of Gurgaon, is a temple dedicated to the wife of Guru Dronacharya, Kripi. The temple hosts fairs and people come to seek blessings of Sheetla Mata, earlier known as Kripi. Sai Ka Aangan temple, spread over an area of 36,000 square feet, is dedicated to Shirdi Sai Baba & has a life size idol of him.
The city has two major sports stadiums: Tau Devi Lal Stadium in Sector 38, which has facilities for cricket, football, basketball and athletics as well as a sports hostel, and Nehru Stadium which is designed for football and athletics. Amity United FC is a tenant of Tau Devi Lal Stadium. Gurgaon district has nine golf courses, and is described as the "heart of India's golfing country". Joginder Rao, a domestic cricket player was from Gurgaon.
Gurgaon has the third-highest per-capita income in India and is the site of Indian offices for half of Fortune 500 companies. The city also benefits from its close proximity to Delhi. Maruti Suzuki Private Limited was the first company that set up a manufacturing unit in the city in 1970s making cars. Eventually, DLF Limited, a real estate company acquired vast stretches of land in the city. The first major American brand to set up a unit in Gurgaon was General Electric in 1997. General Electric's setup in Gurgaon prompted other companies, both international as well as domestic, to follow suit providing outsourcing solutions in software, IT, service and sales through delivery facilities and call centres. However, due to the lack of proper public transport and the inability of most of the employees to afford a personal vehicle, most of the call centres provide pooled-in cars to and from their offices. Apart from Business process outsourcing and IT sectors, the city is home to several other companies that specialise in domain expertise. Siemens Industry Software, in Gurgaon Business Park, made a portfolio of design software that was used by NASA to digitally design, simulate and assemble the vehicle before any physical prototypes were built. Various international companies, including Coca-Cola, Pepsi, BMW, Agilent Technologies, Hyundai have chosen Gurgaon to be their Indian corporate headquarters; this continues to be apparent in the 2020's, with Cargill and Nissan making the same choice. All the major companies in the city depend on their own backup, given the fact that Gurgaon does not have reliable power and water supply, public transport and utilities. Retail is an important industry in Gurgaon, with the presence of 26 shopping malls.
All Nippon Airways, a Japanese airline, maintains its Delhi sales office in the Time Tower in Gurgaon .
Law and government
Gurgaon is governed by the Municipal Corporation of Gurugram which follows a Mayor-Council system. In 2017, the GMDA (Gurugram Metropolitan Development Authority) was formed, which looks after the city's infrastructure.
As per the authorities, the following is the key crime data of Gurgaon for 2022:
|Nature of crime||Number of cases (2022)||% change (as compared to 2021)||Notes|
|Homicide||88||80% cases solved & perpetrators arrested.|
|Child sex abuse||214||-21% (Decline)|
|Robbery/loot||62||-2% (Decline)||88% cases solved.|
|Snatching||216||+27% (Rise)||Majority of the cases solved. Tracing ratio improved from 46% to 73%.|
|Vehicle theft||3,523||-2% (Decline)|
|Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act cases||162||Over 465 kg ganja, 1.8 kg sulpha drugs, 1.9 kg heroin & 25 gm MDMA seized.|
|Excise act cases||1,461||Over 63,558 bottles of imported liquor, 80,914 bottles of country-made liquor & 12,917 bottles of beer seized.|
|Arms act cases||354|
|Challans issued for traffic violations||7,33,933|
|Vehicles impounded under scrappage program||1,458||Diesel vehicles older than 10 years & petrol vehicles older than 15 years impounded.|
|Proclaimed offenders arrested||800||+46% (Rise)|
|Bail jumpers held||357||+179% (Rise)|
The police department in Gurgaon is headed by the Commissioner of Police - Gurugram Police, which forms a part of the Haryana Police. and reports to the Haryana state government. Gurugram Police has a separate traffic police department headquartered in sector 51. Fire protection within the city limits is provided by Municipal Corporation of Gurugram through four fire stations, located in sector 29, sector 37, Udyog Vihar and Bhim Nagar.
In 2018, the first cyber police station was inaugurated in the city. As per the authorities, around 1,500 complaints related to cyber crime, including cyber fraud, online banking fraud, cheating through bank cards, social media complaints & data theft, are received every month. Due to shortage of in-house cyber experts, the police largely outsources such cases to external organizations.
The city's public school system is managed by the government of Haryana and administered by Haryana Board of School Education. There are other schools affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education, Indian Certificate of Secondary Education and International Baccalaureate boards. Key schools in the city include Alpine Convent School, Blue Bells Model School, Gurugram Public School, Heritage Xperiential Learning School, Lancers International School, Ryan International School, MatriKiran, SCR Public School, Shalom Hills International School, The Shri Ram School and Vega Schools.
There are several universities and institutes, offering bachelor's, master's, doctorate and other programs, located in Gurgaon and the surrounding area, including Gurugram University, Sushant University, Sushant School of Art and Architecture, Ansal University, The NorthCap University, GD Goenka University, K.R. Mangalam University, Amity University, Management Development Institute, Great Lakes Institute of Management, Infinity Business School, BML Munjal University, Shree Guru Gobind Singh Tricentenary University, and National Brain Research Centre.
The major highway that links Gurgaon is National Highway 48, the road that runs from Delhi to Mumbai. While the 27.7-kilometre (17.2 mi) Delhi-Gurgaon border-Kherki Dhaula stretch has been developed as the Delhi–Gurgaon Expressway, the rest is expanded to six lanes.
Gurgaon railway station is operated by Northern Railway of Indian Railways. The rail station forms a part of the larger Indian Railways network. Along with that, Gurgaon has Tajnagar railway station, Dhankot railway station, Ghari Harsaru Railway Junction and Farrukhnagar Railway Station, Patli Railway Station. Under Modernisation of Railway Stations, Indian Railways is modernising four railway stations in Gurgaon. Gurgaon railway station, Ghari Harsaru Railway Junction and Farrukhnagar Railway Station will be developed and modernised with modern amenities and international facilities.
There are five stations served by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. located on the Yellow Line, which are HUDA City Centre, IFFCO Chowk, MG Road, Sikanderpur and Guru Droncharya.
The Rapid Metro has eleven stations in Gurgaon, with an interchange with Yellow Line of Delhi Metro at Sikanderpur metro station. The Rapid Metro became operational in November 2013 and currently covers a distance of 11.7 kilometres (7.3 mi). One more phase of the project is in the pipeline and would take the total number of subway stations in the city to 16. An estimated 33,000 people ride the Rapid Metro every day, which provides an exclusive elevated transit service with three coach trains that run in a loop.
Gurgaon is served by Delhi's Indira Gandhi International Airport, which is located just outside of Gurgaon city limits near National Highway 8.
In November 2013, Gurgaon launched an Ciclovia-inspired initiative known as Raahgiri Day—in which a corridor of streets are closed to motor vehicle traffic on Sunday mornings to encourage the use of non-motorized transport and participation in outdoor leisure activities. Gurgaon was the first city in India to implement such a program, followed by New Delhi, and later Noida.
Gurgaon is also expected to get India's first Pod Taxis.
Electricity in Gurgaon is provided by government-owned Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam. Gurgaon has power consumer base of 360,000 with average power load of 700-800 MW. There are frequent power outages in the city, especially during the peak consumption season of summer. Apart from the power deficit, the equipment used by the power department like transformers, panels and transmission lines is either old or overburdened.
Gurgaon is notorious for its urban floods every monsoon. The areas on NH-8 around Hero Honda Chowk, Basai, Dhankot, sector 37 etc. see massive urban floods and headlines grabbing traffic jams reported widely in news media. A recent research report puts the blame on the broken natural water body linkage and obstructions in the flow in the city due to frantic construction during the last decades. The HUDA master drainage lines get choked or burst at the seams. Disruptions in the hydrological flow of natural drains and limited drainage capacity are all primary reasons for the floods.
Gurgaon's Ghata Jheel, Badshahpur Jheel, Khandsa Talab were linked to Najafgarh drain which links to Yamuna river, via natural water channels and drains.
As per the ground reports and research, the three natural water bodies are struggling for their existence with encroachments on their lands and natural channels. Agencies responsible have tried to create artificial water bodies to compensate, but the efforts fail due to unpredictable rain and water flow patterns leading to deployment of water pumps to fight the situation.
In 2012 Punjab & Haryana High court banned ground water usage for construction activity, and NGT has recently reprimanded authorities for drain concretization.
- ^ "Municipal Corporation, Gurugram". www.mcg.gov.in. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
- ^ a b c d "Demography Gurgaon".
- ^ "Gurgaon City".
- ^ a b "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011" (PDF). censusindia.gov.in. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- ^ "Government of Haryana– District Database" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 September 2019. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
- ^ "Municipal Corporation Gurugram | Gurugram | India".
- ^ "Gurgaon to New Delhi Distance, Duration, Driving Direction by Road, Trains, Bus / Car at MakeMyTrip Route Planner". www.makemytrip.com. Archived from the original on 6 November 2018. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
- ^ "How a Small Experiment in Delhi's Suburbs Sparked a National Car-Free Movement —". 5 July 2018. Archived from the original on 6 November 2018. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
- ^ "Gurugram among top 5 IT hubs in Asia Pacific". Hindustan Times. 28 May 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
- ^ Julka, Harsimran (30 September 2011). "IT firms looking beyond Gurgaon, Noida, Greater Noida to other cities in north India". The Economic Times. ET Bureau. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
- ^ "Medical tourism companies turn to telemedicine in wake of Covid-19". Hindustan Times. 16 May 2020. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
- ^ "Mumbai richest Indian city with total wealth of $820 billion: report". LiveMint. 26 February 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- ^ "Jat stir shakes India Inc". Business Standard India. 20 February 2016. Archived from the original on 22 February 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
- ^ "Gurgaon becomes Haryana's golden goose". The Hindu. 9 October 2015. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
- ^ "Government of Haryana - district wise HDI" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 September 2019. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
- ^ a b Kumar, K.P. Narayana. "Gurgaon: How not to Build a City". Forbesindia.com. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
- ^ "The Gurgaon story: A mirror to India's growth". NDTV. 9 June 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
- ^ "7 out of top 10 most polluted cities are in India; Gurgaon the worst: Study". The Asian Age. 5 March 2019. Archived from the original on 5 March 2019. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- ^ "Inside the most polluted city in the world". BBC Reel. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
- ^ a b "Five reasons why Gurugram gets flooded every time it rains". Hindustan Times. 20 August 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
- ^ The History of India. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc, 2010. 15 August 2010. p. 63. ISBN 978-1615301225.
- ^ "History | Gurugram". gurugram.gov.in. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
- ^ Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism Archived 23 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Infobase Publishing. p. xxviii. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5.
- ^ R. B. Singh (1964). History of the Chāhamānas. N. Kishore. p. 163. OCLC 11038728. Archived from the original on 23 March 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- ^ Dasharatha Sharma (1966). Rajasthan Through the Ages: From the earliest times to 1316 A.D. Rajasthan State Archives. p. 290.
- ^ Gurugram plan a misdirected govt move from history to myth Archived 22 January 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Times of India.
- ^ Yashpal Gulia, 2012, Heritage of Haryana.
- ^ Will history be buried for a road? A Gurgaon village waits Archived 1 February 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Indian Express, 18 January 2018.
- ^ Intach writes to state, seeks preservation of 100-year-old stepwell Archived 31 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Hindustan Times, 20 January 2018.
- ^ a b Gurugram heritage Archived 1 February 2019 at the Wayback Machine, fridaygurgaon.com.
- ^ Architectural remnants of the Raj, Hindustan Times, 2 September 2019.
- ^ 1990, "The Illustrated Weekly of India.", The Times Group, Volume 111, Issues 13-25, p. 35.
- ^ 1996, "India Today", - Volume 21, Issues 7-12, p. 122.
- ^ "Creating a stir.", India Today, 28 February 1991.
- ^ "Gurgaon is now 'Gurugram', Mewat renamed Nuh: Haryana government". The Indian Express. 12 April 2016. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- ^ "Welcome to the new office of Gurugram police commissioner". Hindustan Times. 2 May 2016. Archived from the original on 5 May 2016. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
- ^ "Gurgaon: The city whose middle name is paradox". The Times of India. 28 June 2016. Archived from the original on 1 July 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- ^ "Good morning, Gurugram. The name's official". The Times of India. 28 September 2016. Archived from the original on 1 October 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2016.
- ^ "A year after renaming, 'Gurgaon' still lives on - Times of India". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 13 November 2017. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
- ^ "20 more villages to come under corporation limits". The Times of India. 15 June 2018.
- ^ "Demographics". Municipal Corporation, Gurgaon. Archived from the original on 11 October 2013.
- ^ "GGN/Gurgaon(3)". India Rail Info. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
- ^ a b c "Why Gurgaon Floods, a report on watershed management and imminent dangers the city faces". Why Gurgaon Floods, a report on watershed management and imminent dangers the city faces. (in Hindi). 11 July 2016. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
- ^ "News". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- ^ a b "Travel Info". The Metropolitan Hotel and Spa New Delhi. Archived from the original on 1 October 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
- ^ "Station: Gurgaon Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 305–306. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
- ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M64. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
- ^ "Climate & Weather Averages in Gurgaon, Haryana, India". Time and Date. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
- ^ "Gurgaon, India - Climate and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 12 July 2022.
- ^ "Gurgaon Religion Data - Census 2011". www.census2011.co.in. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- ^ a b "Sheetla Mata Mandir, Gurgaon". Trek.zone. Trekzone. Retrieved 5 March 2023.
- ^ a b "Sheetla Mata Mandir Gurgaon". sheetlamatagurgaon.com. Archived from the original on 25 February 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
- ^ a b "Sai Ka Angan". saikaaangan.com/. Sai Ka Angan. Retrieved 5 March 2023.
- ^ "Gurgaon High Rises". Emporis. Archived from the original on 21 March 2015.
- ^ "In Gurgaon, residential high-rises most at risk". 17 April 2013. Archived from the original on 23 November 2018. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
- ^ "Turning the city green, a million trees at a time". Hindustan Times. 9 March 2019. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- ^ "How green was Gurgaon's parks". The Times of India. TNN. 30 December 2011. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
- ^ Mathur, Abhimanyu (25 November 2019). "Rajkummar Rao: I was inspired by a Haryana bus conductor for role in 'Stree'". The Times of India. ETimes. Retrieved 5 March 2023.
- ^ Singh, Prabhdev. "Golf courses in Gurgaon". HT Media. Live Mint. Archived from the original on 15 May 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
- ^ a b c d Kannan, Shilpa. "Gurgaon: From fields to global tech hub". BBC News. Archived from the original on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- ^ Bureau, BL Chennai (3 August 2022). "Cargill opens new headquarters at Gurugram". www.thehindubusinessline.com. Retrieved 23 April 2023.
- ^ Desk, HT Auto (30 May 2022). "Nissan Motor India now has its new headquarter in Gurugram". HT Auto. Retrieved 23 April 2023.
- ^ "Gurgaon as IT outsourcing hub". Amit Arun and Associates. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
- ^ "Contact ANA Archived 19 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine." ANA India. Retrieved on 9 July 2016. "Unit No.302 & 303, 3rd floor, Time Tower, Sector 28, MGRoad, Gurgaon 122 002 India" - See map Archived 8 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine "Time Tower 3rd floor"
- ^ Joseph, Joel (22 June 2011). "Gurgaon gets first mayor after month's wait". The Times of India. TNN. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
- ^ "Gurgaon in crime: The year that was". No. New Delhi. The Indian Express (P) Ltd. Express News Service. 31 December 2022. Retrieved 12 March 2023.
- ^ "Gurgaon Police". Gurgaon Police, Govt. of Haryana. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- ^ "Gurgaon police". Gurgaon Police, Govt. of Haryana. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- ^ "Gurgaon's fourth fire station opens in Udyog Vihar". The Times of India. TNN. 16 April 2012. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- ^ Dhankhar, Leena (17 February 2023). "Gurugram police to use volunteer cyber experts to probe fraud cases". No. New Delhi. Hindustan Times. Hindustan Times. Retrieved 11 March 2023.
- ^ "Universities & Colleges". University Grants Commission. Archived from the original on 2 August 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- ^ Dash, Dipak Kumar (7 December 2012). "NH48 stretch on Delhi-Gurgaon border is India's deadliest road". The Times of India. TNN. Archived from the original on 2 March 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- ^ Joseph, Joel (13 November 2013). "From tomorrow, Gurgaon will finally have its Rapid Metro". The Times of India. TNN. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- ^ ASHOK, SOWMIYA (16 June 2014). "Are Gurgaon residents game for a smooth ride on the Rapid Metro?". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 20 June 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- ^ "New area in Gurgaon to have 'Raahgiri Day'". Business Standard. IANS. 27 February 2014. Archived from the original on 17 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- ^ fwire (27 February 2014). "New area in Gurgaon to have 'Raahgiri Day'". Firstpost. IANS. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
- ^ "Raahgiri: Less honking, more bonding — How Gurgaon showed the way". The Times of India. 19 March 2016. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- ^ "India's First Pod Taxis Are Coming Up In Gurgaon And The Rs 850 Crore Project Begins Next Month". Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- ^ "Essar withdraws application for distribution licence in Gurgaon". PTI. 22 October 2013. Archived from the original on 26 October 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- ^ "Night-long outage in Old Gurgaon as transformer trips on demand". The Times of India. TNN. 24 May 2014. Archived from the original on 3 June 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- ^ "Traffic nightmare in Gurgaon; waterlogging on NH8 hits Delhi-Jaipur route, schools shut". Zee News. 29 July 2016. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
- ^ Bagish Jha (30 March 2016). "Huda to speed up construction of additional discharge drain under service road of NH-8 | Gurgaon News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
- ^ "Gurgaon builders left high and dry". Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
- ^ "NGT seeks report on drawbacks and impact of concretization of natural drains". Hindustan Times. 1 February 2017. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
- Basi, J.K. Tina (2009), Women, Identity and India's Call Centre Industry, Oxford: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-203-88379-2, retrieved 12 November 2013
- Gururani, Shiva (1 March 2013), "Flexible Planning: The Making of India's 'Millennium City', Gurgaon", in Anne M. Rademacher (ed.), Ecologies of Urbanism in India: Metropolitan Civility and Sustainability, K. Sivaramakrshnan, Hong Kong University Press, pp. 119–, ISBN 978-988-8139-77-4
- Narain, Vishal (2009), "Growing city, shrinking hinterland: land acquisition, transition and conflict in peri-urban Gurgaon, India", Environment and Urbanization, 21 (2): 501–512, doi:10.1177/0956247809339660
- Pagnamenta, Robin (6 July 2012), "Indians riot over water shortages and power cuts", The Times, London, retrieved 12 November 2013
- Rich, Nathan (2013), "Globally integrated/locally fractured: the extraordinary development of Gurgaon, India", in Peggy Deamer (ed.), Architecture and Capitalism: 1845 to the Present, London: Routledge, pp. 172–188, ISBN 978-1-135-04954-6, retrieved 12 November 2013
- Yardley, Jim (6 September 2011), "In Gurgaon, India, Dynamism Wrestles With Dysfunction", The New York Times, retrieved 12 November 2013
- "Gurgaon: Model City and Cautionary Tale, Slide Show", The New York Times, 8 June 2011, retrieved 12 November 2013
- Teng, Poh Si (8 June 2011), "India Rising, Off-the-Grid: Video", The New York Times, retrieved 12 November 2013