National Capital Region (India)

The National Capital Region (NCR) is a planning region centred upon the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi in India. It encompasses Delhi and several districts surrounding it from the states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.[2] The NCR and the associated National Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB) were created in 1985 to plan the development of the region and to evolve harmonized policies for the control of land-uses and development of infrastructure in the region.[5] Prominent cities of NCR include Delhi, Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Gurugram, Noida and Meerut.

National Capital Region
NCR
Region
Location of the NCR in India
Location of the NCR in India
Map of the National Capital Region, showing the union territory of Delhi (red) and states and the boundaries of their districts. The states shown are: Haryana (green), Rajasthan (blue), and Uttar Pradesh (purple).
Map of the National Capital Region, showing the union territory of Delhi (red) and states and the boundaries of their districts. The states shown are: Haryana (green), Rajasthan (blue), and Uttar Pradesh (purple).
Coordinates: 28°39′38″N 77°06′32″E / 28.66056°N 77.10889°E / 28.66056; 77.10889
Country India
StatesHaryana
Uttar Pradesh
Rajasthan
Union territoryDelhi
Created1985[1]
Major citiesDelhi, Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Gurugram, Noida
Government
 • Regional authorityNational Capital Region Planning Board
Area
 • Total55,083 km2 (21,268 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)[3]: 6 
 • Total46,069,000
 • Density840/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
GDP
 • TotalUS$272.603 billion
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
Websitencrpb.nic.in

The NCR is a rural-urban region, with a population of over 46,069,000 and an urbanisation level of 62.6%.[3] As well as the cities and towns, the NCR contains ecologically sensitive areas like the Aravalli ridge, forests, wildlife and bird sanctuaries.[6] The Delhi Extended Urban Agglomeration, a part of the NCR, had an estimated GDP of $370 billion (measured in terms of GDP PPP) in 2015–16.[7]

History

The National Capital Region (NCR) and its planning board were created under the National Capital Region Planning Board Act of 1985.[1] That 1985 Act defined the NCR as being the whole of Delhi; the Haryana districts of Gurgaon, Faridabad and Sonipat, Rohtak (then including Jhajjar tehsil) and the Rewari tehsil then in Mahendragarh district; and the Uttar Pradesh districts of Bulandshahr, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut (then including Baghpat tehsil), and Ghaziabad (then including Hapur tehsil), and some part of the Rajasthan district of Alwar.[8][5] The 1985 boundary of the NCR covered an area of 34,144 square kilometres (13,183 sq mi).[3]: 3 

Prior to the creation of the NCR, an area described as the Delhi Metropolitan Area (DMA) was described in the 1962 Master Plan for Delhi. That plan defined the DMA as comprising the National Capital Territory and the ring towns of Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Ballabhgarh, Gurgaon, Bahadurgarh and Loni, also certain rural areas, which had a population of the somewhat less than 2.1 million in 1951.[9] The following "Master Plan for Delhi", approved in August 1990, added Noida, Bahadurgarh and the then-proposed township of Kundli to the DMA, which consequently covered an area of 3,182 km2.[10]

Gautam Budh Nagar district was created in 1997 out of the existing NCR districts of Ghaziabad and Bulandshahr. The city of Noida was the location of the new district's headquarters.[11] Also in 1997 Baghpat district was created from Baghpat tehsil of Meerut district.[12]

In July 2013, the NCR was expanded to include three more districts, Bhiwani, and Mahendragarh in the state of Haryana, as well as Bharatpur in the state of Rajasthan. This brought the number of districts in the NCR to 19 (outside Delhi NCT), with the total NCR area increasing 34% to 45,887 km2.[13][14] Subsequently, Charkhi Dadri district was separated from Bhiwani district in 2016.[15]

On 9 June 2015, the Government of India approved the inclusion of three more districts in NCR – Jind, Panipat, Karnal in the state of Haryana and Muzaffarnagar in Uttar Pradesh.[16][17][18][19] covering a total area of 50,566 km2.[20] Shamli district of U.P. was added to the NCR in December 2017.[21] As of 2021, there are a total of 24 districts in the NCR, excluding the 11 districts of Delhi.

Proposed extensions

On 9 January 2018, the government of Uttar Pradesh formally proposed the extension of the NCR to cover the districts Aligarh, Bijnor, Hathras and Mathura.[22]

Proposed reductions

Under the "Draft Regional Plan 2041", it has been proposed to limit the NCR region to 100-km radius from Rajghat in Delhi for more focused and sustainable development of the region.[23][24] Government of Haryana has requested NCRPB for at least one-third reduction of its share in the NCR region.[25]

Component districts

A total of 24 districts in three neighbouring states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan along with whole of the National Capital Territory of Delhi constitute the National Capital Region (NCR) of India.[26]

The areas and populations (per 2011 census, prior to the addition of Muzaffarnagar, Jind, Karnal and Shamli) of these component districts are set out below:[2][3]: 3, 6 

State/UT Districts Area
(km2)
Population
(in thousands)
Delhi Central Delhi 1,483 16,788
East Delhi
New Delhi
North Delhi
North East Delhi
North West Delhi
Shahdara
South Delhi
South East Delhi
South West Delhi
West Delhi
Haryana Bhiwani 25,327 11,031
Charkhi Dadri
Faridabad
Gurgaon
Jhajjar
Jind
Karnal
Mahendragarh
Nuh
Palwal
Panipat
Rewari
Rohtak
Sonipat
Rajasthan Alwar 13,447 3,674
Bharatpur
Uttar Pradesh Baghpat 14,826 14,576
Bulandshahr
Gautam Buddh Nagar
Ghaziabad
Hapur
Meerut
Muzaffarnagar
Shamli
Total 55,083 46,069

Regional planning

The planning body for the region is the National Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB). It has issued two regional plans, the "Regional Plan 2001, National Capital Region" approved in 1988,[27] and the "Regional Plan 2021, National Capital Region" approved in 2005.[28] Topics covered by the 2001 plan included transport, telecommunications, power and water supply, waste and sewerage, education, health, the environment, housing and the "counter magnet" areas. The 2021 plan extended these with the additional topics of social infrastructure, heritage, tourism, rural development, and disaster management.

The 51% of pollution in NCR is caused by the industrial pollution, 27% by vehicles and 8% by crop burning, consequently there are plans to create a 1,600 km long and 5 km wide The Great Green Wall of Aravalli green ecological corridor along Aravalli range from Gujarat to Delhi to be connected to Sivalik hill range with the planting of 1.35 billion (135 crore) new native trees over 10 years.[29] About 46% of the National Capital Region, home to 40 to 50 million people, is not connected to sewage networks. Sewage from these areas flows into stormwater drains that empty directly into the Yamuna.[30]

A Sports University is proposed to be established in Meerut district of UP Sub-Region.

Judicial System

Delhi NCR has only one high court, which is in Delhi. While it is highly suggested in Regional Plan 2041, Delhi NCR that high court bench must be set up in western Uttar Pradesh, large part of which falls in Delhi NCR. There has been long standing demand for high court bench in Meerut.[31]

Regional Plan 2041, Delhi NCR suggests that industrial growth of western Uttar Pradesh's part of Delhi NCR is being hampered due to unavailability of judicial system. Almost 54% of all cases reaching the High Court originate from the 22 districts of Western UP .

People have to travel 700 km away to Allahabad for hearings. In fact, 6 high courts (Shimla, Delhi, Jaipur, Chandigarh, Nainital, Jammu) from other states are closer than Allahabad from western Uttar Pradesh. Even Lahore high court is closer than Allahabad.

Transport

Delhi Meerut RRTS

To ease with Transportation within National Capital Region. India's first Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS) was developed in Delhi NCR.

The first line that will become operational in November, 2023 will be Delhi Meerut RRTS. It is an 82.15 km (51.05 mi) long, semi-high speed rail corridor which will be India's first Regional Rapid Transit System currently under construction.[32]

Out of eight RRTS corridors identified and targeted for development prior to the formation of the NCRTC, the following three were prioritized[33] by India's Planning Commission:

The RapidX trains will have maximum speed for 180 km/h and operation max speed would be 160 km.

Expressways

 
Section of Delhi Meerut Expressway

The region has the following operation and upcoming expressways -

Dedicated Freight Corridor

For regional logistic transportation both Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor and Western Dedicated Freight Corridor will pass through Delhi NCR. Sites like Meerut and Dadri are planned to be proposed logistic hub.[34]

Ashok Agarwal, national president, Indian Industries Association (IIA), said “We have also received queries related to the allotment of land along the Ganga Expressway from investors. Most of the queries are for land in Meerut, Budaun and its adjoining areas”.[35]

  • Meerut along Delhi Meerut Expressway
  • Dadri Noida Ghaziabad Investment Region

Proposed Orbital Rail Corridor (ORC)

A total of three orbital rail corridors of proposed connected important districts of Meerut, Palwal, Sonipat, Noida, Gurugram, Faridabad and covering NCR area in circular fashion by rails for passenger trains and goods.

  • ORC - I: Haryana developing ORC by 2025 connecting Palwal-Sonipat. Uttar Pradesh is also planning to develop ORC connecting Palwal - Khurja - Meerut - Bagapat - Sonipat, to complete the Orbital Circle 1. This is expected to be made fully operational by 2028.
  • ORC - II: As “Regional Orbital Rail Corridor (RORC)” connecting Panipat- Shamli- Meerut- Jewar- Nuh- Bhiwadi- Rewari- Jhajjar- Rohtak- Panipat (along CREII) to enable fast regional movement of passenger and goods avoiding CNCR area.
  • ORC - III: As “Outer Orbital Rail Corridor (OORC)” along CRE-III, is planned by 2041.[36]

Railways

It is also proposed in Regional Plan 2041, Delhi NCR that all railway lines in NCR should be 4 tracks by 2030 and 06 tracks by 2040, 100% electrified, broad gauge and of high speed, with latest safety systems, Train Autonomous Cicrumambutation System (TACS), Centralised Traffic Control (CTC), etc.

Airport

Currently there is only one international airport, which is Indira Gandhi Internal Airport Delhi. Another airport, Jewar Airport Noida which will be Asia's largest airport once full operational is expected to be completed in 2025. Another airport in Meerut is proposed in Regional Plan 2041, Delhi NCR.[36]

Central National Capital Region

The 2001 Regional Plan defined the "Delhi Metropolitan Area" (DMA) as comprising the controlled areas of contiguous towns of GhaziabadLoni and Noida in Uttar Pradesh; FaridabadBallabhgarh, Gurgaon, Bahadurgarh, Kundli and extension of Delhi Ridge in Haryana. The total area of DMA was 1,696 km2 (655 sq mi), excluding the area of Delhi.[37][38]

Under the 2021 Regional plan, the Delhi Metropolitan Area was redesignated as "Central National Capital Region" (CNCR) wherein new areas were added. The CNCR comprises controlled areas of contiguous towns of GhaziabadLoni and Noida in Uttar Pradesh; GurgaonManesar, FaridabadBallabhgarh, Bahadurgarh, and SonipatKundli in Haryana. The total area of CNCR (excluding NCT of Delhi) is approximately 2,000 km2 (770 sq mi).[39][38][40]

The 2021 plan estimated the 2001 population of the CNCR outside of Delhi to be over 2.8 million, while Delhi's population was 13.8 million, yielding a total CNCR population of 16.6 million.[41] As of 2016 the most recent population estimates have spanned 25.7 to 26.5 million people.[42][43]

Challenges to NCR

Delhi NCR faces its own set of challenges.

  1. Pollution - Due to high industrial growth, pollution from vehicles and stubble burning in Punjab. Delhi NCR has the worst Air Quality index in the world.
  2. Judicial - The western Uttar Pradesh part of NCR contributes more than 50% of revenue to Uttar Pradesh Government. It has lost and risks losing a lot of corporate investments due to the unavailability of the Judicial System in West Uttar Pradesh. High courts of 6 states are closer to western Uttar Pradesh than Allahabad High court. Even Lahore High Court is closer. NCR planning board has suggested setting up a high court bench in Meerut immediately or it risks losing investment to Bengaluru, Pune, Hyderabad, and, other counter magnets.
  3. Air Connectivity - Delhi NCR has only 1 airport, which is Indira Gandhi Airport in Delhi. The upcoming airport in Jewar, Noida is under construction. But other Airports in Meerut and Panipat must be readied for civilian airlines.

Counter magnets

The 1985 Act (§2.c and §8.f) gives the NCRCB the ability to select districts outside of the NCR to act as counter magnets, with a view to developing them further.[5]: 2, 10 Counter-magnet cities are identified as those that can be developed as alternative centres of growth and attract migrants to them rather than Delhi.[27]: 121  The criteria for selecting counter magnet towns are: that they should have their own established roots and potential of growth,[27]: 121  and should not be centres of either religious, strategic or environmental importance.[citation needed] The counter magnet cities should be given priority when allocating funding for development of land, housing and infrastructure.[27]: 126 

Following are the nine Counter-Magnet Areas to NCR spread across six states:[44][45]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Rationale". ncrpb.nic.in. NCR Planning Board. Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2013. The National Capital Region (NCR) in India was constituted under the NCRPB Act, 1985
  2. ^ a b c "NCR Constituent Areas". National Capital Region Planning Board. Archived from the original on 3 April 2023.
  3. ^ a b c d "Census 2011" (PDF). National Capital Region Planning Board. National Informatics Centre. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  4. ^ "Global Wealth GDP Nominal Distribution: Who Are The Leaders Of The Global Economy? - Full Size". www.visualcapitalist.com. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  5. ^ a b c "The Gazette of India, National Capital Region Planning Board Act of 1985" (PDF). NCR Planning Board. 1985. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 August 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  6. ^ "NCR expands, planning lags". The Indian Express. 18 January 2014. Archived from the original on 20 March 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
  7. ^ "With GDP of $370 billion, Delhi-NCR muscles out Mumbai as economic capital of India". The Financial Express. 29 November 2016. Archived from the original on 10 July 2017. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
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  9. ^ "Master Plan for Delhi" (PDF). rgplan.org. Delhi Development Authority. 1 September 1962. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 September 2016. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
  10. ^ "Master Plan for Delhi" (PDF). Delhi Development Authority. August 1990. p. 8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 August 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
  11. ^ "Brief Industrial Profile of Gautam Budh Nagar" (PDF). Government of India Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises. 14 August 2012. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 November 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
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  13. ^ "The Organisation and Administration" (PDF). Ministry of Urban Development. Government of India. p. 32. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017. Government of India vide Notification dated 1.10.2013 has included Bhiwani and Mahendragarh districts of the State of Haryana and Bharatpur district of the State of Rajasthan
  14. ^ "3 more districts enter National Capital Region fold – The Times of India". The Times of India. 2 July 2013. Archived from the original on 3 October 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  15. ^ "Charki Dadri notified as 22nd district of Haryana". The Times of India. 5 December 2016. Archived from the original on 6 December 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
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  21. ^ "NCR-shamli-inclusion". The Hindu. 5 December 2017.
  22. ^ Dabas, Harveer (9 January 2018). "UP govt sends proposal to include Bijnor, Mathura, Aligarh & Hathras in NCR". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 10 January 2018. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
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  26. ^ National Capital Region Planning Board Archived 16 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Ncrpb.nic.in. Retrieved on 16 July 2013.
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  29. ^ Want govt to build 1600 km green wall along Aravalli Archived 24 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Indian Express, 24 December 2019.
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  33. ^ "Project Overview – NCRTC". Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  34. ^ "Invest in UP" (PDF).
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  36. ^ a b "Delhi NCR Masterplan 2041" (PDF).
  37. ^ "Regional Plan 2001" (PDF). ncrpb.nic.in.
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  40. ^ "Study on counter magnet areas to Delhi & NCR" (PDF). ncrpb.nic.in.
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  42. ^ Demographia (April 2016). Demographia World Urban Areas (PDF) (12th ed.). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 May 2018. Retrieved 17 November 2016. (excludes Kondli)
  43. ^ "The World's Cities in 2016" (PDF). United Nations. October 2016. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 January 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
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  45. ^ "'Boost Counter Magnet Areas to control migration'". The Hindu. 1 September 2021. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 24 June 2022.

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