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BMW (German pronunciation: [ˈbeːˈʔɛmˈveː] (About this soundlisten)) is a German multinational company which produces automobiles and motorcycles. The company was founded in 1916 as a manufacturer of aircraft engines, which it produced from 1917 until 1918 and again from 1933 to 1945.

Bayerische Motoren Werke AG
Aktiengesellschaft
Traded asFWBBMW
DAX Component
IndustryAutomotive
PredecessorRapp Motorenwerke
Bayerische Flugzeugwerke
Founded7 March 1916; 103 years ago (1916-03-07)
FoundersCamillo Castiglioni
Franz Josef Popp
Karl Rapp
Headquarters,
Germany
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Products
Brands
Production output
Increase 2,541,534 vehicles (2018)
RevenueIncrease 97.48 billion (2018)[1]
Increase €9.12 billion (2018)[1]
Increase €7.20 billion (2018)[1]
Total assetsIncrease €208.98 billion (2018)[1]
Total equityIncrease €57.55 billion (2018)[1]
OwnerStefan Quandt (29%)
Susanne Klatten (21%)
Public float (50%)
Number of employees
134,682 (2018)[1]
Subsidiaries
Websitewww.bmwgroup.com Edit this at Wikidata

Automobiles are marketed under the brands BMW, Mini and Rolls-Royce, and motorcycles are marketed under the brand BMW Motorrad. In 2015, BMW was the world's twelfth largest producer of motor vehicles, with 2,279,503 vehicles produced.[2]

BMW is headquartered in Munich and produces motor vehicles in Germany, Brazil, China, India, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

The registered company name is "Bayerische Motoren Werke AG". The Quandt family are long-term shareholders of the company, with the remaining shares owned by public float.

BMW has significant motorsport history, especially in touring cars, Formula 1, sports cars and the Isle of Man TT.

Contents

HistoryEdit

BMW AG originated with three other manufacturing companies, Rapp Motorenwerke and Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (BFw) in Bavaria, and Fahrzeugfabrik Eisenach in Thuringia. The company is now known as BMW or Bayerische Motoren Werke. Aircraft engine manufacturer Rapp Motorenwerke became Bayerische Motorenwerke in 1916. The engine manufacturer, which built proprietary industrial engines after World War I, was then bought by the owner of BFw who then merged BFw into BMW and moved the engine works onto BFw's premises. BFw's motorcycle sideline was improved upon by BMW and became an integral part of their business.

 
BMW Museum souvenirs

The initial products were exhibited in 1922 in Munich plant. These souvenirs were not intended for sale. It was resulted with the historical exhibition which was organized in 1966.[3] BMW became an automobile manufacturer in 1929 when it purchased Fahrzeugfabrik Eisenach, which, at the time, built Austin Sevens under licence under the Dixi marque.[4] BMW's team of engineers progressively developed their cars from small Seven-based cars into six-cylinder luxury cars and, in 1936, began production of the BMW 328 sports car. Aircraft engines, motorcycles, and automobiles would be BMW's main products until World War II. During the war, against the wishes of its director Franz Josef Popp, BMW concentrated on aircraft engine production, with motorcycles as a side line and automobile manufacture stopped altogether.

After the war, BMW survived by making pots, pans, and bicycles until 1948, when it restarted motorcycle production. Meanwhile, BMW's factory in Eisenach fell in the Soviet occupation zone and the Soviets restarted production of pre-war BMW motorcycles and automobiles there. This continued until 1955, after which they concentrated on cars based on pre-war DKW designs. BMW began building cars in Bavaria in 1952 with the BMW 501 luxury saloon. Sales of their luxury saloons were too small to be profitable, so BMW supplemented this with building Isettas under licence. Slow sales of luxury cars and small profit margins from microcars caused the BMW board to consider selling the operation to Daimler-Benz. However, Herbert Quandt was convinced to purchase a controlling interest in BMW and to invest in its future.

Quandt's investment, along with profits from the BMW 700, brought about the BMW New Class and BMW New Six. These new products, along with the absorption of Hans Glas GmbH, gave BMW a sure footing on which to expand. BMW grew in strength, eventually acquiring the Rover Group for the Mini brand before selling it to the Phoenix Group, and the license to build automobiles under the Rolls-Royce marque.

BrandingEdit

BMW badge on a 1931 Dixi
Flag of Bavaria

Company nameEdit

The name BMW is an abbreviation for Bayerische Motoren Werke (German pronunciation: [ˈbaɪ̯ʁɪʃə mɔˈtʰɔʁn̩ ˈvɛɐ̯kə]). This name is grammatically incorrect, (in German, compound words must not contain spaces), which is why the name's grammatically correct form Bayerische Motorenwerke (German pronunciation: [ˈbaɪ̯ʁɪʃə mɔˈtʰɔʁn̩vɛɐ̯kə] ( listen)) has been used in several publications and advertisements in the past.[5][6] Bayerische Motorenwerke translates into English as Bavarian Motor Works.[7] The suffix AG, short for Aktiengesellschaft, signifies an incorporated entity which is owned by shareholders.

The terms Beemer, Bimmer and Bee-em are sometimes used slang for BMW in the English language[8][9] and are sometimes used interchangeably for cars and motorcycles.[10][11][12]

Edit

The circular blue and white BMW logo or roundel evolved from the circular Rapp Motorenwerke company logo, from which the BMW company grew, combined with the blue and white colors of the flag of Bavaria.[13] The BMW logo still used today was created in 1917, albeit with various minor styling changes.[14]

The origin of the logo is often thought to be a portrayal of the movement of an aircraft propeller with the white blades cutting through a blue sky. However, this portrayal was first used in a BMW advertisement in 1929 – twelve years after the logo was created – so this is not the origin of the logo itself.[15]

SloganEdit

The slogan ’The Ultimate Driving Machine’ was first used in North America in 1974.[16][17] In 2010, this long-lived campaign was mostly supplanted by a campaign intended to make the brand more approachable and to better appeal to women, ’Joy’. By 2012 BMW had returned to ’The Ultimate Driving Machine’.[18]

April Fools' Day pranksEdit

BMW has garnered a reputation in Britain over the years for its April Fools pranks, which are printed in the press there every year.[citation needed] In 2010, they ran an advertisement in The Guardian announcing that customers would be able to order BMWs with different coloured badges to show their affiliation with the political party they supported.[19]

FinancesEdit

For the fiscal year 2017, BMW reported earnings of EUR 8.620 billion, with an annual revenue of EUR 98.678 billion, an increase of 4.8% over the previous fiscal cycle.[20] BMW's shares traded at over €77 per share, and its market capitalization was valued at US 55.3 billion in November 2018.[21]

Year Revenue
in bn. EUR€
Net income
in bn. EUR€
Total Assets
in bn. EUR€
Employees
2013 76.058 5.314 138.368 110,351
2014 80.401 5.798 154.803 116,324
2015 92.175 6.369 172.174 122,244
2016 94.163 6.863 188.535 124,729
2017 98.678 8.620 193.483 129,932

MotorcyclesEdit

 
The R32 motorcycle, the first BMW motor vehicle.
 
The 2015 BMW R1200RT

BMW began production of motorcycle engines and then motorcycles after World War I.[22] Its motorcycle brand is now known as BMW Motorrad. Their first successful motorcycle after the failed Helios and Flink, was the "R32" in 1923, though production originally began in 1921.[23] This had a "boxer" twin engine, in which a cylinder projects into the air-flow from each side of the machine. Apart from their single-cylinder models (basically to the same pattern), all their motorcycles used this distinctive layout until the early 1980s. Many BMW's are still produced in this layout, which is designated the R Series.

The entire BMW Motorcycle production has, since 1969, been located at the company's Berlin-Spandau factory.

During the Second World War, BMW produced the BMW R75 motorcycle with a sidecar attached. Having a unique design copied by the Zündapp KS750, its sidecar wheel was also motor-driven. Combined with a lockable differential, this made the vehicle very capable off-road, an equivalent in many ways to the Jeep.

In 1982, came the K Series, shaft drive but water-cooled and with either three or four cylinders mounted in a straight line from front to back. Shortly after, BMW also started making the chain-driven F and G series with single and parallel twin Rotax engines.

In the early 1990s, BMW updated the airhead Boxer engine which became known as the oilhead. In 2002, the oilhead engine had two spark plugs per cylinder. In 2004 it added a built-in balance shaft, an increased capacity to 1,170 cc and enhanced performance to 100 hp (75 kW) for the R1200GS, compared to 85 hp (63 kW) of the previous R1150GS. More powerful variants of the oilhead engines are available in the R1100S and R1200S, producing 98 and 122 hp (73 and 91 kW), respectively.

In 2004, BMW introduced the new K1200S Sports Bike which marked a departure for BMW. It had an engine producing 167 hp (125 kW), derived from the company's work with the Williams F1 team, and is lighter than previous K models. Innovations include electronically adjustable front and rear suspension, and a Hossack-type front fork that BMW calls Duolever.

BMW introduced anti-lock brakes on production motorcycles starting in the late 1980s. The generation of anti-lock brakes available on the 2006 and later BMW motorcycles pave the way for the introduction of electronic stability control, or anti-skid technology later in the 2007 model year.

BMW has been an innovator in motorcycle suspension design, taking up telescopic front suspension long before most other manufacturers. Then they switched to an Earles fork, front suspension by swinging fork (1955 to 1969). Most modern BMWs are truly rear swingarm, single sided at the back (compare with the regular swinging fork usually, and wrongly, called swinging arm). Some BMWs started using yet another trademark front suspension design, the Telelever, in the early 1990s. Like the Earles fork, the Telelever significantly reduces dive under braking.

BMW Group, on 31 January 2013, announced that Pierer Industrie AG has bought Husqvarna for an undisclosed amount, which will not be revealed by either party in the future. The company is headed by Stephan Pierer (CEO of KTM). Pierer Industrie AG is 51% owner of KTM and 100% owner of Husqvarna.

In September 2018, BMW unveiled a new self-driving motorcycle with BMW Motorrad with a goal of using the technology to help improve road safety. [24] The design of the bike was inspired by the company's BMW R1200 GS model. [25]

AutomobilesEdit

The current model lines of BMW automobiles are:

The 1 Series (F40) is the entry level to BMW's current model range. Compared to its predecessor it is only produced as a 5-door hatchback body style. A 4-door sedan variant (F52) is also sold in China and Mexico.[26]

The 2 Series (F22/F23) is BMW's entry level coupes and convertibles. The 2 Series range also consists of the "Active Tourer" (F45) and "Gran Tourer" (F46) body styles, which are 5-seat and 7-seat MPVs respectively.

The 3 Series (G20/G21) range is produced in sedan and wagon body styles.

The 4 Series (F32/F33/F36) range is produced in 2-door coupe, 2-door convertible and 5-door fastback ("Gran Coupe") body styles.

The 5 Series (G30/G31) range is produced in sedan and wagon body styles. A long-wheelbase sedan variant (G38) is also sold in China.

The 7 Series (G11/G12) range is produced in the 4-door sedan and long-wheelbase sedan body styles.

The 8 Series (G14/G15/G16) range is produced in 2-door coupe, 2-door convertible and 4-door fastback ("Gran Coupe") body styles.

The X models consist of the X1 (F48), X2 (F39), X3 (G01), X4 (G02), X5 (G05), and X7 (G07).

The Z4 (G29) is a 2-door roadster.

i modelsEdit

 
2018 I8 Roadster in E-Copper color

The BMW i is a sub-brand of BMW founded in 2011 to design and manufacture plug-in electric vehicles.[27][28] The sub-brand initial plans called for the release of two vehicles; series production of the BMW i3 all-electric car began in September 2013,[29] and the market launch took place in November 2013 with the first retail deliveries in Germany.[30] The BMW i8 sports plug-in hybrid car was launched in Germany in June 2014.[31]

In 2014, BMW developed a prototype of street lights equipped with power sockets to charge electric cars, called Light and Charge.[32] Two of these charging facilities were installed at BMW's headquarters in Munich.[33] In 2015, BMW in cooperation with SCHERM Group has started deploying electric trucks on European roads, making it the first company to ever do so. The truck itself is manufactured by the Terberg Group, one of the world's largest independent specialist vehicle suppliers.[34][35][36]

Combined sales of the BMW i brand models reached the 50,000 unit milestone in January 2016.[37] Two years after its introduction, the BMW i3 ranked as the world's third best selling all-electric car in history.[38] Global sales of the BMW i3 achieved the 50,000 unit milestone in July 2016.[39]

In February 2016, BMW announced the introduction of the "iPerformance" model designation, which will be given to all BMW plug-in hybrid vehicles from July 2016. The aim is to provide a visible indicator of the transfer of technology from BMW i to the BMW core brand. The new designation will be used first on the plug-in hybrid variants of the latest BMW 7 Series.[40] Global sales of all BMW plug-in electrified models achieved the 100,000 unit milestone in early November 2016, consisting of more than 60,000 BMW i3s, over 10,000 BMW i8s, and about 30,000 from combined sales of all BMW iPerformance plug-in hybrid models.[41]

As of November 2016, four BMW electrified models have been released, the BMW X5 xDrive40e iPerformance, BMW 225xe iPerformance Active Tourer, BMW 330e iPerformance, and the BMW 740e iPerformance.[42] The BMW 530e iPerformance is scheduled to be released in Europe March 2017 as part of the upcoming seventh generation BMW 5 Series lineup.[43] Global sales of all plug-in electrified models achieved the 100,000 unit milestone in early November 2016, consisting of more than 60,000 i3s, over 10,000 i8s, and about 30,000 from combined sales of all BMW iPerformance plug-in hybrid models.[41] Combined global sales of BMW's electrified models totaled more than 62,000 units in 2016,[44] and 103,080 in 2017, including MINI brand electrified vehicles.[45] Cumulative global sales of BMW Group’s electrified vehicles passed the 250,000 unit milestone in April 2018.[46]

M modelsEdit

BMW M4 (F82)
BMW M5 (F90)

BMW produce a number of high-performance derivatives of their cars developed by their BMW M GmbH (previously BMW Motorsport GmbH) subsidiary. Some models have "M" appearance packages that are not performance-enhanced.

The current M models are:

  • M2 – F87 Coupé (2015 to present)
  • M4 – F82 Coupé/F83 Convertible (2014 to present)
  • M5 – F90 Saloon (2017 to present)
  • X3 M – F97[47] SAV (2019 to present)
  • X4 M – F98[47] SAV (2019 to present)

Naming convention for modelsEdit

MotorsportEdit

BMW has a long history of motorsport activities, including:

Involvement in the artsEdit

Art CarsEdit

In 1975, sculptor Alexander Calder was commissioned to paint the BMW 3.0 CSL racing car driven by Hervé Poulain at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, which became the first in the series of BMW Art Cars. Since Calder's work of art, many other renowned artists throughout the world have created BMW Art Cars, including David Hockney, Jenny Holzer, Roy Lichtenstein, Robert Rauschenberg, Frank Stella, and Andy Warhol.[48] To date, a total of 19 BMW Art Cars, based on both racing and regular production vehicles, have been created.

ArchitectureEdit

 
BMW Headquarters

The global BMW Headquarters in Munich represents the cylinder head of a 4-cylinder engine. It was designed by Karl Schwanzer and was completed in 1972. The building has become a European icon[48] and was declared a protected historic building in 1999. The main tower consists of four vertical cylinders standing next to and across from each other. Each cylinder is divided horizontally in its center by a mold in the facade. Notably, these cylinders do not stand on the ground; they are suspended on a central support tower.

BMW Museum is a futuristic cauldron-shaped building, which was also designed by Karl Schwanzer and opened in 1972.[49] The interior has a spiral theme and the roof is a 40-metre diameter BMW logo.

BMW Welt, the company's exhibition space in Munich, was designed by Coop Himmelb(l)au and opened in 2007. It includes a showroom and lifting platforms where a customer's new car is theatrically unveiled to the customer.[50]

FilmEdit

In 2001 and 2002, BMW produced a series of 8 short films called The Hire, which had plots based around BMW models being driven to extremes by Clive Owen.[51] The directors for The Hire included Guy Ritchie, John Woo, John Frankenheimer and Ang Lee. In 2016, a ninth film in the series was released.

The 2006 "BMW Performance Series" was a marketing event geared to attract black car buyers. It consisted of seven concerts by jazz musician Mike Phillips, and screenings of films by black filmmakers.[52][53]

Visual artsEdit

BMW was the principal sponsor of the 1998 The Art of the Motorcycle exhibition at various Guggenheim museums, though the financial relationship between BMW and the Guggenheim Foundation was criticised in many quarters.[54][55]

In 2012, BMW began sponsoring Independent Collectors production of the BMW Art Guide, which is the first global guide to private and publicly accessible collections of contemporary art worldwide.[56] The fourth edition, released in 2016, features 256 collections from 43 countries.[57]

Production and SalesEdit

 
Spot welding 3 Series bodies in Leipzig, Germany

BMW produces complete automobiles in the following countries:

BMW also has local assembly operation using complete knock-down (CKD) components in Thailand, Russia, Egypt, Indonesia, Malaysia and India.[61]

The BMW group (including Mini and Rolls-Royce) produced 1,366,838 automobiles in 2006 and then 1,481,253 automobiles in 2010.[62][63] BMW Motorcycles are being produced at the company's Berlin factory, which earlier had produced aircraft engines for Siemens.

By 2011, about 56% of BMW-brand vehicles produced are powered by petrol engines and the remaining 44% are powered by diesel engines. Of those petrol vehicles, about 27% are four-cylinder models and about nine percent are eight-cylinder models.[64] On average, 9,000 vehicles per day exit BMW plants, and 63% are transported by rail.[65]

Annual production since 2005, according to BMW's annual reports:[63]

Year BMW MINI Rolls-Royce Motorcycle*
2005 1,122,308 200,119 692 92,013
2006 1,179,317 186,674 847 103,759
2007 1,302,774 237,700 1,029 104,396
2008 1,203,482 235,019 1,417 118,452
2009 1,043,829 213,670 918 93,243
2010 1,236,989 241,043 3,221 112,271
2011 1,440,315 294,120 3,725 110,360
2012 1,547,057 311,490 3,279 113,811
2013 1,699,835 303,177 3,354 110,127
2014 1,838,268 322,803 4,495 133,615
2015 1,933,647 342,008 3,848 151,004
2016 2,002,997 352,580 4,179 145,555
2017 2,123,947 378,486 3,308 185,682

Annual sales since 2005, according to BMW's annual reports:

Year BMW MINI Rolls-Royce Motorcycle*
2005 1,126,768 200,428 797 97,474
2006 1,185,089 188,077 805 100,064
2007 1,276,793 222,875 1,010 102,467
2008 1,202,239 232,425 1,212 115,196
2009 1,068,770 216,538 1,002 100,358
2010 1,224,280 234,175 2,711 110,113
2011 1,380,384 285,060 3,538 113,572
2012 1,540,085 301,525 3,575 117,109
2013 1,655,138 305,030 3,630 115,215**
2014 1,811,719 302,183 4,063 123,495
2015 1,905,234 338,466 3,785 136,963
2016 2,003,359 360,233 4,011 145,032
2017 2,088,283 371,881 3,362 164,153

* In 2008–2012, motorcycle productions figures include Husqvarna models.
** Excluding Husqvarna, sales volume up to 2013: 59,776 units.

Major issues/recallsEdit

In November 2016, BMW recalled 136,000 2007–2012 model year U.S. cars for fuel pump wiring problems possibly resulting in fuel leak and engine stalling or restarting issues.[66]

In May 2017, ABC News reported on an investigation, in which they found dozens of instances of parked BMW cars catching fire, including some parked in home garages.[67]

In November 2017, BMW recalled roughly a million cars and SUVs for fire risk. One recall was for 672,000 3 Series cars from model years 2006–11 with climate control system electronic components at risk of overheating. The second recall was for 740,000 six-cylinder models (328i, 525i), at risk of crankcase heating short-circuit; some Series 3 cars were subject to both recalls.[68]

In August 2018, the government of South Korea announced the ban of BMW vehicles on the country's roads after 39 of the manufacturer's cars caught fire.[69] In response, BMW recalled 106,000 diesel vehicles in South Korea with a defective exhaust gas recirculation module, then expanded the recall to 324,000 more cars in Europe.[70]

In August 6, 2018, it has been reported that the rate of such accident is 0.10% in South Korea, and about 0.12% worldwide, which is about one problem in 1000 vehicles. According to JTBC (a South Korean TV channel), BMW Korea was fully aware of this problem, and they have reported the HQ of BMW,[71] which gave rise to an issue of the company's lack of attitude against this problem. Eventually, the owners of BMW vehicles have sued BMW staffs of violation of vehicle management law, questioning their defect concealment of vehicles [72]

Industry collaborationEdit

BMW has collaborated with other car manufacturers on the following occasions:

SponsorshipsEdit

 
BMW sponsor car at the London 2012 Olympics

BMW made a six-year sponsorship deal with the United States Olympic Committee in July 2010.[83][84]

In golf, BMW has sponsored various events,[85] including the PGA Championship since 2007,[86][87] the Italian Open form 2009-2012, the BMW Masters in China from 2012-2015[88][89] and the BMW International Open in Munich since 1989.[90]

In rugby, BMW sponsored the South Africa national rugby union team from 2011 to 2015.[91][92]

Environmental recordEdit

BMW is a charter member of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Environmental Achievement Track, which recognizes companies for their environmental stewardship and performance.[93] It is also a member of the South Carolina Environmental Excellence Program.[94]

Since 1999, BMW has been named the world's most sustainable automotive company every year by the Dow Jones Sustainability Index.[95] The BMW Group is one of three automotive companies to be featured every year in the index.[96] In 2001, the BMW Group committed itself to the United Nations Environment Programme, the UN Global Compact and the Cleaner Production Declaration. It was also the first company in the automotive industry to appoint an environmental officer, in 1973.[97] BMW is a member of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development.[98]

In 2012, BMW was the highest automotive company in the Carbon Disclosure Project's Global 500 list, with a score of 99 out of 100.[99][100] The BMW Group was rated the most sustainable DAX 30 company by Sustainalytics in 2012.[101]

To reduce vehicle emissions, BMW is improving the efficiency of existing fossil-fuel powered models, while researching electric power, hybrid power and hydrogen for future models.[102]

During the first quarter of 2018, BMW sold 26,858 Electrified Vehicles (EVs, PHEVs, & Hybrids).[103]

Car-sharing servicesEdit

DriveNow was a joint-venture between BMW and Sixt that operated from in Europe from 2011 until 2019. By December 2012,[104] DriveNow operated over 1,000 vehicles, in five cities and with approximately 60,000 customers.[105]

The ReachNow car-sharing service was launched in Seattle in April 2016.[106] ReachNow currently operates in Seattle, Portland and Brooklyn.

Overseas subsidiariesEdit

Production facilitiesEdit

ChinaEdit

The first BMW production facility in China was opened in 2004, as a result of a joint venture between BMW and Brilliance Auto.[107][108] The plant was opened in the Shenyang industrial area and produces 3 Series and 5 Series models for the Chinese market.[109][110] In 2012, a second factory was opened in Shenyang.[111]

Between January and November 2014, BMW sold 415,200 vehicles in China, through a network of over 440 BMW stores and 100 Mini stores.[112]

HungaryEdit

On 31 July 2018, BMW announced to build 1 billion euro car factory in Hungary. The plant, to be built near Debrecen, will have a production capacity of 150,000 cars a year.[113]

MexicoEdit

In July 2014, BMW announced it was establishing a plant in Mexico, in the city and state of San Luis Potosi involving an investment of $1 billion. The plant will employ 1,500 people, and produce 150,000 cars annually.[114]

South AfricaEdit

BMWs have been assembled in South Africa since 1968,[115] when Praetor Monteerders’ plant was opened in Rosslyn, near Pretoria. BMW initially bought shares in the company, before fully acquiring it in 1975; in so doing, the company became BMW South Africa, the first wholly owned subsidiary of BMW to be established outside Germany. Unlike United States manufacturers, such as Ford and GM, which divested from the country in the 1980s, BMW retained full ownership of its operations in South Africa.

Following the end of apartheid in 1994, and the lowering of import tariffs, BMW South Africa ended local production of the 5 Series and 7 Series, in order to concentrate on production of the 3 Series for the export market. South African–built BMWs are now exported to right hand drive markets including Japan, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong, as well as Sub-Saharan Africa. Since 1997, BMW South Africa has produced vehicles in left-hand drive for export to Taiwan, the United States and Iran, as well as South America.

Three unique models that BMW Motorsport created for the South African market were the E23 M745i (1983), which used the M88 engine from the BMW M1, the BMW 333i (1986), which added a six-cylinder 3.2-litre M30 engine to the E30,[116] and the E30 BMW 325is (1989) which was powered by an Alpina-derived 2.7-litre engine.

BMWs with a VIN starting with "NC0" are manufactured in South Africa.

United StatesEdit

 
BMW Zentrum museum in Spartanburg, South Carolina

BMW cars have been officially sold in the United States since 1956[117] and manufactured in the United States since 1994.[118] The first BMW dealership in the United States opened in 1975.[119] In 2016, BMW was the twelfth highest selling brand in the United States.[120]

The manufacturing plant in Greer, South Carolina has the highest production of the BMW plants worldwide,[121] currently producing approximately 1,400 vehicles per day.[122] The models produced at the Spartanburg plant are the X3, X4, X5, X6 and X7 SUV models.

In addition to the South Carolina manufacturing facility, BMW's North American companies include sales, marketing, design, and financial services operations in the United States, Mexico, Canada and Latin America.

Complete knock-down assembly facilitiesEdit

BrazilEdit

On 9 October 2014, BMW's new complete knock-down (CKD) assembly plant in Araquari, assembled its first car— an F30 3 Series.[123][124]

The cars assembled at Araquari are the F20 1 Series, F30 3 Series, F48 X1, F25 X3 and Mini Countryman.[125]

EgyptEdit

Bavarian Auto Group became the importer of the BMW and Mini brands in 2003.

Since 2005, the 3 Series, 5 Series, 7 Series, X1 and X3 models sold in Egypt are assembled from complete knock-down components at the BMW plant in 6th of October City.[125]

IndiaEdit

BMW India was established in 2006 as a sales subsidiary with a head office located in Gurugram.

A BMW complete knock-down assembly plant was opened in Chennai in 2007, assembling Indian-market 3 Series, 5 Series, 7 Series, X1, X3, X5, Mini Countryman and motorcycle models.[125][126] The 20 Million Euro plant aims to produce 1,700 cars per year.

RussiaEdit

Russian-market 3 Series and 5 Series cars are assembled from complete knock-down components in Kaliningrad beginning in 1999.[127]

Vehicle importersEdit

CanadaEdit

BMW's first dealership in Canada, located in Ottawa, was opened in 1969.[128] In 1986, BMW established a head office in Canada.[129]

BMW sold 28,149 vehicles in Canada in 2008.[130]

JapanEdit

BMW Japan Corp, a wholly owned subsidiary, imports and distributes BMW vehicles in Japan.[131]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Annual Report 2018" (PDF). BMW Group. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  2. ^ "WORLD MOTOR VEHICLE PRODUCTION - OICA correspondents survey" (PDF). www.oica.net. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 August 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
  3. ^ "BMW Welt - Take a Tour - BMW Museum". www.bmw-welt.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  4. ^ Odin, L.C. World in Motion 1939 - The whole of the year's automobile production. Belvedere Publishing, 2015. ASIN: B00ZLN91ZG.
  5. ^ Hans List: Vorwort und Einführung zum Gesamtwerk. Band 1 von Die Verbrennungskraftmaschine, Springer, Wien, 1949. ISBN 9783662294888. Verzeichnis der Abkürzungen
  6. ^ Roland Löwisch: BMW - Die schönsten Modelle: 100 Jahre Design und Technik. HEEL, 2016, ISBN 9783958434066. p 7.
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  8. ^ "Bee em / BMW Motorcycle Club of Victoria Inc". National Library of Australia. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2009.
  9. ^ "No Toupees allowed". Bangkok Post. 2 October 2009. Retrieved 24 October 2009.[dead link]
  10. ^ Lighter, Jonathan E. (1994). Random House Historical Dictionary of American Slang: A-G. 1. Random House. pp. 126–27. ISBN 978-0-394-54427-4. Beemer n. [BMW + ''er''] a BMW automobile. Also Beamer.
  11. ^ Lighter, Jonathan E. (1994). Random House Historical Dictionary of American Slang: A-G. 1. Random House. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-394-54427-4. Bimmer n. Beemer.
  12. ^ 1982 S. Black Totally Awesome 83 BMW ("Beemer").
    1985 L.A. Times (13 April) V 4: Id much rather drive my Beemer than a truck.
    1989 L. Roberts Full Cleveland 39: Baby boomers... in... late-model Beemers.
    1990 Hull High (NBC-TV): You should ee my dad's new Beemer.
    1991 Cathy (synd. cartoon strip) (21 April): Sheila... [ground] multi-grain snack chips crumbs into the back seat of my brand-new Beamer!
    1992 Time (18 May) 84: Its residents tend to drive pickups or subcompacts, not Beemers or Rolles.
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Further readingEdit

  • Grunert, Manfred; Triebe, Florian (2006), BMW Group Mobile Tradition (ed.), Das Unternehmen BMW seit 1916 (in German), München: BMW Group Mobile Tradition, ISBN 978-3-932169-46-5
  • Kiles, David (2004), Driven: Inside BMW, the Most Admired Car Company in the World (in German), Wiley, p. 328, ISBN 978-0-471-26920-5
  • Schrader, Halwart (2004), Typenkompass BMW (in German), Stuttgart: Motorbuch, ISBN 3-613-02386-5
  • Werner, Constanze (2006), Kriegswirtschaft und Zwangsarbeit bei BMW (in German), München: Oldenbourg, ISBN 978-3-486-57792-1, Im Auftr. von MTU Aero Engines und BMW Group
  • Noakes, Andrew, BMW. Vom 328 Roadster und der Isetta bis zum 5er Gran Turismo (in German), Bath: Parragon Books, ISBN 978-1-4075-6814-0
  • Schrader, Halwart (2011), BMW. Passion – Power – Perfektion. (in German), Stuttgart: Motorbuch-Verlag, ISBN 978-3-613-03378-8