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BMW 3 Series (E30)

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The BMW E30 is the second generation of BMW 3 Series, which was produced from 1982-1994 and replaced the E21 3 Series.

BMW 3 Series (E30)
Bmw e30.jpg
Overview
Production1982–1994
Body and chassis
ClassCompact executive car (D)
Body style
Layout
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,570 mm (101.2 in)[1]
Length4,320–4,460 mm (170.1–175.6 in)[1]
Width1,645 mm (64.8 in)[1]
Height1,360–1,400 mm (53.5–55.1 in)[1]
Curb weight1,080–1,200 kg (2,380–2,650 lb)[2][3]
Chronology
PredecessorBMW 3 Series (E21)
SuccessorBMW 3 Series (E36)
Interior

The model range included coupé and convertible body styles,[4][5] as well as being the first 3 Series to be produced in sedan and wagon/estate body styles. It was powered by four-cylinder petrol, six-cylinder petrol and six-cylinder diesel engines, the latter a first for the 3 Series. The E30 325iX model was the first 3 Series to have all-wheel drive.

The first BMW M3 model was built on the E30 platform and was powered by the high-revving BMW S14 four-cylinder petrol engine, which produced 175 kW (235 bhp) in its final European-only iteration.[6] The BMW Z1 roadster was also based on the E30 platform.

Following the launch of the E36 3 Series in 1990, the E30 began to be phased out.

Contents

Development and launchEdit

Development of the E30 3 Series began in July 1976, with styling being developed under chief designer Claus Luthe[7] with exterior styling led by Boyke Boyer.[citation needed] In 1978, the final design was approved, with design freeze (cubing process) being completed in 1979. BMW's launch film for the E30 shows the design process including Computer-aided design (CAD), crash testing and wind-tunnel testing.[8] The car was released at the end of November 1982.[9][10][11][12](p117)

Externally, the E30's appearance is very similar to twin headlight versions of its E21 predecessor, however there are various detail changes in styling to the E30. Major differences to the E21 include the interior and a revised suspension, the latter to reduce the oversteer for which the E21 was criticised.[13]

Body stylesEdit

In addition to the two-door sedan and Baur convertible body styles of its E21 predecessors, the E30 was also available as a four-door sedan and five-door station wagon (marketed as "Touring").[14](p98)

The Touring body style began life as a prototype built by BMW engineer Max Reisböck in his friend's garage in 1984 and began production in 1987.[15][16] The factory convertible version began production in 1985, with the Baur convertible conversions remaining available alongside it.[17]

EnginesEdit

Initially, the E30 used carryover four-cylinder (M10) and six-cylinder (M20) petrol engines from its E21 predecessor.[18] Over the production run, new families of four-cylinder petrol engines were introduced and the six-cylinder engine received various upgrades. A six-cylinder diesel engine was introduced, in both naturally aspirated and turbocharged forms.

Factory specifications are shown below.[19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34]

Petrol Engines
Model Years Engine Power Torque
316 1982-1987 M10B18
4-cyl
66 kW (89 bhp)
at 5,500 rpm
140 N⋅m (103 lb⋅ft)
at 4,000 rpm
316i 1987-1994 M40B16
4-cyl
71 kW (95 bhp)
at 5,500 rpm
145 N⋅m (107 lb⋅ft)
at 4,500 rpm
318i 1982-1987 M10B18
4-cyl
77 kW (103 bhp)
at 5,800 rpm
145 N⋅m (107 lb⋅ft)
at 4,500 rpm
1987-1994 M40B18
4-cyl
83 kW (111 bhp)
at 5,500 rpm
162 N⋅m (119 lb⋅ft)
at 4,250 rpm
318is 1989-1991 M42B18
4-cyl
100 kW (134 bhp)
at 6,000 rpm
172 N⋅m (127 lb⋅ft)
at 4,600 rpm
320i 1982-1985 M20B20
6-cyl
92 kW (123 bhp)
at 5,800 rpm
170 N⋅m (125 lb⋅ft)
at 4,000 rpm
1985-1987 95 kW (127 bhp)
at 6,000 rpm
174 N⋅m (128 lb⋅ft)
at 4,000 rpm
1987-1992 95 kW (127 bhp)
at 6,000 rpm
164 N⋅m (121 lb⋅ft)
at 4,300 rpm
320iS 1985-1994 S14B20
4-cyl
141 kW (189 bhp)
at 6,900 rpm
210 N⋅m (150 lb⋅ft)
at 4,900 rpm
323i 1982-1984 M20B23
6-cyl
102 kW (137 bhp)
at 5,300 rpm
205 N⋅m (151 lb⋅ft)
at 4,000 rpm
1984-1985 110 kW (148 bhp)
6,000 rpm
325/e/es 1985-1987 M20B27
6-cyl
90 kW (121 bhp)
at 4,250 rpm*
240 N⋅m (177 lb⋅ft)
at 3,250 rpm*
1988 95 kW (127 bhp)
at 4,250 rpm
205 N⋅m (151 lb⋅ft)
at 3,200 rpm
325i/is/ix 1985-1993 M20B25
6-cyl
125 kW (168 bhp)
at 5,800 rpm**
222 N⋅m (164 lb⋅ft)
at 4,000 rpm**
M3 /
M3 Evo 1
1986-1987 S14B23
4-cyl
143 kW (192 bhp)
at 6,750 rpm
230 N⋅m (170 lb⋅ft)
at 4,750 rpm
M3 Evo 2 1988 160 kW (215 bhp)
at 6,750 rpm
245 N⋅m (181 lb⋅ft)
at 4,750 rpm
M3 Sport Evo 1989-1990 S14B25
4-cyl
175 kW (235 bhp)
at 7,000 rpm
240 N⋅m (177 lb⋅ft)
at 4,750 rpm

* With catalytic converter: 90 kW (120 hp), 230 N⋅m (170 lb⋅ft)
** With catalytic converter: 125 kW (168 hp), 221 N⋅m (163 lb⋅ft)

Diesel Engines[35]
Model Years Engine Power Torque
324d 1985-1991 M21D24
6-cyl
63 kW (84 bhp)
at 4,600 rpm
152 N⋅m (112 lb⋅ft)
at 2,500 rpm
324td 1983-1987 M21D24
6-cyl
turbo
85 kW (114 bhp)
at 4,800 rpm
210 N⋅m (155 lb⋅ft)
at 4,000 rpm
1987-1991 85 kW (114 bhp)
at 4,800 rpm
220 N⋅m (162 lb⋅ft)
at 4,000 rpm

Four-cylinder petrolEdit

 
BMW M10 engine

At the launch of the E30 range in 1982, the 316 used a 1766 cc version of the M10 fed by a carburetor and producing 66 kW (89 hp).[36][28] The 318i had the same M10 engine, but with Bosch L-Jetronic fuel-injection, increasing power to 77 kW (103 hp)[37][28] while also improving fuel economy.

The 1987 Series 2 update introduced a new four-cylinder engine: the M40, which used Bosch Motronic fuel-injection. In the 318i, a 1,796 cc (110 cu in) version of the M40 was used. The 316i model replaced the 316, using a 1,596 cc (97 cu in) version of the M40.

The 318iS coupé was released in 1989, using the new M42 engine.[38][39] This is the most modern engine available in the E30 range, incorporating DOHC, the updated Bosch Motronic 1.3, hydraulic valve adjusters and coil-on-plug ignition. In some markets, the M42 engine was used in the 318i/318iC models, instead of the M40.

The M3 is powered by the S14 engine, a high-revving four-cylinder engine.[40][41]

Six-cylinder petrolEdit

 
BMW M20 engine
(325i version)

At the launch of the E30 range, the six-cylinder models consisted of the 320i, which had a 2.0 L (122 cu in) version of the M20 producing 92 kW (123 bhp),[42] and the 323i, with a 2.3 L (140 cu in) M20 producing 102 kW (137 bhp),[10][28] both using Bosch L-Jetronic fuel injection. These models were not sold in North America,[43] presumably for emissions reasons. In 1985, the 2.3 L engine was replaced with a 2.5 L version of the M20, which produced 125 kW (168 bhp) and used Bosch Motronic fuel injection.[44][30] This engine was available in the 325i variants, including the all-wheel drive 325iX.

An economy version called the 325e was released with a lower revving, more fuel efficient engine. The e is an abbreviation for eta, which is used to represent the thermal efficiency of a heat engine. To maximise low-rev torque, the 325e engine was the largest available in an E30 (aside from the 333i model, which was only sold in South Africa). The 325e engine had a longer stroke than the 325i version, with a more restrictive head, four cam bearings instead of seven, and single valve springs (instead of the dual valve springs used by the 325i version). For versions without a catalytic converter, the 325e engine produced 90 kW (121 bhp) at 4250 rpm and 240 N⋅m (177 lbf⋅ft) at 3250 rpm.[45][30] By comparison, peak torque for the 325i engine was 215 N⋅m (159 lb⋅ft) at 4000 rpm.

The 1987 Series 2 update boosted the 320i to 95 kW (127 hp) and the 325i to 125 kW (168 hp), and improved fuel economy.[46][47]

Six-cylinder dieselEdit

 
BMW M21 engine used in the 324d and 324td models

In 1983 the 324td was unveiled at the IAA, Germany. The M21 engine used a Garrett turbocharger (without an intercooler). The engine has a capacity of 2,443 cc (149 cu in) and uses mechanical fuel injection.

In 1985 BMW introduced the 324d, a naturally aspirated version of the same M21 engine, which was popular in countries with a high motor vehicle tax.[48]

In 1987 an electronically controlled fuel pump was used[49][50] which increased the torque output by 10 N⋅m (7 lb⋅ft). The updated engine has a smaller turbocharger, decreasing turbo lag.[51]

DrivetrainEdit

In total, eight transmissions were available for the various models of the E30: five manuals, and two automatics.

Manual transmissionsEdit

Automatic transmissionsEdit

  • 3-speed ZF 3HP22 — 1981 to 1985.[58]
  • 4-speed ZF 4HP22 — 320i and 323i models until 1985, available on all models from 1985 onwards.[59]

SuspensionEdit

One of the features that added to the roominess of the E30 was the suspension. The front MacPherson struts and rear semi-trailing arm suspension were a compact arrangement that left a lot of cabin and boot space for the car's overall size. The semi-trailing arms have been criticized for the dynamic toe and camber changes inherent to the suspension geometry, causing bump steer in hard cornering situations (such as racing and autocross). Nonetheless, reviewers praised the handling of the E30.[60][61][62]

A widened version of the E30 front suspension and the drivetrain from the E30 325i were used in the BMW Z1 roadster. The BMW Z3 and BMW Compact (E36/5) rear suspensions are also very similar to the E30, but utilizing five-lug hubs. The Z3-based BMW M Coupé uses a widened version of the same rear semi-trailing arm suspension.

BrakesEdit

For the front wheels, all models use disk brakes. For the rear wheels, most models use disk brakes, except for some 4-cylinder models which use drum brakes. Anti-lock braking system (ABS) became available in 1986.[63](p1:10)

Model rangeEdit

United States & CanadaEdit

 
1986–'87 two-door sedan (Canada)

The model range in the United States consisted of the following:

  • 318i (1984-1985 using the M10 engine, then 1991 using the M42 engine)[64]
  • 318is (1991 only)
  • 325, 325e and 325es
  • 325i, 325is (1987-1991 only)
  • 325ix (1988-1991 only)

A distinctive feature of the BMW E30 models produced for the North American market in 1984–1987 is the protruding front and rear anodized aluminium bumpers. In 1988 they were shortened by revising the cover/fillers and shortening their energy absorbers, and in 1989 shorter body-coloured plastic bumpers replaced the aluminium ones altogether.[citation needed]

South AfricaEdit

In South Africa, only the two-door and four-door sedans were built, four cylinder gasoline (petrol) models production continued there until 1992.

Despite the introduction of the M40 engine, the old M10-powered 316 continued to be sold in South Africa until 1991, gaining the new bumpers when the range was updated.

The 333i is a South Africa-only model, and the South African 325iS models were a different specification from 325iS models sold in other countries.

M3 modelEdit

 
BMW E30 "M3 Sport Evolution"

The BMW M3 utilised a widened and heavily redesigned variation of the coupé body style, therefore the M3 shares few body parts with other E30 models.[13] The M3 suspension is also significantly different from regular E30 models,[57] including five-lug wheel bolts.

Alpina modelsEdit

 
Alpina B6 2.8

The Alpina C1, C2, B3 and B6 models were based on the E30.

Special modelsEdit

320isEdit

 
BMW E30 320is sedan (1990)

For Portugal and Italy only, due to considerably higher VAT and vehicle tax for cars with engines exceeding 2000 cc, a special model was created: the 320is.[65] The sedan version appeared in the dealers' showrooms in September 1987 while the coupé version arrived in March 1988. Production of the 320is continued until 1991.

This model was produced both in coupé and sedan versions and was equipped with a 1,990 cc (121 cu in) version of the S14 engine from the M3, with stroke reduced to 72.6 mm (2.86 in).[66] This engine produced 143 kW (192 hp) at 6900 rpm and 155 lb⋅ft (210 N⋅m) at 4,900 rpm.[66] The 320is shared the same dogleg Getrag 265 gearbox of the non-US M3 while it had a limited slip differential with the same 25% lock up rate but with a shorter differential ratio of 3.46:1.[67] All the 320is models were left hand drive and without a catalytic converter. Sports suspension was fitted to all coupés, and to sedans produced from September 1989.

The interior of the 320is was identical to that of other 3 Series models, except an M3 instrument cluster (which features an oil temperature gauge instead of a fuel economy gauge) was used. The 320is was sold for three years, with 1,206 sedans and 2,542 coupés produced.[68]

M325iEdit

In New Zealand, where the M3 was never sold by BMW, the local importer created a sporting version of the sedan called M325i. About 100 such cars were imported beginning in late 1986 until at least 1990.[69] Fitted with the standard non-catalyzed 125 kW (168 bhp) 2.5 litre engine they benefited from a Motorsport tuned suspension, the M-Technic body package, 15-inch BBS cross-spoke wheels with wide, low profile (225/50) tyres, and a limited-slip differential.[69] The M325i is quite similar to the British market 325i Sport, also developed as a response to the absence of a right-hand-drive M3.

333iEdit

BMW South Africa's Motorsport division created the 333i in 1985 by fitting the 3.2 L M30 "big six" engine to a coupé E30.[70] The resulting 333i was a success in South African saloon car racing. These cars were built with help from Alpina in Buchloe, Germany.[71][72] Due to the space constraints caused by the large M30 engine, the buyer was forced to choose between air conditioning (vital in South Africa) and power steering. The 333i was produced from 1985 to 1987 and only 204 cars were produced.[73]

The 333i engine produces 145 kW (194 hp) at 5500 rpm and 285 N⋅m (210 lb⋅ft) at 4300 rpm.[73] BMW's official performance claims are 0–100 km/h (0–62 mph) in 7.4 seconds, and a top speed of 228 km/h (142 mph).[74]

South African 325iSEdit

The 2.7 litre 325iS, commonly called Evo 1, was created by BMW South Africa to replace the 2.5 litre 126 kW 325i in Group N production car racing, as a response to the introduction of the Opel Kadett 2 litre 16V to the Class A category. It was launched in the first half of 1990 and was powered by an Alpina-fettled, 2.7 litre M20 engine which produced 145 kW (194 hp).[75] Following the introduction of the upgraded Opel Kadett 16V SuperBoss, in 1991 BMW South Africa introduced the 325iS Evolution HP, commonly referred to as the Evo 2. The motor was upgraded to produce 155 kW (208 hp).[75]

The Evolution HP won the Group N Class A title in 1993, winning 20 of the 24 races in the process.[76] The Robbi Smith and Geoff Goddard Evolution HP won the season-ending 9hr race.[77]

323i JPSEdit

The JPS Edition is an Australian-only model built as a tribute to the 635CSi cars competing in local touring car racing. JPS refers to the BMW race team sponsor, John Player Special cigarettes. The cars are 323i manual coupés,[78] painted in black with gold pinstripes and gold BBS wheels. They also had Recaro sports seats, JPS badging, a limited slip differential, sports suspension, a sunroof and a body kit.[79] The initial production run was 70 cars, with a small number of additional cars produced afterwards.[79]

Model year changesEdit

Minor update (1985)Edit

 
1985-1987 BMW 318i

In 1985 the exterior and interior trim were updated. The 323i model was replaced with the 325i at this time and the diesel-engined 324d was introduced.[80] A factory convertible entered the model range. However, the Baur remained on sale, alongside the factory convertible. The M3 convertible was only offered for the European market.

Major update (1987)Edit

 
1987 update

At the Frankfurt Motor Show in September 1987, BMW introduced a major update to the E30 (often called Series 2).[80][81](pp17,19) The changes to the lineup were the addition of the Touring (station wagon) variant and removal of the 325e model. The 1987 update models remained largely unchanged until the end of production, with the addition of the 318is model in 1989.

External styling changes included redesigned rear lights, front bumper and a reduction in the amount of chrome trim.[81] The M10 4-cylinder engine was replaced by the M40 and various other mechanical changes were made. Rust protection was improved with the update.

ProductionEdit

The E30 was produced in Munich, Germany; Regensburg, Germany; and Rosslyn, South Africa.[10][82][83]

Models sold in Indonesia and Thailand used complete knock-down kits produced in Germany, which were assembled in Jakarta and Bangkok respectively.[84][85]

Production volumes[86][87]
Year Units
1981
1982 15,580
1983 218,201
1984 285,134
1985 297,886
1986 329,460
1987 316,075
1988 269,074
1989 257,307
1990 246,818
1991 56,363
1992 26,913
1993 18,440
1994 1,997
Total [88](p7) 2,433,000

† The first E30s were produced in December 1981 (323i models only), but the numbers are not known

Production of the E30 began to wind down in 1990, due to the introduction of the E36 3 Series E30 coupé models. Sedan production concluded on April 30, 1991 at Regensburg. Other variants were phased out gradually, until the final E30 model, a Touring, was produced in 1994.[89]

MotorsportEdit

 
E30 M3 DTM touring car

The E30 M3 had a very successful career in Touring car racing.[90][91][92]

The E30 remains a popular car for racing[93][94][95] and E30 racing series are run in the United States, Australia and New Zealand.[96][97][98]

Film and television appearancesEdit

Television and film appearances of the then-new E30 include Beverly Hills Cop, Miami Vice, Pretty Woman, Pretty in Pink, Bird on a Wire, Beverly Hills 90210, LaLa Land, Seinfeld[99] and Defending Your Life.[100]

Wheeler Dealers Season 2 Episode 7 includes a 325i Touring.[101]

In the Top Gear television series Season 16 Episode 4, the presenters entered a challenge for 4-seat convertibles costing under £2000. All 3 presenters purchased E30 325i convertibles. The challenge was won by James May's car, which was in the best condition of the three and also the newest.[102]

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Further readingEdit

  • Jeremy Walton (2001). BMW 3-Series Collectors Guide: Generation 1 and 2 including M3. Motor Racing Publications. ISBN 1-899870-55-5.
  • R.M. Clarke (1990). BMW Series 3 - 4 Cylinder Cars Gold Portfolio. Brooklands Books. ISBN 1-85520-149-6.
  • A.K. Legg & Larry Warren (1996). BMW 3- & 5-Series Haynes Service and Repair Manual. Haynes. ISBN 1-85960-236-3.
  • Various authors (1993). BMW Serie "3" (Modelos después 1983) Estudios técnicos y documentación. ANETO-ETAI. ISSN 1134-7155.
  • Andrew Everett (2006). BMW E30 - 3 Series Restoration Bible. Brooklands Books. ISBN 1-85520-678-1.
  • Robert Bentley (2003). BMW 3 Series (E30) Service Manual: 1984–1990. Bentley Publishing. ISBN 0837603250.