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Summary of classificationsEdit

This following table summarises commonly used terms of market segments and legal classifications.

Euro Car Segment[2] Euro NCAP Class US EPA
Size Class[3]
Other common
segment terms
Examples
Quadricycle Microcar
Bubble car
Bond Bug, Isetta,
Mega City, Renault Twizy
A-segment mini cars Supermini Minicompact City car Citroën C1, Fiat 500, Kia Picanto,
Peugeot 108, Renault Twingo
B-segment small cars Subcompact Ford Fiesta, Kia Rio, Opel Corsa,
Peugeot 208, Volkswagen Polo
C-segment medium cars Small family car Compact Honda Civic, Hyundai Elantra, Ford Focus,
Toyota Corolla, Volkswagen Golf
Subcompact executive Acura ILX, Audi A3, BMW 1 Series,
Lexus CT, Mercedes-Benz A-Class
D-segment large cars Large family car Mid-size Ford Mondeo, Opel Insignia, Peugeot 508,
Mazda6, Volkswagen Passat
Compact executive (U.K.)
Entry-level luxury (U.S.)
Alfa Romeo Giulia, Audi A4, BMW 3 Series,
Lexus ES, Mercedes-Benz C-Class
E-segment executive cars Executive Large Full-size car (U.S.) Chevrolet Impala, Chrysler 300, Ford Taurus,
Renault Samsung SM7, Toyota Avalon
Mid-size luxury (U.S.) Audi A6, BMW 5 Series, Cadillac CTS,
Mercedes-Benz E-Class, Tesla Model S
F-segment luxury cars Full-size luxury (U.S.)
Luxury saloon (U.K.)
Audi A8, BMW 7 Series, Jaguar XJ,
Mercedes-Benz S-Class, Porsche Panamera
S-segment sports coupés Supercar Bugatti Veyron, LaFerrari, Lamborghini Aventador,
Pagani Zonda, Porsche 918 Spyder
Convertible Chevrolet Camaro, Mercedes CLK,
Volvo C70, Volkswagen Eos, Opel Cascada
Roadster sports Two-seater Roadster
Sports car
BMW Z4, Lotus Elise, Mazda MX-5,
Porsche Boxster, Mercedes-Benz SLK
M-segment multi purpose cars Small MPV Minivan Mini MPV Citroën C3 Picasso, Ford B-Max,
Opel Meriva, Fiat 500L
Compact MPV Chevrolet Orlando, Ford C-Max, Opel Zafira,
Renault Scénic, Volkswagen Touran
Large MPV People mover (AU) Chrysler Pacifica (RU), Kia Carnival, Renault Espace,
Toyota Sienna, Citroën C4 Grand Picasso
J-segment sport utility cars Small off-road 4x4 Small SUV Mini 4x4 (U.K.)
Mini SUV (U.S.)
Daihatsu Terios, Ford EcoSport, Jeep Renegade,
Peugeot 2008, Suzuki Jimny
Compact 4x4 (U.K.)
Compact SUV
Chevrolet Equinox, Ford Escape, Honda CR-V,
Jeep Cherokee, Kia Sportage
Large off-road 4x4 Standard SUV Large 4x4 (U.K.)
Mid-size SUV (U.S.)
Ford Edge, Hyundai Santa Fe, Jeep Grand Cherokee,
Volkswagen Touareg, Volvo XC90
Full-size SUV (U.S.)
Large 4x4 (U.K.)
Lincoln Navigator, Range Rover, Cadillac Escalade,
Toyota Land Cruiser


Market segmentsEdit

Microcar / kei carEdit

 
2018 Aixam Crossline

Microcars and their Japanese equivalent— kei cars— are the smallest category of automobile.[4]

Microcars straddle the boundary between car and motorbike, and are often covered by separate regulations to normal cars, resulting in relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Engine size is often 700 cc (43 cu in) or less, and microcars have three or four wheels.

Microcars are most popular in Europe, where they originated following World War II. The predecessors to micro cars are voiturettes and cycle cars. Kei cars have been used in Japan since 1949.

Examples of microcars and kei cars:

A-segment / City car / Minicompact Edit

 
2014–present Citroën C1

The smallest category of vehicles that are registered as normal cars is called A-segment in Europe, or "city car" in Europe and the United States. The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines this category as "minicompact", however this term is not widely used.

The equivalents of A-segment cars have been produced since the early 1920s, however the category increased in popularity in the late 1950s when the original Fiat 500 and BMC Mini were released.

Examples of A-segment / city cars / minicompact cars:

B-segment / Supermini / SubcompactEdit

 
2012–2019 Renault Clio

The next larger category small cars is called B-segment Europe, supermini in the United Kingdom and subcompact in the United States.

The size of a subcompact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as having a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet (2,410–2,800 L).[5] Since the EPA's smaller minicompact category is not as commonly used by the general public, A-segment cars are sometimes called subcompacts in the United States. In Europe and Great Britain, the B-segment and supermini categories do not any formal definitions based on size.

Early supermini cars in Great Britain include the 1977 Ford Fiesta and Vauxhall Chevette.

In the United States, the first locally-built subcompact cars were the 1970 AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, and Ford Pinto.[6]

Examples of B-segment / supermini / subcompact cars:

C-segment / Compact / Small familyEdit

The largest category of small cars is called C-segment or small family car in Europe, and compact car in the United States.

The size of a compact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as having a combined interior and cargo volume of 100–109 cu ft (2.8–3.1 m3).[5]

Examples of C-segment / compact / small family cars:

D-segment / Large family / Mid-sizeEdit

In Europe, the third largest category for passenger cars is called D-segment or large family car.

In the United States, the equivalent term is mid-size or intermediate cars. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines a mid-size car as having a combined passenger and cargo volume of 110–119 cu ft (3.1–3.4 m3).

Examples of D-segment / large family / mid-size cars:

E-segment / Executive / Full-sizeEdit

In Europe, the second largest category for passenger cars is E-segment / executive car, which are usually luxury cars.

In other countries, the equivalent terms are full-size car or large car, which are also used for relatively affordable large cars that aren't considered luxury cars.

Examples of non-luxury full-size cars:

F-segment / Luxury saloon / Full-size luxuryEdit

See Luxury saloon / full-size luxury section below.

Minivans / MPVsEdit

Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row(s), have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows. The equivalent terms in British English are Multi-purpose Vehicle (MPV), people carrier and people mover. Minivans often have a 'one-box' or 'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating.

Mini MPVEdit

 
Opel Meriva (2011–2017)

Mini MPV is the smallest size of MPVs and the vehicles are often built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models.

Examples of Mini MPVs:

Compact MPVEdit

 
Ford C-Max (2011–present)

Compact MPV is the middle size of MPVs. The Compact MPV size class sits between the mini MPV and large MPV (minivan) size classes.

Compact MPVs remain predominantly a European phenomenon, although they are also built and sold in many Latin American and Asian markets.

Examples of Compact MPVs:

Large MPVEdit

 
Renault Espace I (1984–1991)

The largest size of minivans is also referred to as 'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have also become popular. If the term 'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it usually refers to a Large MPV.

Examples of Large MPVs:

Luxury vehiclesEdit

Premium compactEdit

 
2012–present Audi A3

The premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars. It became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models.[8]

Examples of premium compact cars:

Compact executive / luxury compactEdit

A compact executive car is a premium car larger than a premium compact and smaller than an executive car. Compact executive cars are equivalent size to mid-size cars and are part of the D-segment in the European car classification.

In North American terms, close equivalents are "luxury compact"[9][10][11][12] and "entry-level luxury car",[13][14][15] although the latter is also used for the smaller premium compact cars.[16][17]

Examples of compact executive cars:

Executive / mid-size luxury Edit

An executive car is a premium car larger than a compact executive and smaller than an full-size luxury car. Executive cars are classified as E-segment cars in the European car classification.

In the United States and several other countries, the equivalent categories are full-size car (not to be confused with the European category of "full-size luxury car") or mid-size luxury car.

Examples of executive cars:

Luxury saloon / full-size luxuryEdit

The largest size of luxury car is known as a luxury saloon in the United Kingdom and a full-size luxury car in the United States. These cars are classified as F-segment cars in the European car classification.

Vehicles in this category are often the flagship models of luxury car brands.[18]

Examples of luxury saloons:

Sports / performance carsEdit

Cars which prioritise handling or straight-line acceleration are called sports cars or performance cars. However the term 'sports car' is also sometimes used specifically for lightweight two-seat cars. Sports/performance cars can either be built on unique platforms or be upgraded versions of regular cars.

Common categories of sports/performance cars are:

The definitions for these categories are often blurred and a car may be a member of multiple categories.

Sports carEdit

Sports cars are designed to emphasise handling, performance or thrill of driving. Sports cars originated in Europe in the early 1900s, with one of the first recorded usages of the term "sports car" being in The Times newspaper in the United Kingdom in 1919.[19] Sports cars started to become popular during the 1920s.[20] The term was originally used for two-seat roadsters (cars without a fixed roof), however since the 1970s the term has also been used for cars with a fixed roof (which were previously considered grand tourers).[21]

Examples of sports cars:

Sports sedan / sports saloonEdit

A sports sedan — also known as "sports saloon" — is a subjective term for a sedan/saloon car which is designed to have sporting performance or handling characteristics.

Examples of sports sedans:

Supercar / HypercarEdit

 
Lamborghini Countach

A supercar – also called exotic car – is a loosely defined description of certain high-performance sportscars. Since the 1990s or 2000s, the term "hypercar" has come into use for the highest performing supercars.

Examples of supercars:

SUVs / off-road vehiclesEdit

Passenger vehicles with off-road capability or styling features are often categorised as either off-road vehicles, sports utility vehicles or crossover SUVs. There are no commonly agreed boundaries between these categories, and usage of the terms varies between countries.

Off-road vehicleEdit

 
Jeep Wrangler (2008–2016)

The earliest type of passenger vehicle is called an "off-roader", "four-by-four" or "four-wheel drive". Off-road vehicles usually more focussed on off-road capability than SUVs and Crossover SUVs (often compromising their on-road ride quality or handling).[22] Common features of off-road vehicles are four-wheel drive, high ground clearance, a body-on-frame (separate chassis) construction and low-range gearing.

Examples of off-road vehicles:

Sport utility vehicleEdit

 
Ford Explorer (2011–2019)

A sports utility vehicle (SUV) combine elements of road-going passenger cars with features from off-road vehicles, such as raised ground clearance and four-wheel drive.

There is no commonly agreed definition of an SUV, and usage varies between countries. Some definitions claim that an SUV must be built on a light truck chassis, however broader consider that any vehicle with off-road design features is an SUV. In some countries— such as the United States— SUVs have been classified as "light trucks", resulting in more lenient regulations compared to passenger cars.

The predecessors to SUVs date back to military and low-volume models from the late 1930s, and the four-wheel drive station wagons / carryalls that began to be introduced in 1949. The 1984 Jeep Cherokee (XJ) is considered to be the first SUV in the modern style. Most SUVs produced today use unibody construction (as per passenger cars), however in the past many SUVs used body-on-frame construction.

Examples of SUVs:

Crossover SUVEdit

A crossover SUV— also called crossover or CUV— is a type of sports utility vehicle (SUV) that uses a unibody construction. Crossovers are often based on a platform shared with a passenger car, as a result they typically have better comfort and fuel economy, but less off-road capability (many crossovers are sold without all-wheel drive) than truck-based SUVs.

There are various inconsistencies about whether vehicles are considered crossovers or SUVs, therefore the term SUV is often used as a catch-all for both crossovers and SUVs.

Examples of crossover SUVs:

Government classification methodsEdit

These classifications can be based on body style (e.g. sedan, coupe or hatchback), number of doors or seating capacity.[23]

Government departments often create classification schemes for the purposes of taxation or regulating vehicle usage (e.g. vehicles that require a specific licence or are restricted to certain roads). Some jurisdictions may determine vehicle tax based upon environmental principles, such as the user pays principle.[24]

AustraliaEdit

In Australia, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries publishes its own classifications.[25]

CanadaEdit

A similar set of classes is used by the Canadian EPA.[26] The Canadian National Collision Database (NCDB) system defines "passenger car" as a unique class, but also identifies two other categories involving passenger vehicles—the "passenger van" and "light utility vehicle"—and these categories are inconsistently handled across the country with the boundaries between the vehicles increasingly blurred.[27]

United KingdomEdit

In the United Kingdom, a vehicle is taxed according to the vehicle's construction, engine, weight, type of fuel and emissions, as well as the purpose for which it is used.[28]

United StatesEdit

In the United States, since 2010 the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety uses a scheme it has developed that takes into account a combination of both vehicle shadow (length times width) and weight.[29]

US Highway Loss Data Institute classification Definition
Regular Two Door Two door sedans and hatchbacks
Regular Four Door Four door sedans and hatchbacks
Station Wagons Four doors, a rear hatch and four pillars
Minivans Vans with sliding rear doors
Sports Two seaters and cars with significant high performance features
Luxury Relatively expensive cars that are not classified as sports (price in USD to curb weight in pounds more than 9.0 in 2010) (small cars over $27,000, midsize cars over $31,500, large cars over $36,000, etc.)
US Insurance Institute for Highway Safety | Highway Loss Data Institute 'Guide to car size groups' (includes minivans)[30]
Shadow (square footage of exterior length × width)
Curb Weight 70 to 80 sq ft (6.5–7.4 m2) 81 to 90 sq ft (7.5–8.4 m2) 91 to 100 sq ft (8.5–9.3 m2) 101 to 110 sq ft (9.4–10.2 m2) >110 sq ft (10.2 m2)
2,001 to 2,500 lb (900–1,150 kg) Mini Small Small Small Midsize
2,501 to 3,000 lb (1,150–1,350 kg) Small Small Midsize Midsize Midsize
3,001 to 3,500 lb (1,350–1,600 kg) Small Midsize Midsize Large Large
3,501 to 4,000 lb (1,600–1,800 kg) Small Midsize Large Large Very Large
>4,000 lb (1,800 kg) Midsize Midsize Large Very Large Very Large
US IIHS|HLDI Guide to SUV size groups[31]
curb weight
Mini <=3,000 lb (1,350 kg) and shadow <80 sq ft (7.4 m2)
Small 3,001 to 3,750 lb (1,350–1,700 kg)
Midsize 3,751 to 4,750 lb (1,700–2,150 kg)
Large 4,751 to 5,750 lb (2,150–2,600 kg)
Very large >5,750 lb (2,600 kg) or shadow >115 sq ft (10.7 m2)

The United States National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) separates vehicles into classes by the curb weight of the vehicle with standard equipment including the maximum capacity of fuel, oil, coolant, and air conditioning, if so equipped.[32]

US NHTSA classification Code Curb weight
Passenger cars: mini PC/Mi 1,500 to 1,999 lb (700–900 kg)
Passenger cars: light PC/L 2,000 to 2,499 lb (900–1,150 kg)
Passenger cars: compact PC/C 2,500 to 2,999 lb (1,150–1,350 kg)
Passenger cars: medium PC/Me 3,000 to 3,499 lb (1,350–1,600 kg)
Passenger cars: heavy PC/H 3,500 lb (1,600 kg) and over
Sport utility vehicles SUV
Pickup trucks PU
Vans VAN

The United States Federal Highway Administration has developed a classification scheme used for automatically calculating road use tolls. There are two broad categories depending on whether the vehicle carries passengers or commodities. Vehicles that carry commodities are further subdivided by number of axles and number of units, including both power and trailer units.[33]

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has developed a classification scheme used to compare fuel economy among similar vehicles. Passenger vehicles are classified based on a vehicle's total interior passenger and cargo volumes. Trucks are classified based upon their gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR). Heavy duty vehicles are not included within the EPA scheme.[5]

US EPA car class Total passenger and cargo volume (cu. ft.)
Two-seaters Any (designed to seat only two adults)
Minicompact Less than 85 cu ft (2,400 l)
Subcompact 85 to 99 cu ft (2,400–2,800 l)
Compact 100 to 109 cu ft (2,850–3,100 l)
Mid-size 110 to 119 cu ft (3,100–3,350 l)
Large 120 cu ft (3,400 l) or more
Small station wagons Less than 130 cu ft (3,700 l)
Mid-size station wagons 130 to 159 cu ft (3,700–4,500 l)
Large station wagons 160 cu ft (4,550 l) or more

Certain cities in the United States in the 1920s chose to exempt electric-powered vehicles because officials believed those vehicles did not cause "substantial wear upon the pavements".[34]

North American market segmentsEdit

Several other segment descriptions, listed below, are used in North America. Cars from these segments may also be sold in other countries, however usage of the terms is mostly specific to within North America.

Muscle carEdit

Muscle car is an American term for high-performance cars, usually rear-wheel drive and fitted with a large and powerful V8 engine. The term originated for 1960s and early 1970s special editions of mass-production cars which were designed for drag racing.

Examples of muscle cars:

Pony carEdit

 
Ford Mustang (1965–1973)

Pony car is an American class of automobile launched and inspired by the Ford Mustang in 1964. It broke all post-World War II automobile sales records, "creating the 'pony car' craze soon adopted by competitors." The term describes an affordable, compact, highly styled car with a sporty or performance-oriented image

Examples of pony cars:

Personal Luxury CarEdit

A personal luxury car is a North American market segment for premium coupé or convertible produced from 1952–2007. These two door cars prioritized comfort, styling and a high level of interior features.[37] Not prioritizing maximum interior space, these are equivalent size to mid-size cars and are part of the D-segment in the European car classification.

The segment rose to popularity following the success of the 1958-60 Ford Thunderbird, which sold 200,000 units.[38] Personal luxury cars from General Motors and Chrysler included the Buick Riviera and Chrysler Cordoba respectively.[39]

Examples of personal luxury cars:

Sport compactEdit

 
Dodge Neon SRT-4

A sporting version of an affordable compact car or a subcompact car. There is no precise definition and the description is applied for marketing purposes to a wide variety of models.

Cars began to be marketed as sport compacts in the mid-1980s, when it was used for option packages on American-built coupes. Since then, it has also been used for standalone sports car models and cars imported from Europe and Asia.

The European equivalent is a hot hatch, however sport compacts are not restricted to just hatchback body styles.

Examples of sport compact cars:

European market segmentsEdit

Several other segment descriptions, listed below, are used in Europe. Cars from these segments may also be sold in other countries, however usage of the terms is mostly specific to within Europe.

Grand tourerEdit

 
Maserati GranTurismo

A grand tourer (GT) is a car that is designed for high speed and long-distance driving, due to a combination of performance and luxury attributes. The most common format is a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive two-door coupé with either a two-seat or a 2+2 arrangement.

The term derives from the Italian language phrase gran turismo which became popular in the English language from the 1950s, evolving from fast touring cars and streamlined closed sports cars during the 1930s.

Examples of grand tourers:

Hot hatchEdit

 
Peugeot 205 GTI (1993–1998)

Hot hatch (shortened from hot hatchback) is a high-performance version of a mass-produced hatchback car.

The term originated in the mid-1980s, however factory high-performance versions of hatchbacks have been produced since the 1970s.

Front-mounted petrol engines, together with front-wheel drive, is the most common powertrain layout, however all-wheel drive has become more commonly used since around 2010. Most hot hatches are manufactured in Europe or Asia.

Examples of hot hatches:

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ International Organization for Standardization. "ISO 3833:1977 Road vehicles – Types – Terms and definitions" (PDF). autoparts-standard.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 August 2015. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
  2. ^ Case No COMP/M.1406 - Hyundai / Kia: Regulation (EEC) No 4064/89 Merger Procedure: Article 6(1)(b) Non-opposition Date: 17/03/1999
  3. ^ 40 C.F.R. 600 Subpart D §315-08
  4. ^ "Japan Seeks to Squelch Its Tiny Cars". New York Times. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
  5. ^ a b c "How are vehicle size classes defined?". Fueleconomy.gov. US: Department of Energy. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
  6. ^ Klier, Thomas H. (2010). From Tail Fins to Hybrids: How Detroit Lost Its Dominance of the U. S. Auto Market: A Reprint from "Economic Perspectives". Diane Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 9781437919172. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  7. ^ "Fuel Economy of the 2010 Toyota Avalon". Fueleconomy.gov. US: Department of Energy. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  8. ^ "2014 Mercedes-Benz CLA-Class Review". Edmunds.com. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
  9. ^ "Comparison Test: German Compact Luxury Sedans". www.autos.ca. 4 December 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  10. ^ "2018 Cadillac ATS-V Review, Ratings, Specs, Prices, and Photos". www.thecarconnection.com. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  11. ^ "2018 Auto123.com Awards: Luxury compact car". www.auto123.com. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  12. ^ "Consumer Reports: Most Reliable Cars". www.cnn.com. 28 October 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  13. ^ "Top 7 Entry-Level Luxury Cars for 2014". www.autotrader.com. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  14. ^ "10 Entry-Level Luxury Vehicles For 2015". www.autobytel.com. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  15. ^ "Entry-Level Luxury". www.autonxt.net. 6 April 2018. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  16. ^ "What's The Best New Entry Level Luxury Car?". www.jalopnik.com. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  17. ^ "Best Used Entry-Level Luxury Cars". www.autobytel.com. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  18. ^ "Cadillac CT6 June 2016". US: Car and Driver. 25 May 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  19. ^ Motor Show. Development of the Sporting Car. The Times (London, England), Wednesday, 12 November 1919; pg. 6; Issue 42255
  20. ^ "Only it seems after the Great War can we expect to find a general acceptance of the fact that there were on the roads both touring cars and sports cars".--Frostick, Michael; 1956; Racing Sports Cars
  21. ^ "No One Knows What "Sports Car" Actually Means Anymore". Archived from the original on 2 June 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
  22. ^ "What's the difference between a crossover, SUV and 4x4?". www.carbuyer.co.uk. Retrieved 31 May 2019.
  23. ^ Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of Environment, PT. 425 699. US: Office of the Federal Register. 2010. p. 862. ISBN 9780160889318. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  24. ^ Sperling, Daniel; Kurani, Ken (September 2001). Transportation, Energy, and Environmental Policy. Transportation Research Board. p. 230. ISBN 0-309-08571-3. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
  25. ^ "VFACTS Motor Vehicle Classifications and Definitions". Australia: Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
  26. ^ "Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999" (PDF). Canada Gazette Part II. 137 (1). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
  27. ^ Clayton, Alan; Montufar1, Jeannette; Middleton, Dan; McCauley, Bill (August 2000). "Feasibility of a New Vehicle Classification System for Canada" (PDF). U.S. Department of Transportation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 November 2004. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
  28. ^ "Notes About Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency: Tax Classes" (PDF). direct.gov.uk. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
  29. ^ Technical Appendix, Arlington, Virginia: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI), 2010
  30. ^ "Vehicle size and weight: Bigger heavier vehicles protect their occupants better". Fatality Facts. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Retrieved 29 May 2017.
  31. ^ "Technical Appendix" (PDF), IIHS.org, Arlington, VA: Highway Loss Data Institute, p. 4, December 2006, retrieved 29 May 2017
  32. ^ "NHTSA 5-Star Ratings FAQ". U.S. Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
  33. ^ "FHWA Vehicle Types". U.S. Federal Highway Administration. 5 April 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
  34. ^ Berry, Claude Perrin (1921). The law of automobiles. Callaghan. p. 137. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
  35. ^ Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (12 January 2007). "1970 AMC Rebel Machine". HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  36. ^ McClurg, Bob (31 July 2015). "Red, White & Fast: 1970 AMC Rebel Machine". Hot Rod Network. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  37. ^ Gartman, David (1994). Auto opium: a social history of American automobile design. Taylor & Francis. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-415-10572-9.
  38. ^ Daniel Vaughan (23 March 2006). "1958 Ford Thunderbird". Conceptcarz.com. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  39. ^ Brett Berk (23 February 2017). "These '80s-Era Classic Cars Are Worth Investing in Now". Bloomberg. Retrieved 10 May 2019.