The McLaren P1 is a limited-production plug-in hybrid sports car produced by British automobile manufacturer McLaren Automotive. Debuted at the 2012 Paris Motor Show, sales of the P1 began in the UK in October 2013 and all 375 units were sold out by November. Production ended in early December 2015. The United States accounted for 34% of the units and Europe for 26%.
|Production||October 2013 – December 2015|
|Assembly||Woking, Surrey, England|
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Sports car (S)|
|Body style||2-door coupé|
|Layout||Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive|
|Platform||Carbon MonoCage II carbon fibre monocoque|
|Engine||3.8 L twin-turbocharged M838TQ V8|
|Electric motor||McLaren E-Motor|
|Power output||903 hp (916 PS; 673 kW) (combined)|
|Battery||4.7 kWh lithium-ion battery|
|Range||480 km (300 mi) (EPA)|
|Electric range||11 km (6.8 mi) (combined NEDC)|
31 km (19 mi) (EPA)
|Wheelbase||2,670 mm (105 in)|
|Length||4,588 mm (181 in)|
|Width||1,946 mm (77 in)|
|Height||1,188 mm (47 in)|
|Kerb weight||1,547 kg (3,411 lb)|
It is considered by the automotive press to be the successor to the F1, utilising hybrid power and Formula 1 technology, but does not have the same three-seat layout. It was later confirmed that the Speedtail served as the actual successor to the F1. Like the F1, the P1 has a mid-engine, rear wheel drive design that used a carbon fibre monocoque and roof structure safety cage concept called MonoCage, which is a development of the MonoCell first used in the MP4-12C and then in subsequent models. Its main competitors were the LaFerrari and the Porsche 918. They are all similar in specifications and performance, and in a race around Silverstone circuit they were all within half a second of each other, the P1 finishing first at 58.24 seconds and the LaFerrari finishing last at 58.58 seconds; the 918 was in-between with 58.46 seconds.
58 units of the track oriented P1 GTR and 5 units of its road legal counterpart, the P1 LM were produced after the initial run of 375 cars.
13 eXperimental Prototype 'XP', 5 Validation Prototypes 'VP' and 3 Pre-Production 'PP' cars were produced by McLaren before the production of the P1 started, a number of which have been refurbished, modified and sold to customers.
The P1 features a 3.8 L; 231.8 cu in (3,799 cc) twin-turbocharged V8 engine. The twin turbos boost the petrol engine at 1.4 bar (20.3 psi) to deliver 737 PS (542 kW; 727 hp) at 7,500 rpm and 531 lb⋅ft (720 N⋅m) of torque at 4,000 rpm, combined with an in-house-developed electric motor producing 179 PS (132 kW; 177 hp) and 192 lb⋅ft (260 N⋅m) of torque. The electric motor and the petrol engine in the P1, produce a combined power output of 916 PS (674 kW; 903 hp) and 723 lb⋅ft (980 N⋅m) of torque. The electric motor can be deployed manually by the driver or left in automatic mode, whereby the car's ECUs 'torque fill' the gaps in the petrol engine's output, which is considered turbo lag. This gives the powertrain an effective powerband of almost 7,000 rpm. The car has rear-wheel-drive layout and is equipped with a 7-speed dual-clutch transmission developed by Graziano Trasmissioni.
Power for the electric motor is stored in a 324-cell lithium-ion high-density battery pack located behind the cabin, developed by Johnson Matthey Battery Systems. The battery can be charged by the engine or through a plug-in equipment and can be fully charged in two hours. The car can be operated using either the petrol engine, the electric motor or with a combination of the two. The P1 has an all-electric range of at least 10 km (6.2 mi) on the combined European drive cycle. Under the EPA cycle, the range in EV mode is 19 mi (31 km). During EV mode the P1 has a petrol consumption of 4.8g/100 mile, and as a result, EPA's all-electric range is rated as zero. The total range is 330 mi (531 km). The P1 combined fuel economy in EV mode was rated by the EPA at 18 MPGe (13 L petrol equivalent/100 km; 22 mpg-imp petrol equivalent), with an energy consumption of 25 kW-hrs/100 mi and petrol consumption of 4.8 gal-US/100 mi. The combined fuel economy when running only with petrol is 17 mpg‑US (14 L/100 km; 20 mpg‑imp), 16 mpg‑US (15 L/100 km; 19 mpg‑imp) for city driving, and 20 mpg‑US (12 L/100 km; 24 mpg‑imp) in highway.
The P1 has Formula 1 derived features such as the Instant Power Assist System (IPAS), which gives an instant boost in acceleration via the electric motor, a Drag Reduction System (DRS) which operates the car's rear wing, thereby increasing straight line speed, and a KERS. Both of these features (IPAS, DRS) are operated via two buttons on the steering wheel. It also generates a downforce of 600 kg at 257 km/h (160 mph) and it boasts of a drag coefficient of only Cd=0.34.
According to McLaren the P1 accelerates from 0–100 km/h (0–62 mph) in 2.8 seconds, 0–200 km/h (0–124 mph) in 6.8 seconds, and 0–299 km/h (0–186 mph) in 16.5 seconds, making it a full 5.5 seconds faster than the F1, and a standing quarter mile is claimed in 9.8 seconds at 245 km/h (152 mph). Autocar tested 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) mph in 2.8 seconds, 0–120 mph (0–193 km/h) mph in 6.9 seconds, the standing quarter mile in 10.2 seconds at 147.5 mph (237 km/h), and the standing kilometre in 18.2 seconds at 178.5 mph (287 km/h). The P1 is electronically limited to a top speed of 350 km/h (217 mph). The P1 has a dry weight of 1,395 kg (3,075 lb), giving it a power-to-weight ratio of 656 PS/tonne. It has a kerb weight of 1,547 kg (3,411 lb) which translates to 601 PS/ tonne. Actual kerb weight (full tank of fuel, no luggage or people) of US-spec vehicles is 3,411 lb. The P1 also features bespoke Pirelli P-Zero Corsa tyres and specially developed carbon-ceramic brakes from Akebono. According to McLaren it takes 6.2 seconds to brake from 300 km/h (186 mph) to standstill, during which the car will cover 246 metres. From 97 km/h (60 mph), it will cover 30.2 metres.
Production and salesEdit
In August 2013 McLaren announced that the production allocation destined to the Americas, Asia-Pacific and the Middle East was sold out. The cars destined for Europe were sold out by mid November 2013. The United States accounted for 34% of the limited production run, and Europe for 26%.
After some delays, production began in October 2013. Hand-assembled by a team of 61 engineers, at a production rate of one car per day McLaren production was planned for fifty cars by the end of 2013. The first delivery to a retail customer took place at the company's headquarters in Woking, England, in October 2013, with 12 units manufactured by mid November 2013. The first P1 delivery in the U.S. occurred in May 2014. The production run ended in December 2015.
According to JATO Dynamics, only twenty units had been registered worldwide during the first nine months of 2014. A total of 12 P1s were registered in Switzerland during 2014, and an additional five units between January and August 2015. About 59 units were delivered in the U.S. in 2014, and sales in the American market totalled about 127 units delivered through December 2015.
P1 GTR (2015–2016)Edit
Celebrating 20 years since their victory in the 1995 24 Hours of Le Mans, McLaren announced that they would resurrect the GTR name by launching a track-only version of the P1, the P1 GTR.
The P1 GTR was initially only available to P1 owners. The concept car made its debut at the 2014 Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance in August 2014. The P1 GTR production model was officially unveiled at the 2015 Geneva Motor Show. This price includes a worldwide owners track day series; later cars were offered for less money, for those P1 owners who had no interest in the track series but still wanted to purchase the GTR variant. In total 58 cars were made.
The P1 GTR went into production in 2015, after all the 375 standard P1's had been built, as a homage to its race-winning ancestor, the iconic F1 GTR and were built, maintained and run by McLaren Special Operations.
The P1 GTR's hybrid engine is rated at 1,000 PS (735 kW; 986 hp), representing an 84 PS (62 kW; 83 hp) increase over the standard production P1, although McLaren did not disclose whether the power increase was from electrical boost or tuning the twin-turbocharged 3.8-litre V8. Performance figures remain unconfirmed. The weight of the P1 GTR was reduced by 50 kg (110 lb), achieving a power-to-weight ratio of 697 PS (513 kW; 687 hp) per 1 tonne (1.1 tons). This equates to a weight-to-power ratio of 1.44 kg (3.17 lb) per horsepower. The car also featured slick tyres, and had greater levels of performance, grip, aerodynamics and downforce in comparison to the road car. Featuring a new fixed ride height on race-prepared suspension, a fixed rear wing capable of using DRS, and a new exclusively designed exhaust made of titanium and inconel. Due to its fixed rear wing, the GTR generates 10% more downforce than the road legal P1. The P1 GTR has a kerb weight of 1,440 kg (3,175 lb) which includes the weight of the batteries.
The P1 GTR can accelerate from 0-97 km/h (60 mph) in under 2.8 seconds, and will go on to reach a limited top speed of 349 km/h (217 mph). Additionally, the P1 GTR will brake from 97 km/h (60 mph) to 0 in 85 ft (26 m), and can corner at 1.54 G long with pulling a lateral acceleration of 2.5 g on the skidpad.
In late 2015, historic racing team and McLaren F1 specialists Lanzante started undergoing road conversions of P1 GTRs for owners who wanted to drive their cars on the road. Thus far, 27 P1 GTRs have been converted for road use by Lanzante.
P1 LM (2016–2017)Edit
With the production run of the P1 GTR complete, and prompted by their efforts in converting track-only P1 GTRs to road-legal specification, Lanzante Motorsport commissioned McLaren Special Operations' Bespoke division to build a further total of 6 new P1 GTRs for them to develop into road-legal P1 LM variants. Of this production run, five P1 LMs were sold and the sixth, the prototype P1 LM codenamed 'XP1 LM,' was retained and is now being used for development and testing of future models. In order to convert the cars into the P1 LM specification, Lanzante Motorsport made changes to the drivetrain hardware (to increase power output), employed a modified rear wing and larger front splitter along with dive planes (to improve downforce), removed the air-jack system and installed Inconel catalytic converter pipes and exhaust headers, lightweight fabricated charge coolers, Lexan windows, lighter seats (similar to those used in the F1 GTR) and a titanium exhaust system, bolts and fixings (to save weight). The result is a weight reduction of 60 kg (132 lb) as compared to the McLaren P1 GTR as well as a 40 percent increase in downforce. The P1 LM also features a larger twin-turbocharged V8 engine than the P1 and P1 GTR at 3,994 cc (4.0 L) with an 8,500 rpm red line.
The P1 LM has a total power output of 1,000 PS (735 kW; 986 hp) and 1,050 N⋅m (774 lb⋅ft) of torque, with 800 PS (588 kW; 789 hp) being delivered at 7,250 rpm and an additional 200 PS (147 kW; 197 hp) from its electric motor. The top speed is limited to 345 km/h (214 mph). The tyre specifications are 275/30/19 for the front tyres and 335/30/20 for the rear tyres.
On 27 April 2017, the prototype P1 LM, XP1 LM, continued its success on track, beating the road car lap record time at the Nürburgring Nordschleife, with a time of 6:43.22 using road legal Pirelli P Zero Trofeo R tyres but without a front number plate required for a car to be road legal. This lap time was once again set by Kenny Bräck, and announced on 26 May 2017.
At the 2018 Goodwood Festival of Speed, Lanzante Motorsport, who had previously modified McLaren P1 GTRs to road legal specifications and developed the P1 LM, introduced a one-off special based on the P1 GTR. The new car called the P1 GT, is commissioned by a customer from the Middle East and is inspired by the McLaren F1 GT homologation special from the 1990s, including more aggressive body work than the standard car. Exterior modifications include a longer rear section, a larger rear wing, a longer front splitter, vented front fenders, removal of front canards, quad exhaust system in place of the original dual outlet design and a modified rear diffuser. The interior features fixed sports seats and Alcantara upholstery in tan and green colour along with a racing steering wheel and carbon fibre bits while the exterior features Silverstone green bodywork paying homage to the original homologation special. Power train modifications and performance figures remain unknown but are likely to have been increased as compared to the standard car owing to the extensive modifications. 
McLaren announced a sub-seven minute lap of the Nürburgring Nordschleife, which equates to an average speed in excess of 179 km/h (111 mph), but did not publish the exact time. However, the P1 LM, which wasn't road legal during the run, beat the road car's record time at the Nordschleife with a time of 6:43.22.
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