|Body and chassis|
|Class||Mid-size luxury crossover SUV|
|Body style||5-door SUV|
The first generation was introduced at the 2002 North American International Auto Show and used the Volvo P2 platform shared with the first generation Volvo S80 and other large Volvo cars. It was manufactured at Volvo's Torslandaverken. Volvo moved production equipment of the first generation to China and ended Swedish production at the end of 2014, renaming the car as the Volvo XC Classic (or Volvo XC90 Classic).
At the end of 2014, the second generation XC90 was introduced. It is based on a new global platform, the Scalable Product Architecture (SPA). Both generations of the XC90 have won Motor Trend's SUV of the Year award in their debuts.
First generation (2002–2014)Edit
|Also called||Volvo XC Classic (China)|
|Designer||Doug Frasher (1999)|
|Body and chassis|
|Platform||Volvo P2 platform|
|Height||1,784 mm (70.2 in)|
|Curb weight||2,020–2,160 kg (4,450–4,760 lb)|
In January 2001, Volvo débuted its Adventure Concept Car at the North American International Auto Show, to gauge reaction to the styling and features of its upcoming SUV. In November 2001, Volvo released a teaser image showing the frontal styling of the production version, named the XC90. Notable as Volvo's first SUV model, the styling of the XC90 recalled the concept. In January 2002, the full XC90 unveiling occurred, at the North American International Auto Show. Production began in August 2002, after Volvo's traditional mid-year shutdown, with the first XC90s coming out of the Torslanda factory in Sweden.
At its North American launch for the 2003 model year, the XC90 was presented with a choice of two trim levels, the 2.5 T and the T6. The 2.5 T was the entry level version and offered a 2.5-litre B5254T2 "T5" turbocharged inline-five engine, producing 208 hp (155 kW) and 236 lb⋅ft (320 N⋅m) mated to an Aisin co-developed five-speed AW55-50/51 automatic. The T6 offered a 2.9-litre B6294T twin-turbocharged inline-six with 268 hp (200 kW) and 280 lb⋅ft (380 N⋅m) mated to a GM-sourced, Volvo-modified four-speed 4T65EV/GT automatic. While the 2.5T came standard with front-wheel drive, a Haldex Traction all-wheel drive (AWD) system was optional. The T6 was offered only with the AWD system.
A Yamaha V8 engine was added in 2005. This 4.4-litre Volvo B8444S engine produced  311 hp (232 kW) and 325 lb⋅ft (441 N⋅m) of torque. Volvo sold just over 40,000 XC90 units in North America that year.
The XC90 was updated for 2007 with a restyled front and rear and a revised interior. The 235 hp (175 kW; 238 PS) 3.2 L SI6 straight-6 engine replaced the 208 hp (155 kW; 211 PS) B524T2 straight-5 in the base model for the US market. The 2007 XC90 debuted in April 2006 at the New York Auto Show.
2009, 2010, and 2012 updatesEdit
For model year (MY) 2009, the XC90 received a new rear logo, featuring larger lettering with wider spaces between the "VOLVO" letters.
In 2010, all XC90 models received painted wheel arches (previously they were optional). In addition, a new, larger, circular Volvo logo appeared on the front grille.
For MY 2012, new LED tail-lights became available on certain models, although entry-level models retain the previous style. For MY 2013, the XC90 received a cosmetic refresh that included standard LED daytime running lights and taillights, and exterior revisions including body colour bumpers, rocker panels and silver trim replacing black plastic trim.
First generation modelsEdit
XC90 Ocean RaceEdit
In 2001 Volvo became the main sponsor of an around-the-world sailing race, now called the Volvo Ocean Race. The 2005 edition was the first in which all competitors used the same boat known as the Volvo Open 70, a 21.5 m (71 ft) racing yacht made for a crew of 10+ and to be robust enough to survive the open ocean.
The first generation Volvo XC90 continues to be sold in China as the XC Classic. It is being produced at the new Volvo factory located in Daqing, Heilongjiang Province, with the necessary tooling shipped over from Sweden. Equipment levels were changed compared to the international versions and only one engine, a 2.5L turbo petrol 5-cylinder engine with 220 hp, is available. All XC Classic come with AWD as standard and either a 5-speed manual or 5-speed automatic transmission. It is priced below the second generation XC90.
|Specification||D3 AWD||D4 FWD||D5 FWD / D5 AWD||D5 FWD / D5 AWD||D5 FWD / D5 AWD||2.5T FWD / 2.5T AWD||3.2 FWD / 3.2 AWD||T6 AWD||V8 AWD|
|Length||4,811 mm (189.4 in)|
|Width||1,900 mm (75 in)|
|Height||1,781 mm (70.1 in)|
|Wheelbase||2,860 mm (113 in)|
|Ground Clearance||231 mm (9.1 in)|
|Luggage area volume||249 L|
|Seats||5 or 7|
|Curb weight||2,029 kg (4,473 lb)||2,127 kg (4,689 lb)||2,065–2,225 kg (4,553–4,905 lb)||2,029 kg (4,473 lb)||1,976 kg (4,356 lb)||2,025–2,212 kg (4,464–4,877 lb)||2,077 kg (4,579 lb)|
|Engine||I5 turbo||I5 turbo||I6||I6 twin-turbo||V8|
|Displacement (cc)||2,401 cc (146.5 in3)||2,401 cc (146.5 in3)||2,401 cc (146.5 in3)||2,401 cc (146.5 in3)||2,401 cc (146.5 in3)||2,521 cc (153.8 in3)||3,192 cc (194.8 in3)||2,922 cc (178.3 in3)||4,414 cc (269.4 in3)|
|Fuel economy (mixed)||8.1 L/100 km||8.1 L/100Km||8.2 - 9 L/100Km||8.3 L/100Km||11.2 L/100 km||10.2–19.9 L/100 km||11.0–13.5 L/100 km|
|Fuel economy (Country road)|
|Fuel economy (City)|
|Max power output||120 kW (163 PS; 161 bhp)||120 kW (163 PS; 161 bhp)||120 kW (163 PS; 161 bhp)||136 kW (185 PS; 182 bhp)||147 kW (200 PS; 197 bhp)||155 kW (211 PS; 208 bhp)||175–179 kW (238–243 PS; 235–240 bhp)||200 kW (272 PS; 268 bhp)||232 kW (315 PS; 311 bhp)|
|Max torque||340 N⋅m (251 lb⋅ft) @ 1920-2800 rpm||340 N⋅m (251 lb⋅ft) @ 1750-3000 rpm||340 N⋅m (251 lb⋅ft) @||400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft) @ 2000-2750 rpm||420 N⋅m (310 lb⋅ft) @ 1920-2800 rpm||320 N⋅m (236 lb⋅ft) @ 1500 rpm||320 N⋅m (236 lb⋅ft)@ 3200 rpm||380 N⋅m (280 lb⋅ft) @ ? rpm||441 N⋅m (325 lb⋅ft) @ 4000 rpm|
|Acceleration 0–100 km/h (0–62 mph) (sec)|
|Top speed||190 km/h (118 mph)||190 km/h (118 mph)||195 km/h (121 mph)||204 km/h (127 mph)||210 km/h (130 mph)||190–209 km/h (118–130 mph)||215 km/h (134 mph)||248 km/h (154 mph)|
|Transmission||Automatic||Automatic||Manual or Automatic||Automatic||Manual or Automatic||Automatic||Automatic||Automatic|
|CO2 emissions (g/km)||216||212||217–239||219||269||265–281||317|
|Environmental classification (EU)||Euro 5||Euro 5|
The Volvo XC90's front end is designed to absorb frontal impacts and also deflect any pedestrians up on to the hood of the vehicle rather than underneath the vehicle. Volvo has patented the unique frontal structure that features crumple zones, and predetermined positions for the engine and other ancillaries during a frontal impact.
The XC90's roof is reinforced with ultra-high-strength steel to help prevent a collapse in the passenger cavity in the event of a roll-over. This Volvo system is marketed as ROPS, and is closely associated with the Roll Stability Control (RSC), electronic stability control (DSTC), and SIPS systems of Volvo to prevent and ultimately minimise accident forces. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration measures the roll-over risk of the 2013 XC90 as 17.9%. The maximum sideway thrust is 0.77g.
The XC90's rear structure has been designed to absorb impact energy, with occupants are also protected by a whiplash protection system. Marketed as WHIPS, the system cradles the occupants during a rear-end collision.
The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety awarded the Volvo XC90 their Top Safety Pick award. The XC90 was granted the IIHS's rating of "good" in front, side, rear and roof strength tests and has Electronic Stability Control as standard equipment to receive the award.
At the end of July 2007, Volvo Car Corp. announced the recall of 42,211 2005 model year XC90s for risk of battery short circuit and fire. The vehicles were manufactured in the Swedish Torslanda Plant between 7 June 2004, and 13 May 2005. The recall only applies to cars in the US and Canada. There have been no reports of short circuiting in the vehicles.
|Small overlap front||Good1|
|Moderate overlap front||Good|
|Side (2005 - 2014 models)||Good|
|Head restraints & seats||Good3|
- 1 vehicle structure rated "Good"
- 2 strength-to-weight ratio: 4.51
- 3 seat/head restraint geometry rated "Good"
Second generation (2015–present)Edit
|Model years||2016-present (U.S)|
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Mid-size 4, 5, 6, or 7-seat luxury crossover SUV|
|Platform||Volvo SPA platform|
|Transmission||8-speed Aisin AW TG-81SC Geartronic automatic|
|Wheelbase||2,984 mm (117.5 in)|
|Length||4,950 mm (194.9 in)|
|Width||1,923 mm (75.7 in)|
|Height||1,776 mm (69.9 in)|
|Curb weight||2,078–2,343 kg (4,581–5,165 lb)|
In May 2012 Volvo announced that the second generation XC90 would go into production in late 2014, with orders being taken in 2014 and the vehicle officially going on sale in 2015. The SUV would be sold in Europe, Asia and North America, with the United States expected to account for at least a third of global sales.
Volvo had begun development of a second generation XC90 using Ford's EUCD platform under the codename Y305, but was cancelled in 2008 as Ford wouldn't have enough funds to also facelift the rest of the Volvo lineup.
The XC90 is based on Volvo's new platform, marketed as Scalable Product Architecture (SPA) technology which features a stronger platform offering weight reduction while improving safety and efficiency.
The vehicle is longer, wider and lower than its predecessor. All engines in the XC90 are 2.0-litre four-cylinder Drive-E powertrains with Volvo's eight-speed Geartronic transmission, delivered by Aisin. The line-up include two petrol engines: a twincharged 320 hp T6, producing 400 nm of torque and a turbocharged 254 hp T5, producing 350 nm of torque, two diesel engines: a twin turbo 235 hp D5, producing 470 nm of torque and a turbocharged 190 hp D4, producing 400 nm of torque. The top-of-the-line model is the XC90 Twin Engine, a plug-in hybrid which combines the more powerful petrol engine at the front with an electric motor at the rear to produce 400 hp and 640 nm of torque.
The First Edition of the all-new Volvo XC90, was 1,927 individually numbered cars only available for sale via digital commerce, and sold out in 47 hours after orders opened on 3 September 2014. All 1,927 of the First Edition models, which could feature either the Petrol T6 or Diesel D5 engine, were finished in Onyx Black and feature 21-inch alloy wheels and include every available vehicle option. The limited production run number represents the year the Swedish brand was launched, with each model fitted with uniquely numbered tread plates and a distinctive rear mounted badge, with customers able to select their XC90 First Edition numbers. Number 1 was allocated to Carl XVI Gustav, the King of Sweden, with number 10 going to Zlatan Ibrahimović, Swedish professional footballer.
The new XC90 has a redesigned chassis with double wishbone front suspension and a new integral link rear axle incorporating transverse leaf spring of lightweight material. The new XC90 can also be equipped with electronically controlled air suspension with a choice of five modes.
The interior features a 9" tablet-like touch screen control console along with steering wheel controls and voice-control system, all linked to an interface, marketed as Sensus, which allows for access to cloud-based apps including Internet radio, connected navigation, parking, music streaming, OS mirroring Apple and Android devices in the touch screen display, and a Wi-Fi hot spot for using a tablet in the car. Other features include a gear lever made of Orrefors crystal as well as diamond-cut controls for the start/stop button and drive mode control, located on the centre console between the driver and passenger seats.
The highest level audio system in the XC90 features a 1400W Class-D amplifier and 19 Bowers & Wilkins speakers as well as one of the first air-ventilated subwoofers in a car. Integrated into the car body, it turns the entire interior space into a large subwoofer. The latest sound processing software has been used to manage the timing of the sound and co-ordination of the speakers.
The vehicle's seats have also been redesigned with adjustable side bolsters, seat cushion extension and massage. The second row features three individual seats with recline adjustment. A sliding function can be used to create more legroom for the passengers in the third row or to increase loading space. An integrated child booster cushion in the centre seat is available. The Volvo XC90 seats 5 people or can be available with 3rd row seating which seats 7 people.
Volvo Cars' air purification system has been improved by adding a new carbon filter for more efficient capture of small, particles and pollen in the incoming air. The second generation XC90 offers a 360° view system capable of providing the driver with a birds-eye view, whereby information from all cameras is gathered and digitally integrated in a central processor to form a 360° image. The rear sensing system, marketed as Park Assist Pilot, offers automatic reversing into a parking bay.
The 2nd generation XC90 was the first Volvo to carry the company's new, more prominent iron mark, which has the iconic arrow aligned with the diagonal metallic slash across the grille, along with T-shaped LED daytime running lights known as "Thor's Hammer" by Volvo designers.
The car is available in five trim levels (Volvo describing it as "expressions"), namely Kinetic (base trim level), Momentum, Inscription (a more luxurious trim), R-design (a sportier trim) and Excellence (ultra-luxury).
The Volvo XC90 safety systems include:
- Run-off-road protection package. In a run-off-road scenario, the all-new Volvo XC90 detects what is happening and the front safety belts are tightened to keep the occupants in position. To help prevent Spinal cord injury, energy-absorbing functionality between the seat and seat frame cushions the vertical forces that can arise when the car encounters a hard landing in the terrain.
- City Safety with auto brake in intersections. The XC90 is the first car in the world with technology that features automatic braking if the driver turns in front of an oncoming car. This is a common scenario at busy city crossings as well as on highways, where the speed limits are higher.
- IntelliSafe with City Safety has become the umbrella name for all of Volvo Cars' auto brake Collision avoidance functions, which are standard equipment in the new XC90. This equipment now covers vehicles, cyclists and pedestrians in front of the car during both day and night.
- Adaptive Cruise Control with Pilot Assist traffic jam assistant enables safe and comfortable semi-autonomous driving by automatically following the vehicle ahead in stop-and-go traffic. Acceleration, braking and now also steering are controlled automatically.
Pilot Assist II model year 2017Edit
The Volvo brand has also made the claim that "By 2020, nobody shall be seriously injured or killed in a new Volvo."
|Frontal – Driver:||Adult occupant:||37 pts / 97%|
|Frontal – Passenger:||Child occupant:||24 pts / 87%|
|Side – Driver:||Pedestrian:||26 pts / 72%|
|Side – Passenger:||Driver assist:||13 pts / 100%|
|Side Pole – Driver:|
The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety also crash-tested the XC90, and presented the following results:
|Small overlap front: driver side||Good1|
|Small overlap front: passenger side||Good1|
|Moderate overlap front||Good|
|Head restraints & seats||Good3|
- 1 vehicle structure rated "Good"
- 2 strength-to-weight ratio: 5.18
- 3 seat/head restraint geometry rated "Good"
With over 50,000 vehicles sold in the UK by 2018, no driver or passenger fatality had been recorded.
The T8 plug-in hybrid version of the XC90 is based on technology used in the Volvo V60 PHEV. The batteries which are situated at the centre of the vehicle can be charged using an electric vehicle charger and can also store energy recovered by means of regenerative brakes. Volvo says that the XC90 T8 sacrifices no passenger or cargo space to accommodate the hybrid equipment. However, the tank capacity was reduced to 50 L (13.2 US gal; 11.0 imp gal) for MY2016-2018 and there is no spare tire.
The vehicle emits 49 g/km of CO2 and has an all-electric range of 43 km (27 mi) under the New European Driving Cycle. Normal driving is conducted in the default hybrid mode, but the driver can push a button to switch to a mode that uses only electric power, with zero emission driving. Under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) tests, the XC90 T8 has an all-electric range of 14 mi (23 km), with some gasoline consumption (0.1 gal/100 mi), so the actual all-electric range is rated between 0 to 13 mi (0 to 21 km).
The EPA, under its five-cycle tests, rated the 2016 model year XC90 T8 energy consumption in all-electric mode at 58 kWh per 100 miles, which translates into a combined city/highway fuel economy of 53 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPG-e) (4.4 L/100 km; 64 mpg-imp gasoline equivalent). When powered only by the gasoline engine, EPA's official combined city/highway fuel economy is 25 mpg‑US (9.4 L/100 km; 30 mpg‑imp).
Deliveries of the XC90 T8 PHEV began in the United States in August 2015. Sales in Europe totaled 2,653 units in 2015. Cumulative sales in the US totaled 488 units up until February 2016. According to Volvo, sales of the plug-in variant represent 20% of Volvo XC90 global sales by mid-March 2016.
The second-generation Volvo XC90 is available in three distinct trim levels: Momentum, R Design, and Inscription. Momentum is the "base" design, and does not include features such as full leather-trimmed seating surfaces, woodgrain interior trim, or a GPS navigation system as standard equipment. The R Design features "Nubuck" upholstery and a sports exterior body kit, as well as dark trim accents on the exterior and interior. Inscription is the top-of-the-line design, and features full perforated Napa leather-trimmed seating surfaces, woodgrain interior trim, dual heated front and outboard rear seats, and additional bright accents on the exterior. For 2017, an "Excellence" trim was introduced (see below) with the "T8" plug-in hybrid (PHEV) powertrain as standard equipment, as well as additional luxury features.
XC90 T8 ExcellenceEdit
For 2017, a new "Excellence" trim level was introduced as a luxury-oriented version of the XC90. The Excellence offered a four-passenger (front/rear) seating configuration, which included rear "lounge" bucket seats that were heated and ventilated. Additional features included the Bowers and Wilkins premium surround-sound audio system with amplifier, heated and ventilated front and rear seats, a dual-pane panoramic power moonroof, rear seat entertainment system, and the "T8" plug-in hybrid (PHEV) powertrain. There were a limited number of additional options available for the Excellence trim. The Excellence trim was discontinued following the 2020 model year, leaving the Inscription as the top trim level of the XC90.
For the 2021 model year, the Volvo XC90 received a mid-cycle facelift. The facelift included revised front and rear fascias, a new front grille design. The previous Excellence trim was discontinued, and the "T8" powertrain was renamed the "XC90 Recharge".
|Specification||D4 FWD / AWD||D5 AWD||B5 AWD||T5 AWD||T6 AWD||B6 AWD||T8 Twin-Engine|
|Length||4,950 mm (195 in)|
|Width||1,923 mm (75.7 in)|
|Height||1,775 mm (69.9 in)|
|Wheelbase||2,984 mm (117.5 in)|
|Luggage area volume||451 l (119.1 US gal; 99.2 imp gal)|
|Seats||5 or 7||4 or 7|
|Curb weight||2,050–2,130 kg (4,519–4,696 lb)||2,130–2,171 kg (4,696–4,786 lb)||2,121–2,170 kg (4,676–4,784 lb)||2,105–2,140 kg (4,641–4,718 lb)||2,124–2,165 kg (4,683–4,773 lb)||2,319–2,394 kg (5,113–5,278 lb)|
|Tank Capacity||71 L (18.8 US gal; 15.6 imp gal)||71 L (18.8 US gal; 15.6 imp gal)||71 L (18.8 US gal; 15.6 imp gal)||71 L (18.8 US gal; 15.6 imp gal)||71 L (18.8 US gal; 15.6 imp gal)||71 L (18.8 US gal; 15.6 imp gal)||50L (13.2 US gal; 11 imp gal)|
|Cylinders||In-line 4 (4 valves/cylinder)|
|Engine||2.0L Turbo Diesel||2.0L Twin-turbo Diesel||2.0L D420T2 Mild-Hybrid Turbo Diesel||2.0L Turbo Petrol||2.0L Turbocharged & Supercharged "twincharged" petrol||2.0L B420T27 Mild-Hybrid Turbocharged & Supercharged "twincharged" petrol||2.0L Turbo Petrol with Supercharger and Electric motor (Twin Engine)|
|Fuel economy (Mixed)||5.2–5.7 L/100 km||5.7 L/100 km||6.5–9.5 L/100 km||7.7 L/100 km||8.1 L/100 km||L/100 km||2.1 L/100 km|
|Fuel economy (Country road)||4.9–5.4 L/100 km||5.4 L/100 km||— L/100 km||0 L/100 km||0 L/100 km||— L/100 km||0 L/100 km|
|Fuel economy (City)||5.8–6.2 L/100 km||6.3 L/100 km||— L/100 km||9.5 L/100 km||10.1 L/100 km||— L/100 km||0 L/100 km|
|Max power output||190 PS (140 kW; 187 bhp)||225 hp (168 kW; 225 bhp) @ 4250 rpm||235 hp (175 kW; 235 bhp) @ 4250 rpm||245 PS (180 kW; 242 bhp)||320 PS (235 kW; 316 bhp) @ 5700 rpm||300 PS (221 kW; 296 bhp) @ 5700 rpm||408 PS (300 kW; 402 bhp)|
|Max torque||400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft)||470 N⋅m (347 lb⋅ft) @ 1750–2500 rpm||480 N⋅m (354 lb⋅ft) @ 1750–2500 rpm||350 N⋅m (258 lb⋅ft)||400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft) @ 2200–4500 rpm||420 N⋅m (310 lb⋅ft) @ 2200–4500 rpm||640 N⋅m (472 lb⋅ft)|
|Acceleration 0–100 km/h (0–62 mph) (sec)||9.2–9.4||7.8||7.6||8.2||6.5||7.5||5.6|
|Top speed||200–205 km/h (124–127 mph)||220 km/h (137 mph)||180 km/h (112 mph)||215 km/h (134 mph)||230 km/h (143 mph)||180 km/h (112 mph)||230 km/h (143 mph)|
|Transmission||8-speed Geartronic Aisin AW TG-81SC automatic|
|CO2 emissions (g/km)||136–149||149||171–199||176||184||210||49|
|Environmental classification (EU)||Euro 6b||Euro 6b||Euro 6b||Euro 6b||Euro 6b||Euro 6b||Euro 6b|
Awards and recognitionEdit
- Motor Trend's 2003 SUV of the Year
- Motor Trend's 2016 SUV of the Year
- Yahoo Autos 2016 Tech Ride of the Year
- Yahoo Autos 2016 Ride of the Year
- 2016 North American Car and Truck/Utility of the Year - Detroit Motor Show 2016
- 2015 Best AWD SUV - Australia's Best Cars
- 2016 South African Car of the Year
- The 2016 XC90 was named one of the top ten tech cars in 2016 by IEEE Spectrum.
|Calendar year||United States||Sweden||Global|
- Rogers, Cameron (28 August 2020). "Volvo XC90 Prices, Reviews, and Pictures | Edmunds". Edmunds.com.
- Padeanu, Adrian (11 September 2014). "First generation Volvo XC90 to live on in China as XC Classic". motor1.com. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "End of an era as Swedish production of Volvo XC90 stops after 12 years". volvocars.com (Press release). Retrieved 26 January 2020.
- "XC Classic picture" (JPG) (in Chinese). Volvo Cars China. Archived from the original on 6 January 2018. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
- "International - Volvo Cars". Archived from the original on 22 February 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
- "Frasher's odyssey: With the design of its XC90 SUV, Volvo had to navigate between the scylla of me-too trucky styling and the charybdis of station wagon wimpiness. (Design)". 2002. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
- "2003 Volvo XC90 owner's manual". new.volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 2002. p. 151. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "2007 Volvo XC90 owner's manual". new.volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 2006. p. 209. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- Pund, Dan (January 2001). "Volvo Adventure Concept Car". Car and Driver. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
- Lacy, Justin (29 November 2001). "First pics: Volvo joins the off-road boom". goauto.com.au. John Mellor Pty Ltd. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
- Spence, Steve (1 November 2004). "2005 Volvo XC90 V-8 First Drive". Car and Driver. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
- "Volvo XC90 Leads Sales With Best Month of the Year". Thefreelibrary. 4 January 2006. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
- "20 years of Clarkson: What cars does Clarkson actually drive?". Driving.co.uk. 14 March 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "2013 Volvo XC90 Photos and Info-Car News-Car and Driver". Car and Driver. 3 May 2012.
- "Volvo XC90 Price". NADAguides.
- "Volvo Introduces Special Volvo Ocean Race Edition - Three Models with Unique Ocean Blue Livery" (Press release). 13 February 2005. Retrieved 19 September 2015 – via swedespeed.
- "Mild curio Dad wagon - V8 Volvo Xc90 Volvo Ocean Race". PistonHeads. 25 March 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
- "沃尔沃XC CLASSIC豪华SUV-Volvo XC CLASSIC报价, 配置, 参数-沃尔沃Volvo中国官方网站" [Volvo XC CLASSIC - Volvo luxury SUV: The XC Classic, offers, configurations, specifications]. volvocars.com (in English and Chinese). Volvo Car Corporation. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "Volvo XC Classic hits the Chinese car market". Car News China. 16 September 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "First generation Volvo XC90 to live on in China as XC Classic". worldcarfans.com. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
- Padeanu, Adrian (11 September 2014). "First generation Volvo XC90 to live on in China as XC Classic". motor1.com. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "Spy Shots: Volvo XC Classic testing in China". carnewschina.com. 30 June 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "Volvo XC90 Betriebsanleitung" [Volvo XC90 Owners Manual] (PDF) (in German). Volvo Car Corporation. 2008. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
- "Volvo Betriebsanleitung XC90 MY06" [Volvo XC90 Owner's Manual MY06] (PDF) (in German). Volvo Car Corporation. 2006. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
- "XC90 Betriebsanleitung MY13" [XC90 Owner's Manual MY13] (PDF) (in German). Volvo Car Corporation. 2012. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
- "2013 Volvo XC90 SUV AWD". safercar.com. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (click Rollover)
- Vanderwerp, Dave (December 2016). "Volvo XC90". Car and Driver. US. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
- "XC90 IIHS evaluation". Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Archived from the original on 20 September 2010. Retrieved 9 October 2010.
- Monticello, Mike (1 December 2002). "2003 Volvo XC90 AWD T6 - Road Test". Road & Track. Archived from the original on 13 March 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2010.
- "2003 Volvo XC90 – North American Truck of the Year". carpictures.com. 5 January 2003. Archived from the original on 2 January 2013. Retrieved 9 October 2010.
- "Volvo recalls SUVs due to fire risk". Bloomberg News / The Arizona Republic. 25 July 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2007.
- "Volvo to recall 42,000 cars in North America because of short circuit risk". International Herald Tribune. 29 March 2009. Retrieved 9 October 2010.
- "2017 Volvo XC90 IIHS rating". IIHS.org. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
- Groves, Jake (22 June 2018). "Volvo XC90 Mk3 due 2021 - hybrid and EV only". carmagazine.co.uk. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
- Parekh, Nishant (10 October 2017). "Volvo begins assembly operations in India with XC90". autocarindia.com. Autocar India. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
- "All-new XC90 will be the first Volvo built on the company's new Scalable Product Architecture". volvocars.com. Volvo Cars of North America. 12 August 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Vijayenthiran, Viknesh (14 March 2013). "Bentley Interior Design Chief Robin Page Heads To Volvo". motorauthority.com. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Radu, Mihnea (14 April 2015). "Volvo unveils XC90 Excellence 4-Seat luxury SUV for Chinese Market". autoevolution.com. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- Fogelson, Jason (28 August 2020). "2016 Volvo XC90 Test Drive And Review: Refining The SUV". Forbes.
- "2016 Volvo XC90 Interior - U.S. News Best Cars".
- "All-New XC90 - Technical Data". volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- "Volvo Cars' new Recharge plug-in hybrid powertrain outperforms average daily mileage on a single charge".
- Ramey, Jay (27 April 2015). "Flagship Premiere". Autoweek. 65 (8): 16–17.
- Kurylko, Diana T. (14 May 2012). "Volvo's goal: Conquest more luxury-vehicle buyers". Automotive News.
- Ewing, Jack (26 August 2014). "Volvo Introduces Its First S.U.V. Made Under Chinese Ownership". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Söderlind, Alrik (24 March 2018). "Bakom kulisserna när Volvo utvecklade nya XC90". auto motor & sport (in Swedish). Retrieved 28 July 2021.
- Lednicky, Marian. "Marian Lednicky". LinkedIn. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
- Potter, Brian (17 December 2007). "Second Generation Volvo XC90 Canceled". Motor1.com. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
- "New Plug-in Hybrid Volvo XC90 Boasts 400 Horsepower". autotrader.com. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- "The all-new Volvo XC90". volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 21 October 2014. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- Mildenhall, Owen (2 October 2014). "New 2015 Volvo XC90 revealed in Paris: pics, specs, video and full details". Auto Express. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- Stoklosa, Alexander. "10 Things You Need to Know About the 2016 Volvo XC90". Car and Driver. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- Jacob, Amanda (15 October 2014). "Volvo XC90 features polyurethane composite leaf spring". Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- "Brand New: New Logo for Volvo by Stockholm Design Lab". underconsideration.com. 29 August 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
- "2015 Volvo XC90 teaser shows the 'Thor's Hammer' daytime running lights". indianautosblog.com. 12 August 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
- "Volvo XC90 | Ultimate Luxury SUV | Volvo Cars". www.volvocars.com. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
- Dowling, Joshua (27 August 2014). "World's safest soccer mum car". news.com.au. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- Dowling, Joshua (3 August 2015). "World's safest family SUV, the new Volvo XC90, goes on sale in Australia today". news.com.au. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "XC90 features integrated radar and camera system". ae-plus.com. 6 October 2014. Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "Volvo Cars announces range of updates for model year 2017". volvocars.com (Press release). Volvo. 25 February 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
- "How 5000 Aussie lives will be saved". news.com.au. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "Euro NCAP Reveals Latest Ratings for 2015" (Press release). Euro NCAP. 13 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- "2014 Volvo XC90 SUV AWD". U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- "Euro NCAP – Volvo XC90 D5 'Momentum', LHD (2015)". euroncap.com. EuroNCAP. Retrieved 30 September 2015. Report Archived 1 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- "2016 Volvo XC90 Midsize luxury SUV Ratings". iihs.org. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- Milligan, Brian (15 April 2018). "The most significant development since the safety belt". BBC News. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
- "2016 Volvo XC90 T8 Twin Engine Specifications". volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- "Volvo XC90 T8 Twin Engine in a class of its own at 49 g/km CO2" (Press release). Volvo Car Corporation. 30 April 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2016.
- "2016 Volvo XC90 AWD PHEV". Fueleconomy.gov. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. 18 March 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
- Cobb, Jeff (2 September 2015). "August 2015 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- Pontes, Jose (30 January 2016). "Europe December 2015". evsales.com. Retrieved 20 March 2016.
- Cobb, Jeff (6 January 2016). "December 2015 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 20 March 2016. A total of 86 units of the Volvo XC90 T8 plug-in hybrid were sold in the US in 2015.
- Cobb, Jeff (2 March 2016). "February 2016 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 20 March 2016. A total of 402 units of the Volvo XC90 T8 plug-in hybrid were sold in the U.S. in 2015.
- King, Danny (15 March 2016). "Volvo wants global, standardized charging infrastructure". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 20 March 2016. See press release.
- "2016 Yahoo Autos Tech Ride of the Year: Apple, Android And Volvo". Yahoo!. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- "2016 Yahoo Autos Ride of the Year: Volvo XC90". Yahoo!. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
- "Honda, Volvo top awards at Detroit show". Yahoo!. 12 January 2016. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- "Volvo XC90 Inscription-D5 review - NRMA 2015 Australia's best cars winner AWD SUV $65,000-$125,000". australiasbestcars.com.au. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- "2016 SA Car of the Year: And the winner is..." News24. 8 March 2016. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- Ulrich, Lawrence (April 2016). "Top Ten Tech Cars 2016". IEEE Spectrum. 53 (4): 36–47. doi:10.1109/MSPEC.2016.7439592. ISSN 0018-9235. S2CID 40265053.
- "About Volvo - Sales Volumes - Volvo Car USA Newsroom". volvocars.com. 21 January 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2021.
- "Försäljningssiffror - Om Volvo - Försäljningssiffror - Volvo Car Sverige AB Newsroom". volvocars.com (in Swedish). Volvo Car Corporation. 21 January 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- "About Volvo - Sales Volumes - Volvo Cars Global Media Newsroom". volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 21 January 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2021.