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John Woo SBS (Chinese: ; born May 1, 1946)[1] is a Chinese-born Hong Kong filmmaker, writer, and actor.[2] He is considered a major influence on the action genre, known for his highly chaotic action sequences, stylized imagery, Mexican standoffs, frequent use of slow motion and allusions to neo-noir, ‘’wuxia’’ and Western cinema.[3]

John Woo
John-Woo-Cannes.jpg
John Woo attending the 2005 Cannes Film Festival
Born (1946-05-01) May 1, 1946 (age 73)[1]
OccupationFilm director, producer, screenwriter, editor, actor
Spouse(s)Anne Chun-Lung Niu
AwardsSaturn Award for Best Direction
1997 Face/Off
Hong Kong Film AwardsBest Film
1986 A Better Tomorrow

Best Director
1989 The Killer

Best Film Editing
1990 Bullet in the Head
1992 Hard-Boiled

Asian Film AwardsTop-Grossing Film Director
2015 Red Cliff II

Golden Horse AwardsBest Director
1986 A Better Tomorrow

Signature
John Woo Signature.svg
John Woo
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese

Considered one of the major figures of Hong Kong cinema, Woo has directed several notable action films in his adopted home, among them, A Better Tomorrow (1986), The Killer (1989), Hard Boiled (1992), and Red Cliff (2008/2009).[3][4] He is a winner of the Hong Kong Film Awards for Best Director, Best Editing, and Best Picture, as well as a Golden Horse Award, an Asia Pacific Screen Award, and a Saturn Award. Woo's Hollywood films include the action films Hard Target (1993) and Broken Arrow (1996), the sci-fi action thriller Face/Off (1997) and the action spy film Mission: Impossible 2 (2000).[3] He also created the comic series Seven Brothers, published by Virgin Comics. He cites his three favorite films as David Lean's Lawrence of Arabia, Akira Kurosawa's Seven Samurai and Jean-Pierre Melville's Le Samouraï.[3] He is the founder and chairman of his own production company, Lion Rock Productions.[5]

Contents

Early lifeEdit

Woo was born Wu Yu-seng (Ng Yu-sum in Cantonese) in Guangzhou, China, amidst the chaos of the Chinese Civil War at the end of October 1946. Due to school age restrictions, his mother changed his birth date to 22 September 1948, which is what remains on his passport. The Woo family, Christians faced with persecution during Mao Zedong's early anti-bourgeois purges after the communist revolution in China, fled to Hong Kong when he was five.[1][6]:xv, 3

Impoverished, the Woo family lived in the slums at Shek Kip Mei. His father was a teacher, though rendered unable to work by tuberculosis, and his mother was a manual laborer on construction sites.[7] The family was rendered homeless by the big Shek Kip Mei fire of 1953.[6] Charitable donations from disaster relief efforts enabled the family to relocate; however, violent crime had by then become commonplace in Hong Kong housing projects. At age three he was diagnosed with a serious medical condition. Following surgery on his spine, he was unable to walk correctly until eight years old, and as a result his right leg is shorter than his left leg.[8]

His Christian upbringing shows influences in his films.[9] As a young boy, Woo had wanted to be a Christian minister. He later found a passion for movies influenced by the French New Wave especially Jean-Pierre Melville. Woo has said he was shy and had difficulty speaking, but found making movies a way to explore his feelings and thinking and would "use movies as a language".[3]

The local cinema would prove a haven of retreat. Woo found respite in musical films, such as The Wizard of Oz and in American Westerns.[10] He has stated the final scene of Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid made a particular impression on him in his youth: the device of two comrades, each of whom fire pistols from each hand, is a recurrent spectacle later found in his own work.[11]

Hong Kong careerEdit

In 1969, Woo was hired as a script supervisor at Cathay Studios. In 1971, he became an assistant director at Shaw Studios. His directorial debut in 1974 was the feature film The Young Dragons (鐵漢柔情, Tiě hàn róu qíng).[citation needed]

In the Kung fu action genre, it was choreographed by Jackie Chan and featured dynamic camera-work and elaborate action scenes.[citation needed] The film was picked up by Golden Harvest Studio where he went on to direct more martial arts films. He later had success as a comedy director with Money Crazy (發錢寒, Fā qián hàn) (1977), starring Hong Kong comedian Ricky Hui.[12]

By the mid-1980s, Woo was experiencing occupational burnout. Several of his films were commercial disappointments, and he felt a distinct lack of creative control. It was during this period of self-imposed exile that director/producer Tsui Hark provided the funding for Woo to film a longtime pet project, A Better Tomorrow (1986).

The story of two brothers—one a law enforcement officer, the other a criminal—the film was a financial blockbuster. A Better Tomorrow became a defining achievement in Hong Kong action cinema[13] for its combination of emotional drama, slow-motion gunplay, and gritty atmospherics. Its signature visual device of two-handed, two-gunned shootouts within confined quarters—often referred to as "gun fu" was novel, and its diametrical inversion of the "good-guys-bad guys" formula in its characterization would influence later American films.[citation needed]

Woo would make several more Heroic Bloodshed films in the late 1980s and early 1990s, nearly all starring Chow Yun-Fat. These violent gangster thrillers typically focus on men bound by honor and loyalty, at odds with contemporary values of impermanence and expediency. The protagonists of these films, therefore, may be said to present a common lineage with the Chinese literary tradition of loyalty among generals depicted in classics such as "Romance of the Three Kingdoms".[citation needed]

Woo gained international recognition with the release of The Killer, which became the most successful Hong Kong film in American release since Bruce Lee's Enter the Dragon (1973) and garnered Woo an American cult following. Bullet in the Head followed a year later failed to find an audience that accepted its political undertones, and failed to recoup its massive budget.[citation needed]

His last Hong Kong film before emigrating to the United States was Hard Boiled (1992), a police thriller that served as the antithesis of his previous glorification of gangsters. Most notable of its numerous action scenes is a 30-minute climax set within a hospital. One particular long take follows two characters for exactly 2 minutes and 42 seconds as they fight their way between hospital floors.[citation needed] On the Criterion DVD and laserdisc, this chapter is referenced as "2 minutes, 42 seconds." The film was considerably darker than most of Woo's previous films, depicting a police force nearly helpless to stop the influx of gangsters in the city, and the senseless slaughter of innocents. As a result, it did not match the success of his other films.[citation needed]

John Woo: Interviews (ISBN 9781578067763) includes a new 36-page interview with Woo by editor Robert K. Elder, which documents the years 1968 to 1990, from Woo's early career in working on comedies and kung fu films (in which he gave Jackie Chan in one of his first major film roles), to his gunpowder morality plays in Hong Kong.[citation needed]

United States careerEdit

An émigré in 1993, the director experienced difficulty in cultural adjustment while contracted with Universal Studios to direct Jean-Claude Van Damme in Hard Target. As characteristics of other foreign national film directors confronted the Hollywood environment, Woo was unaccustomed to pervasive management concerns, such as limitations on violence and completion schedules. When initial cuts failed to yield an "R" rated film, the studio assumed control of the project and edited footage to produce a cut "suitable for American audiences". A "rough cut" of the film, supposedly the original unrated version, is still circulated among his admirers.

A three-year hiatus saw Woo next direct John Travolta and Christian Slater in Broken Arrow. A frenetic chase-themed film, the director once again found himself hampered by studio management and editorial concerns. Despite a larger budget than his previous Hard Target, the final feature lacked the trademark Woo style. Public reception saw modest financial success.

Reluctant to pursue projects which would necessarily entail front-office controls, the director cautiously rejected the script for Face/Off several times until it was rewritten to suit him. (The futuristic setting was changed to a contemporary one.) Paramount Pictures also offered the director significantly more freedom to exercise his speciality: emotional characterisation and elaborate action. A complex story of adversaries—each of whom surgically alters their identity—law enforcement agent John Travolta and terrorist Nicolas Cage play a cat-and-mouse game, trapped in each other's outward appearance. Face/Off opened in 1997 to critical acclaim and strong attendance. Grosses in the United States exceeded $100 million. Face/Off was also nominated for an Academy Award in the category Sound Effects Editing (Mark Stoeckinger) at the 70th Academy Awards.

In 2003, Mr. Woo directed a television pilot entitled The Robinsons: Lost in Space for The WB Television Network, based on the 1960s television series Lost in Space. The pilot was not purchased, although bootleg copies have been made available by fans.

John Woo has made three additional films in Hollywood: Mission: Impossible 2, Windtalkers and Paycheck. Mission: Impossible 2 was the highest-grossing film in America in 2000 despite its receiving mixed reviews.[14] Windtalkers and Paycheck fared poorly at the box office and were summarily dismissed by critics. Woo directed and produced a videogame called Stranglehold for games consoles and PC. It is a sequel to his 1992 film, Hard Boiled. He also produced the 2007 anime movie, Appleseed: Ex Machina, the sequel to Shinji Aramaki's 2004 film Appleseed[15].[citation needed]

Return to Asian cinemaEdit

In 2008, Woo returned to Asian cinema with the completion of the two-part epic war film Red Cliff, based on a historical battle from Records of the Three Kingdoms. Produced on a grand scale, it is his first film in China since he emigrated from Hong Kong to the United States in 1993. Part 1 of the film was released throughout Asia in July, 2008, to generally favourable reviews and strong attendance. Part 2 was released in China in January, 2009.

John Woo was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement at the Venice Film Festival in 2010.[16]

He followed Red Cliff with another two-part film, The Crossing, in 2014 and 2015. Featuring an all-star cast, the four-hour epic tells the parallel stories of several characters who all ultimately find themselves passengers on the doomed Taiping steamer, which sank in 1949 en route from mainland China to Taiwan and has been described as "China's Titanic".

Following the box-office disappointment of The Crossing, Woo and producer Terence Chang disbanded Lion Rock Productions.[17]

Future film projectsEdit

A CGI Mighty Mouse film was announced in 2003 although, as of September 2015, nothing has yet been produced.[18][19] There have been rumours that Woo will direct a film version of the videogame Metroid, however the rights he optioned have since expired.[20][21]

Woo's next projects are The Divide, a western concerning the friendship between two workers, one Chinese, the other Irish, on the transcontinental rail-road, while The Devil's Soldier is a biopic on Frederick Townsend Ward, an American brought to China in the mid 19th century by the Emperor to suppress rebellion. Rendezvous in Black will be an adaptation of the drama/thriller novel of the same name, and Psi-Ops is a science fiction thriller about a telepathic agent, and a remake of Blind Spot.

In May 2008, Woo announced in Cannes that his next movie would be 1949, an epic love story set between the end of World War II and Chinese Civil War to the founding of the People's Republic of China, the shooting of which would take place in China and Taiwan. Its production was due to begin by the end of 2008, with a theatrical release planned in December 2009. However, in early April 2009, the film was cancelled due to script right issues. Reports indicated that Woo might be working on another World War II film, this time about the American Volunteer Group, or the Flying Tigers. The movie was tentatively titled "Flying Tiger Heroes" and Woo is reported as saying it will feature "The most spectacular aerial battle scenes ever seen in Chinese cinema." It was not clear whether Woo would not be directing the earlier war film, or whether it was put on the back burner. Woo has stated that Flying Tiger Heroes would be an "extremely important production" and will "emphasise US-Chinese friendship and the contributions of the Flying Tigers and the Yunnan people during the war of resistance."[22] Woo has announced he will be using IMAX cameras to film the Flying Tigers project. “It has always been a dream of mine to explore shooting with IMAX cameras and to work in the IMAX format, and the strong visual element of this film is incredibly well-suited to the tastes of cinemagoers today [...] Using IMAX for Flying Tigers would create a new experience for the audience, and I think it would be another breakthrough for Chinese movies.”[23]

After the death of Japanese actor Ken Takakura in 2014, Woo announced his next film Manhunt, a film based on the novel by Juko Nishimura.[24] The novel had previously been adapted by Junya Satō in 1976 as Kimi yo Fundo no Kawa o Watare, starring Takakura.[24] Andy Lau, Takeshi Kaneshiro and Shu Qi were in discussion to star in the film.[24] In March 2016, it was confirmed that Zhang Hanyu, Masaharu Fukuyama, and Qi Wei would be starring in the film.[25] Ha Ji-won was additionally confirmed as being attached to the project. Lee Byung-hun was slated to join, but had to drop out due to scheduling conflicts. Taking place and being shot in Japan, the film will have Chinese, Korean, and English dialogue. It was set for a tentative 2017 release.[26]

Personal lifeEdit

Woo has three children with Annie Woo Ngau Chun-lung, to whom he has been married since 1976.[6] He is a Christian and told the BBC in a September 2014 interview that he has the utmost admiration for Jesus, whom he calls "a great philosopher".[3]

FilmographyEdit

Year Film Director Writer Producer Notes
1968 Dead Knot Yes Yes No
Ouran Yes No No
1974 The Young Dragons Yes Yes No
1975 The Dragon Tamers Yes Yes No
1976 Princess Chang Ping Yes Yes No
Hand of Death Yes Yes No
1977 Money Crazy[12] Yes Yes No
1978 Hello, Late Homecomers Yes Yes No
Follow the Star Yes No No
1979 Last Hurrah for Chivalry Yes Yes No
1980 From Riches to Rags Yes No No
1981 To Hell with the Devil Yes Yes No
Laughing Times Yes Yes No
1982 Plain Jane to the Rescue Yes No No
1984 The Time You Need a Friend Yes Yes Yes
1985 Run, Tiger, Run Yes No Yes
1986 Heroes Shed No Tears Yes Yes Yes
A Better Tomorrow Yes Yes Yes Also actor
Hong Kong Film Award for Best Film
Nominated - Hong Kong Film Award for Best Director
Nominated - Hong Kong Film Award for Best Screenplay
1987 A Better Tomorrow II Yes Yes No
1989 The Killer Yes Yes No Hong Kong Film Award for Best Director
Nominated - Hong Kong Film Award for Best Screenplay
Just Heroes Yes No No
1990 Bullet in the Head Yes Yes Yes Nominated - Hong Kong Film Award for Best Director
1991 Once a Thief Yes Yes No Nominated - Hong Kong Film Award for Best Director
1992 Hard Boiled Yes Yes No
1993 Hard Target Yes No No Nominated - Saturn Award for Best Director
1996 Broken Arrow Yes No No
1997 Face/Off Yes No No Saturn Award for Best Director
2000 Mission: Impossible 2 Yes No No
2002 Windtalkers Yes No Yes
2003 Paycheck Yes No Yes
2008 Red Cliff: Part I Yes Yes Yes Nominated - Asian Film Award for Best Director
2009 Red Cliff: Part II Yes Yes Yes Nominated - Hong Kong Film Award for Best Film
Nominated - Hong Kong Film Award for Best Director
2010 Reign of Assassins Yes No Yes Co-directed with Su Chao-pin
2014 The Crossing Yes No Yes
2015 The Crossing: Part II Yes No Yes
2017 Manhunt Yes No No

Producer only

TelevisionEdit

Year Film Director Executive
Producer
Notes
1996 Once a Thief Yes Yes TV movie
1997–1998 Once a Thief No Yes
1998 Blackjack Yes Yes TV movie

Other worksEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Rawnsley, Gary D. Rawnsley, Ming-Yeh T. (2003). Political Communications in Greater China: the construction and reflection of identity. Routledge; ISBN 0-7007-1734-X.[page needed]
  2. ^ John Woo
  3. ^ a b c d e f Pierce, Nev (24 September 2014). "Calling The Shots: John Woo". BBC.
  4. ^ Archived 1 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Festival de Cannes fiche artiste (artist profile)
  5. ^ "John Woo". Variety.
  6. ^ a b c Woo, John (2005). Elder, Robert K. (ed.). John Woo:Interviews;Conversations with Filmmakers Series. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-57806-776-3.
  7. ^ Leydon, Joe (3 January 1993). "COVER STORY New Gun in Town John Woo, Hong Kong's legendary action director, teams with Jean-Claude Van Damme for his first American thriller, 'Hard Target'".
  8. ^ "Famous Persons with Disabilities". Tampagov.net. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
  9. ^ June 2000 edition of Premiere magazine
  10. ^ amiamcable. "John Woo". N/A.
  11. ^ Szeto, Kin-Yan (2011). The Martial Arts Cinema of the Chinese Diaspora: Ang Lee, John Woo, & Jackie Chan in Hollywood. SIU Press. p. 77. ISBN 0809330210. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  12. ^ a b "Money Crazy (1977)". hkcinemagic.com. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  13. ^ Biography for John Woo on IMDb
  14. ^ "2000 Yearly Box Office Results". Retrieved 19 October 2012.
  15. ^ "Appleseed ex machina". IMDb. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  16. ^ Woo awarded Golden Lion for lifetime achievement Archived 7 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ Shackleton, Liz (30 June 2017). "Terence Chang talks China market challenges and new ventures". Screen Daily. Retrieved 10 July 2017.
  18. ^ Graser, Marc (1 June 2003). "'Tooning up or 'tooning out?". Variety. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  19. ^ "Saving The Day | Movie News | Empire". Empireonline.com. 5 December 2006. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
  20. ^ "Woo to bring Metroid to big screen - RTÉ Ten". Rte.ie. Archived from the original on 17 February 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
  21. ^ "Metroid Movie Rumours Resurface | Kotaku Australia". Kotaku.com.au. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
  22. ^ Foreman, Liza (21 May 2008). "Woo sets prod'n clock for '1949'". The Hollywood Reporter, the Daily from Cannes (8): 22.
  23. ^ "Woo's Flying Tigers to be shot in IMAX format". ScreenDaily. 30 October 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
  24. ^ a b c Ma, Kevin (20 March 2015). "John Woo to direct Manhunt for Media Asia". Film Business Asia. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
  25. ^ Lau, Shirley. "FilMart: Zhang Hanyu, Masaharu Fukuyama Join John Woo's 'Manhunt'". Variety. Variety. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  26. ^ "Lee Byung-Hun drops out of John Woo's 'Manhunt'". City on Fire. City on Fire.
  27. ^ Woh ping faan dim on IMDb
  28. ^ Lang, Mark (11 May 1998). "Creative: Best Spots - April". Adweek.

[1]

Further readingEdit

In EnglishEdit

  • Bliss, Michael. Between the Bullets: The Spiritual Cinema of John Woo. Filmmakers series, no. 92. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8108-4110-X.
  • Brown, Andrew M. J. Directing Hong Kong: The Political Cinema of John Woo and Wong Kar-Wai. Political Communications in Greater China: the Construction and Reflection of Identity. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2001. ISBN 0-7007-1734-X.
  • Crawford, Kevin R. "Mixing violence and religion in 'The Reckoning' : The Scripting of a Postmodern Action Thriller inside the John Woo-film noir Paradigm". Digital Dissertation/Theses, 2007. [1].
  • Fang, Karen Y. John Woo's A Better Tomorrow. The New Hong Kong Cinema. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2004. ISBN 962-209-652-2.
  • Hall, Kenneth E. John Woo: The Films. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1999. ISBN 0-7864-0619-4.
  • Heard, Christopher. Ten Thousand Bullets: The Cinematic Journey of John Woo. Los Angeles: Lone Eagle Publishing Co., 2000. ISBN 1-58065-021-X.
  • Woo, John (2005). Elder, Robert K. (ed.). John Woo:Interviews;Conversations with Filmmakers Series. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-57806-776-3.

Other languagesEdit

  • Berruezo, Pedro J. John Woo y el cine de acción de Hong Kong. Biblioteca Dr. Vértigo, 23. [Barcelona]: Ediciones Glénat, 2000. ISBN 84-8449-043-2. (in Spanish)
  • Bertolino, Marco, and Ettore Ridola. John Woo: la violenza come redenzione. Recco, Genova: Le mani, 1998. ISBN 88-8012-098-0. (in Italian)
  • Gaschler, Thomas, and Ralph Umard. Woo Leben und Werk. München: Belleville, 2005. ISBN 3-933510-48-1. (in German)
  • Nazzaro, Giona A., and Andrea Tagliacozzo. John Woo: la nuova leggenda del cinema d'azione. Contatti, 199. Roma: Castelvecchi, 2000. ISBN 88-8210-203-3. (in Italian)
  • Spanu, Massimiliano. John Woo. Il castoro cinema, 203. Milano: Castoro, 2001. ISBN 88-8033-192-2. (in Italian)
  • Vié-Toussaint, Caroline. John Woo. Paris: Dark star, 2001. ISBN 2-914680-01-5. (in French)

External linksEdit

  1. ^ Toole, Darlene. Living legends : --six stories about successful deaf people. Butte Publications. p. 51. ISBN 1-884362-13-3.