"Jain" redirects here. For other uses, see Jain (disambiguation).
Jainism
Jain flag
Abbreviation Jain
Orientation Ahimsa (non-violence)
Scripture Jain Agamas
Other name(s) Jina śāsana or Jain dharma

Jainism (/ˈnɪzəm/[1] or /ˈnɪzəm/[2]), traditionally known as Jain Dharma,[3] is an ancient Indian religion belonging to the śramaṇa tradition. The central tenet is non-violence and respect towards all living beings. The three main principles of Jainism are ahimsa (non-violence), anekantavada (non-absolutism) and aparigraha (non-possessiveness). Followers of Jainism take five main vows: ahimsa (non-violence), satya (not lying), asteya (not stealing), brahmacharya (chastity) and aparigraha (non-attachment). Jain monks and nuns observe these vows absolutely whereas householders (śrāvakas) observe them within their practical limitations. Self-discipline and asceticism are thus major focuses of Jainism. Notably, Mahatma Gandhi was greatly influenced by Jainism and adopted many Jain principles in his life.

The word "Jain" derives from the Sanskrit word jina (conqueror). A human being who has conquered all inner passions like attachment, desire, anger, pride, greed, etc. is called Jina. Followers of the path practiced and preached by the jinas are known as Jains. Parasparopagraho Jivanam ("the function of souls is to help one another") is the motto of Jainism.

Jains trace their history through a succession of twenty-four teachers and revivers of the Jain path known as Tirthankaras. In the current era, this started with Rishabhdeva and concluded with Mahavira. Jains believe that Jainism is eternal and while it may be forgotten, it will be revived from time to time.

The majority of Jains reside in India. With 6-7 million followers, Jainism is smaller than many other major world religions. Outside of India, some of the largest Jain communities are present in Canada, Europe, Kenya, the UK, Suriname, Fiji, and the United States. Contemporary Jainism is divided into two major sects, Digambara and Śvētāmbara.

Namokar Mantra is the most common and basic prayer in Jainism. Major Jain festivals include Paryushana and Daslakshana, Mahavir Jayanti, and Diwali.

Contents

Main teachingsEdit

Non-violence (ahimsa)Edit

Main article: Ahimsa in Jainism
 
Painting with the message: "Ahiṃsā Paramo Dharma" (non-violence is the highest virtue or religion)
 
The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes Ahimsa in Jainism. The word in the middle is "ahimsa". The wheel represents the dharmachakra, which stands for the resolve to halt the saṃsāra (transmigration) through relentless pursuit of truth and nonviolence.

The principle of ahimsa (non-violence or non-injury) is the most fundamental and well-known aspect of Jainism.[4] The everyday implementation of the principle of non-violence is more comprehensive than in other religions and is the hallmark for Jain identity.[5][6] Jains believe in avoiding harm to others through thoughts (mana), speech (vāchana), and actions (kāya).[7] According to the Jain text, Purushartha Siddhyupaya, "killing any living being out of passions is hiṃsā (injury) and abstaining from such act is ahimsa (non-injury)".[8]

Jains extend the practice of nonviolence and kindness not only towards other humans but towards all living beings. For this reason, vegetarianism is a hallmark of Jain identity, with the majority of Jains practicing lacto vegetarianism. If there is violence against animals during the production of dairy products, veganism is encouraged.[9]

Jainism has a very elaborate framework on types of life and includes life-forms that may be invisible. Therefore, after humans and animals, insects are the next living being offered protection in Jain practice, with avoidance of intentional harm to insects emphasized. For example, insects in the home are often escorted out instead of killed. Jainism teaches that intentional harm and the absence of compassion make an action more violent.[10]

After nonviolence towards humans, animals and insects, Jains make efforts not to injure plants any more than necessary. Although they admit that plants must be destroyed for the sake of food, they accept such violence only as much as it is necessary for human survival. Strict Jains, including monastics, do not eat root vegetables such as potatoes, onions and garlic because tiny organisms are injured when the plant is pulled up and because a bulb or tuber's ability to sprout is seen as characteristic of a living being.[11]

Jains believe that the intent and emotions behind an act of violence are more important than the action itself. For example, if a person kills another living being out of carelessness and then later regrets the act, the bondage (bandha) of karma is less compared to when a person kills the same kind of living being with anger, revenge, etc. A soldier acting in self-defense is a different type of violence from someone killing another person out of hatred or revenge. Violence or war in self-defense may be justified, but this must only be used as a last resort after peaceful measures have been thoroughly exhausted.[12]

According to the Jain text, Sarvārthasiddhi, "He who has passions causes injury to himself by himself. Whether injury is then caused to other living beings or not, it is immaterial."[13]

Non-absolutismEdit

Main article: Anekantavada

The second main principle of Jainism is anekāntavāda (non-absolutism). For Jains, non-absolutism means maintaining open-mindedness. This includes the recognition of all perspectives and a humble respect for differences in beliefs. Jainism encourages its adherents to consider the views and beliefs of their rivals and opposing parties, including other religions. The principle of anekāntavāda influenced Mahatma Gandhi to adopt principles of religious tolerance and non-violence.[14]

Anekāntavāda is more formally stated by observing that objects are infinite in their qualities and modes of existence, so they cannot be completely grasped in all aspects and manifestations by finite human perception. Only Kevalins (omniscient beings) can comprehend objects in all aspects and manifestations; others are only capable of partial knowledge.[15] Accordingly, no single, specific human view can claim to represent absolute truth.[16] Jains illustrate this theory through the parable of the blind men and an elephant. In this story, each blind man feels a different part of an elephant: its trunk, leg, ear, and so on. All of them claim to understand and explain the true appearance of the elephant, but due to their limited perspectives, can only partly succeed.[17] The concept of anekāntavāda (non-absolutism) is further explained by Syādvāda and Nayavāda.

Syādvāda and Nayavāda

Syādvāda and Nayavāda expand on the concept of anekāntavāda (non-absolutism). Syādvāda recommends the expression of anekānta by prefixing the epithet syād to every phrase or expression.[18] Syād here means "in some ways" or "from some perspective". As reality is complex, no single proposition can express its full nature. The term syāt- should therefore be prefixed to each proposition, giving it a conditional point of view and thus removing dogmatism from the statement.[19] There are seven conditioned propositions (saptibhaṅgī) in syādvāda. Nayavāda is the theory of partial standpoints or viewpoints.[20] Nayavāda is a compound of two Sanskrit words: naya ("partial viewpoint") and vāda ("school of thought or debate"). It is used to arrive at a certain inference from a point of view. Every object has infinite aspects, but when we describe one in practice, we speak only of relevant aspects and ignore the irrelevant.[20] Nayavāda holds that philosophical disputes arise out of confusion of standpoints, and the standpoints we adopt are "the outcome of purposes that we may pursue" – although we may not realize it. Naya, being a partial expression of truth, enables us to comprehend reality part by part.[21]

Non-attachmentEdit

Main article: Aparigraha

The third main principle in Jainism is aparigraha which means non-attachment to worldly possessions.[22] Therefore, non-attachment also includes non-possessiveness and non-materialism. Jainism emphasizes taking no more of something than is necessary. While ownership of objects is allowed, non-attachment to possessions is taught. Followers should minimize the tendency to hoard unnecessary material possessions and limit attachment to current possessions. Further, wealth and possessions should be shared and donated whenever possible. Unchecked attachment to possessions is said to result in direct harm to oneself and others.[23]

Further, Jain texts mention that "attachment to possessions (parigraha) is of two kinds: attachment to internal possessions (ābhyantara parigraha), and attachment to external possessions (bāhya parigraha).[24] Both internal and external possessions are proved to be hiṃsā (injury).[25] According to the Jain text Sarvārthasiddhi, "He who has passions causes injury to himself by himself. Whether injury is then caused to other living beings or not, it is immaterial."[13]

For internal possessions, Jainism identifies four key passions of the mind (kashaya):[25]

  • Anger
  • Pride (ego)
  • Deceitfulness
  • Greed

Jainism recommends conquering anger by forgiveness, pride by humility, deceitfulness by straight-forwardness and greed by contentment.

In addition to the four passions of the mind, the remaining ten internal possessions are:[25]

  • wrong belief;
  • the three sex-passions (male sex-passion, female sex-passion, neuter sex-passion); and
  • the six defects (laughter, like, dislike, sorrow, fear, disgust);

In Jainism, the non-manifestation of a passion such as attachment is termed ahiṃsā (non-violence), and the manifestation of such a passion is considered himsa (injury). This is said to be the essence of the Jaina scripture.[26] Additionally, according to the Tattvartha Sutra (a sacred Jain text), "Infatuation is attachment to possessions."[27]

Jain Ethics and Five Main VowsEdit

Main article: Ethics of Jainism
 
Jain emblem and the "Five Vows"
 
Nishidhi stone, depicting the observance of the vow of sallekhana, Old Kannada inscription, 14th century

Jainism encourages spiritual development through cultivation of personal wisdom and self-control through five main vows:[28]

  1. Ahimsa: Ahimsa means nonviolence or non-injury. The first major vow taken by Jains is to love and cause no harm to other living beings. It involves minimizing intentional and unintentional harm to other living creatures by actions, speech or thoughts. The vow of ahiṃsā is considered the foremost among the 'five vows of Jainism'.[29]
  2. Satya: Satya means truth. This vow is to always speak the truth. Given that nonviolence has priority, other principles yield to it whenever they conflict: in a situation where speaking truth could lead to violence, silence may be observed.[28]
  3. Asteya or Achaurya: Asteya means not stealing. Jains should not take anything that is not willingly offered.[28] The five transgression of this vow as mentioned in the Tattvārthsūtra are: "Prompting another to steal, receiving stolen goods, underbuying in a disordered state, using false weights and measures, and deceiving others with artificial or imitation goods".[30]
  4. Brahmacharya: Brahmacharya means chastity for laymen and celibacy for Jain monks and nuns. This requires the exercise of control over the senses to control indulgence in sexual activity.[31]
  5. Aparigraha: Aparigraha means non-possessiveness. This includes non-materialism and non-attachment to objects, places and people.[28] Jain monks and nuns completely renounce property and social relations.[22]

Monks and nuns are obligated to practice the five cardinal principles of nonviolence, truthfulness, not stealing, celibacy, and non-possessiveness very strictly, while laymen are encouraged to observe them within their current practical limitations.[28]

Supplementary vows and sallekhana

Jainism also prescribes seven supplementary vows and a last sallekhana vow, which is practiced mostly by monks and nuns. The supplementary vows include three guņa vratas (merit vows) and four śikşā vratas.[32][33] The sallekhana (or Santhara) vow is observed at the end of life most commonly by Jain monks and nuns. In this vow, there is voluntary and gradual reduction of food and liquid intake under some conditions.[34] These condition are:[35]

  • Severe famine
  • Incurable disease
  • Great disability
  • Old age or when a person is nearing his end.

Sallekhana is seen as spiritual detachment requiring a great deal of spiritual accomplishment and maturity and a declaration that a person is finished with this world and has chosen to leave.[36] Jains believe this allows one to achieve death with dignity and dispassion along with a great reduction of negative karma.[37]

PracticesEdit

VegetarianismEdit

Main article: Jain vegetarianism

Vegetarianism is a hallmark of Jainism, in accordance with the principle of non-violence towards all beings. Strict followers will also limit dairy products, avoid root vegetables and avoid eating after sunset.[38]

FastingEdit

Main article: Fasting in Jainism

Jains fast throughout the year, particularly during festivals.[39] This takes on various forms and may be practiced based on one's ability.[40][according to whom?] Some examples are: eating only one or two meals per day, drinking only water all day, not eating after sunset, not eating processed foods, and eating food without sugar, oil, or salt.[41]

PrayersEdit

In Jainism, the purpose of prayer is to break the barriers of worldly attachments and desires and to assist in the liberation of the soul. Jains do not pray for any favors, material goods or rewards.[42]

The Navkar Mantra is the fundamental prayer of Jainism and may be recited at any time.[43] In this mantra, Jains worship the qualities (gunas) of the spiritually supreme, including those who have already attained salvation, in order to adopt similar behavior.[44]

Uvasagharam Stotra, Bhaktamara Stotra, Santikaram Stotra, Tijayapahutta Stotra, Namiuna Stotra, Kalyana Mandira Stotra, Ajita-Shanti Stavana and Brihad Shanti Stotra are also Sacred in Jainism.[45]

MeditationEdit

Main article: Jain meditation
 
Jain nuns meditating
 
Gommateshwara statue at Shravanabelagola depicting the meditation in standing Kayotsarga posture by Bahubali, 981 A.D.

Jains have developed a type of meditation called sāmāyika, a term derived from the word samaya. The goal of sāmāyika is to achieve a feeling of perfect calmness and to understand the unchanging truth of the self. The preposition sam means one state of being. To become one is samaya. [46][47] Sāmāyika is aimed at developing equanimity and to refrain from injury. Sāmāyika is particularly important during the Paryushana religious festival. It is believed that meditation will assist in managing and balancing one's passions. Great emphasis is placed on the internal control of thoughts, as they influence behavior, actions and goals. Through Samayika, Jains try to achieve control over Mana (Mind), Vachana (Speech) and Kaya (Actions). [48]

Jains follow six duties known as avashyakas: samayika (practising serenity), chaturvimshati (praising the tirthankara), vandan (respecting teachers and monks), pratikramana (introspection), kayotsarga (stillness), and pratyakhyana (renunciation).[49]

Jain texts prescribe meditation on twelve forms of contemplation (bhāvanā) for those who wish to stop the influx of karmas that extend transmigration.[50] These twelve reflections as mentioned in ancient Jain texts, like Tattvārthsūtra, Sarvārthasiddhi, Puruşārthasiddhyupāya are:[51]

  1. anitya bhāvanā – the transitoriness of the world;
  2. aśaraņa bhāvanā – the helplessness of the soul;
  3. saṃsāra – the pain and suffering implied in transmigration;
  4. aikatva bhāvanā – the inability of another to share one's suffering and sorrow;
  5. anyatva bhāvanā – the distinctiveness between the body and the soul;
  6. aśuci bhāvanā – the filthiness of the body;
  7. āsrava bhāvanā – influx of karmic matter;
  8. saṃvara bhāvanā – stoppage of karmic matter;
  9. nirjarā bhāvanā – gradual shedding of karmic matter;
  10. loka bhāvanā – the form and divisions of the universe and the nature of the conditions prevailing in the different regions – heavens, hells, and the like;
  11. bodhidurlabha bhāvanā – the extreme difficulty in obtaining human birth and, subsequently, in attaining true faith; and
  12. dharma bhāvanā – the truth promulgated by Tirthankaras.

FestivalsEdit

Main article: Jain festivals
 
Celebrating Das Lakshana (Paryusana), Jain Center of America, New York City
 
Om Hrim Siddhi Chakra used by Jains in dravya puja

Paryushana or Daslakshana is the most important annual event for Jains, and is usually celebrated in August or September.[52] It lasts 8–10 days and is a time when lay people increase their level of spiritual intensity often using fasting and prayer/meditation to help. The five main vows are emphasized during this time.[53] There are no set rules, and followers are encouraged to practice according to their ability and desires. The last day involves a focused prayer/meditation session known as Samvatsari Pratikramana. At the conclusion of the festival, followers request forgiveness from others for any offenses committed during the last year. Forgiveness is asked by saying Micchami Dukkadam or Khamat Khamna to others, which means, "If I have offended you in any way, knowingly or unknowingly, in thought, word or action, then I seek your forgiveness." The literal meaning of Paryushana is "abiding" or "coming together".[54]

Mahavir Jayanti, the birth of Mahāvīra, the last tirthankara of this era, is usually celebrated in late March or early April based on the lunar calendar.[52][55] Diwali is a festival that marks the anniversary of Mahāvīra's attainment of moksha.[56] The Hindu festival of Diwali is also celebrated on the same date (Kartika Amavasya). Diwali is celebrated in an atmosphere of austerity, simplicity, serenity, equity, calmness, charity, philanthropy, and environmental consciousness. Jain temples, homes, offices, and shops are decorated with lights and diyas (small oil lamps). The lights are symbolic of knowledge or removal of ignorance. Sweets are often distributed. On Diwali morning, Nirvan Ladoo is offered after praying to Mahāvīra in all Jain temples all across the world. The new Jain year starts right after Diwali.[56] Some other festivals celebrated by Jains are Akshaya Tritiya and Raksha Bandhan.[57][52]

RitualsEdit

Main article: Jain rituals
 
Praying at the feet of a statue of Bahubali

There are many rituals in the various sects of Jainism. The basic worship ritual practised by Jains is "seeing" (darsana) of pure self in Jina idols.[58] One example related to the five life events of the tirthankaras called the Panch Kalyanaka are rituals such as the Panch Kalyanaka Pratishtha Mahotsava, panch kalyanaka puja, and snatra puja.[59][60] Jain practices include performing abhisheka (ceremonial bath) of the images.[61]

Jains follow six obligatory duties known as avashyakas: samayika (practising serenity), chaturvimshati (praising the tirthankara), vandan (respecting teachers and monks), pratikramana (introspection), kayotsarga (stillness), and pratyakhyana (renunciation).[49]

PilgrimagesEdit

Main article: Tirtha (Jainism)
 
Jal Mandir at Shikharji, said to be the place where 20 tirthankars achieved Nirvana

Jain pilgrim (Tirtha) sites are divided in the following categories:[62]

MonasticismEdit

Main article: Jain monasticism
 
Acharya Gyansagar, a prominent Digambara Acharya (the head of a monastic order)

In Jainism, monasticism is encouraged and respected. Monks and nuns live extremely austere and ascetic lifestyles. They follow the five main vows strictly and observe complete abstinence.[63] Jain monks and nuns have neither a permanent home nor any possessions. They do not use vehicles and always travel barefoot from one place to another, irrespective of the distance. They wander from place to place except during the months of Chaturmas. They do not prepare food and live only on what people offer them. Digambara monks and nuns carry a broom-like object, called a picchi (made from fallen peacock feathers) to sweep the ground ahead of them or before sitting down to avoid inadvertently crushing small insects.[64][65][66] Svetambara monks carry a rajoharan (a broom-like object made from dense, thick thread strands). Jain monks have to follow six duties known as avashyakas: sāmāyika (practising serenity), chaturvimshati (praising the tirthankara), vandan (respecting teachers and monks), pratikramana (introspection), kayotsarga (stillness), and pratyakhyana (renunciation).[49]

The monks of Jainism, whose presence is not needed for most Jain rituals, should not be confused with priests. However, some sects of Jainism often employ a pujari, who need not be a Jain, to perform special daily rituals and other priestly duties at the temple.[67]

PhilosophyEdit

Main article: Jain philosophy

Dravya (Substance)Edit

Main article: Dravya
 
Chart showing the classification of dravya and astikaya

According to Jainism, there are six simple substances in existence: Soul, Matter, Time, Space, Dharma and Adharma. Jain philosophers distinguish a substance from a body (or thing) by declaring the former to be a simple element or reality and the latter a compound of one or more substances or atoms. They claim that there can be a partial or total destruction of a body or thing, but no substance can ever be destroyed.[68] According to Champat Rai Jain:

Substance is the sub-strate of qualities which cannot exist apart from it, for instance, the quality of fluidity, moisture, and the like only exist in water and cannot be conceived separately from it. It is neither possible to create nor to destroy a substance, which means that there never was a time when the existing substances were not, nor shall they ever cease to be.[69]

Jīva (soul)Edit

Main article: Jīva (Jainism)

Jain philosophy is the oldest Indian philosophy that separates body (matter) from the soul (consciousness) completely.[70] Jains maintain that all living beings are really soul, intrinsically perfect and immortal. Souls in saṃsāra (that is, liability to repeated births and deaths) are said to be imprisoned in the body.[71]

The soul-substance, called Jīva in Jainism, is distinguished from the remaining five substances (Matter, Time, Space, Dharma and Adharma), collectively called ajīva, by the intelligence with which the soul-substance is endowed, and which is not found in the other substances.[68] The nature of the soul-substance is said to be freedom. In its modifications, it is said to be the subject of knowledge and enjoyment, or suffering, in varying degrees, according to its circumstances.[72] Jain texts expound that all living beings are really soul, intrinsically perfect and immortal. Souls in transmigration are said to be embodied in the body as if in a prison.[73]

Ajīva (Non-Soul)Edit

Main article: Ajiva
  • Matter (Pudgala) is considered a non-intelligent substance consisting of an infinity of particles or atoms which are eternal. These atoms are said to possess sensible qualities, namely, taste, smell, color and, in certain forms, touch and sound.[74][72]
  • Time is said to be the cause of continuity and succession. It is of two kinds: nishchaya and vyavhāra[75]
  • Space (akāśa)- Space is divided by the Jainas into two parts, namely, the lokākāśa, that is the space occupied by the universe, and the alokākāśa, the portion beyond the universe. The lokākāśa is the portion in which are to be found the remaining five substances, i.e., souls, Matter, Time, Dharma and Adharma; but the alokākāśa is the region of pure space containing no other substance and lying stretched on all sides beyond bounds of the three worlds (the entire universe).[76]
  • Dharma and Adharma are substances said to be helpful in the motion and stationary states of things, respectively, the former enabling them to move from place to place and the latter to come to rest from the condition of motion.[75]

Tattva (Reality)Edit

Main article: Tattva (Jainism)
 
The 7 Tattvas of Jain philosophy

Jain philosophy is based on seven fundamentals which are known as tattva, which attempt to explain the nature of karmas and provide solutions for the ultimate goal of liberation of the soul (moksha):[77] These are:[78]

  1. Jīva – the soul, which is characterized by consciousness
  2. Ajīva – non-living entities that consist of matter, space and time
  3. Āsrava (influx) – the inflow of auspicious and evil karmic matter into the soul
  4. Bandha (bondage) – mutual intermingling of the soul and karmas. The karma masks the jiva and restricts it from reaching its true potential of perfect knowledge and perception.
  5. Saṃvara (stoppage) – obstruction of the inflow of karmic matter into the soul
  6. Nirjarā (gradual dissociation) – the separation or falling off of part of karmic matter from the soul
  7. Moksha (liberation) – complete annihilation of all karmic matter (bound with any particular soul)

Soul and KarmaEdit

Main article: Karma in Jainism
 
Depiction of a transmigratory soul (Samsāri jīva) according to Jain philosophy. Gold represents nokarma, the quasi-karmic matter, cyan (blue) depicts dravya karma, the subtle karmic matter, orange represents the bhav karma, the psycho-physical karmic matter, and white depicts sudhatma, the pure consciousness

According to Jain belief, souls, intrinsically pure, possess the qualities of infinite knowledge, infinite perception, infinite bliss, and infinite energy in their ideal state.[79] In reality, however, these qualities are found to be obstructed due to the soul's association with karmic matter.[80] The ultimate goal in Jainism is the realization of reality.[81]

The relationship between the soul and karma is explained by the analogy of gold. Gold is always found mixed with impurities in its natural state. Similarly, the ideal pure state of the soul is always mixed with the impurities of karma. Just like gold, purification of the soul may be achieved if the proper methods of refining are applied.[80] The Jain karmic theory is used to attach responsibility to individual action and is cited to explain inequalities, suffering and pain. Tirthankara-nama-karma is a special type of karma, bondage of which raises a soul to the supreme status of a tirthankara.[82]

VitalismEdit

Main article: Vitalism (Jainism)
 
Classification of Saṃsāri Jīvas (Transmigrating Souls) in Jainism.

Jain texts state that there are ten vitalities or life-principles: the five senses, energy, respiration, life-duration, the organ of speech, and the mind.[8] The table below summarizes the vitalities that living beings possess in accordance with their senses.[83]

Senses Number of vitalities Vitalities
One-sensed beings Four Sense organ of touch, strength of body or energy, respiration, and life-duration.
Two-sensed beings Six The sense of taste and the organ of speech in addition to the former four.
Three-sensed beings Seven The sense of smell in addition to the former six.
Four-sensed beings Eight The sense of sight in addition to the former seven.
Five-sensed
beings
Nine The sense of hearing in addition to the former eight.
Ten Mind in addition to the above-mentioned nine vitalities.

CosmologyEdit

Main article: Jain cosmology
 
Shape of the universe as told by Kevalins

Jain texts propound that the universe was never created, nor will it ever cease to exist. It is independent and self-sufficient, and does not require any superior power to govern it. Elaborate descriptions of the shape and function of the physical and metaphysical universe, and its constituents, are provided in the canonical Jain texts, in commentaries and in the writings of the Jain philosopher-monks.[84][85]

According to the Jain texts, the universe is divided into three parts, the upper, middle, and lower worlds, called respectively urdhva loka, madhya loka, and adho loka.[86] It is made up of six constituents:[87] Jīva, the living entity; Pudgala, matter; Dharma tattva, the substance responsible for motion; Adharma tattva, the substance responsible for rest; Akāśa, space; and Kāla, time.[87]

 
Division of time as envisaged by Jains

Kāla (time) is without beginning and eternal; the cosmic wheel of time, called kālachakra, rotates ceaselessly. According to Jain texts, in this part of the universe, there is rise and fall during the six periods of the two aeons of regeneration and degeneration.[88] Thus, the worldly cycle of time is divided into two parts or half-cycles, ascending (utsarpiṇī) and descending (avasarpiṇī). Utsarpiṇī is a period of progressive prosperity, where happiness increases, while avasarpiṇī is a period of increasing sorrow and immorality.[89][90] According to Jain cosmology, currently we are in the 5th ara of avasarpiṇī (half time cycle of degeneration). As of 2016, exactly 2,538 years have elapsed, and 18,460 years are still left.[91] The present age is one of sorrow and misery. In this ara, though religion is practiced in lax and diluted form, no liberation is possible. At the end of this ara, even the Jain religion will disappear,[91] only to appear again with the advent of the first Tīrthankara after the 42,000 years of next utsarpiṇī are over.[92]

The following table depicts the six aras of avasarpiṇī[93]

Name of the Ara Degree of happiness Duration of Ara Average height of people Average lifespan of people
Sukhama-sukhamā Utmost happiness and no sorrow 400 trillion sāgaropamas Six miles tall Three palyopama years
Sukhamā Moderate happiness and no sorrow 300 trillion sāgaropamas Four miles tall Two palyopama Years
Sukhama-dukhamā Happiness with very little sorrow 200 trillion sāgaropamas Two miles tall One palyopama years
Dukhama-sukhamā Happiness with little sorrow 100 trillion sāgaropamas 1500 meters 705.6 quintillion years
Dukhamā Sorrow with very little Happiness 21,000 years[94] 6 feet 130 years maximum
Dukhama- dukhamā Extreme sorrow and misery 21,000 years 2 feet 16–20 years

This trend will start reversing at the onset of utsarpinī kāl with the Dukhama-dukhamā ara being the first ara of utsarpinī (half-time cycle of regeneration).[93]

According to Jain texts, sixty-three illustrious beings, called śalākāpuruṣas, are born on this earth in every Dukhama-sukhamā ara.[95] The Jain universal history is a compilation of the deeds of these illustrious persons.[96] They comprise twenty-four tīrthaṅkaras, twelve chakravartins, nine balabhadra, nine narayana, and nine pratinarayana.[97][95]

A chakravartī is an emperor of the world and lord of the material realm.[95] Though he possesses worldly power, he often finds his ambitions dwarfed by the vastness of the cosmos. Jain puranas give a list of twelve chakravartins (universal monarchs). They are golden in complexion.[98] One of the greatest chakravartins mentioned in Jain scriptures is Bharata Chakravartin. Jain texts like Harivamsa Purana and Hindu Texts like Vishnu Purana mention that India came to be known as Bharatavarsha in his memory.[99][100]

There are nine sets of balabhadra, narayana, and pratinarayana. The balabhadra and narayana are brothers.[101] Balabhadra are nonviolent heroes, narayana are violent heroes, and pratinarayana can be described as villains. According to the legends, the narayana ultimately kill the pratinarayana. Of the nine balabhadra, eight attain liberation and the last goes to heaven. On death, the narayana go to hell on account of their violent exploits, even if these were intended to uphold righteousness.[102]

EpistemologyEdit

Main article: Jain epistemology
 
Kinds of Knowledge

In Jainism, jnāna (knowledge) is said to be of five kinds—Kevala Jnana (Omniscience), Śrutu Jñāna (Scriptural Knowledge), Mati Jñāna (Sensory Knowledge), Avadhi Jñāna (Clairvoyance), Manah prayāya Jñāna (Telepathy).[103] According to Jain text Tattvartha sutra, the first two are indirect knowledge and the remaining three are direct knowledge".[104] Jains maintain that knowledge is the nature of the soul. According to Champat Rai Jain, "Knowledge is the nature of the soul. If it were not the nature of the soul, it would be either the nature of the not-soul, or of nothing whatsoever. But in the former case, the unconscious would become the conscious, and the soul would be unable to know itself or any one else, for it would then be devoid of consciousness; and, in the latter, there would be no knowledge, nor conscious beings in existence, which, happily, is not the case."[105]

AgamasEdit

Main article: Jain Agamas
 
Stella depicting Śhrut Jnāna, or complete scriptural knowledge

After the attainment of omniscience, the tirthankara discourses in a divine preaching hall called samavasarana. The discourse delivered is called Śhrut Jnāna and comprises eleven angas and fourteen purvas.[106] The discourse is recorded by Ganadharas (chief disciples), and is composed of twelve angas (departments). It is generally represented by a tree with twelve branches.[107]

Historically, the Jain Agamas were based on the teachings of Mahāvīra, the last Tīrthankara of the present half cycle. The Agamas were memorised and passed on through the ages. They were lost because of famine that caused the death of several saints within a thousand years of Mahāvīra's death.[108] These comprise thirty-two works: eleven angās, twelve upanga āgamas, four chedasūtras, four mūlasūtras, and the last, a pratikraman, or Avashyak sūtra.[109]

Kashaya (Passions)Edit

Main article: Kashaya (Jainism)

Additionally, Jainism identifies four kashaya passions of the mind: Anger, pride (ego), deceitfulness, greed. It recommends conquering anger by forgiveness, pride by humility, deceitfulness by straight-forwardness and greed by contentment.[110]

Liberation and GodhoodEdit

Main article: Moksha (Jainism)

The Path to LiberationEdit

Main article: Ratnatraya
 
The three shikhar (top) of a Jain temple represents Ratnatraya (three jewels)

According to Jainism, the following three jewels constitute the path to liberation:[104][111]

  1. Right View (samyak darśana)– Belief in substances like soul (Jīva) and non-soul without delusions.[112]
  2. Right Knowledge (samyak jnana)– Knowledge of the substances (tattvas) without any doubt or misapprehension.[113]
  3. Right Conduct (samyak charitra)– Being free from attachment, a right believer does not commit hiṃsā (injury).[114]

According to the Jain text, Sarvārthasiddhi, (translated by S. A. Jain):

Perfect release from all karmas is liberation. The path to liberation is the method by which it can be attained. The singular 'path' is used in order to indicate that all the three together constitute the path to liberation. This controverts the views that each of these singly constitutes a path. Hence it must be understood that these three‍—‌right faith, right knowledge and right conduct‍—‌together constitute the direct path to liberation.[115]

Stages on the PathEdit

Main article: Gunasthana

In Jain philosophy, the fourteen stages through which a soul must pass in order to attain liberation (moksha) are called Gunasthāna.[116][117][118] These are:[119]

Gunasthāna Explanation
1. Mithyātva Gross ignorance. The stage of wrong believer
2. Sasādana Vanishing faith, i.e., the condition of the mind while actually falling down from the fourth stage to the first stage.[120]
3. Mishradrshti Mixed faith and false belief.[120]
4. Avirata samyagdrshti Right Faith unaccompanied by Right Conduct.[121]
5. Deśavirata The stage of partial self-control (Śrāvaka)[121]
6. Pramatta Sanyati First step of life as a Jain muni (monk).[121] The stage of complete self-discipline, although sometimes brought into wavering through negligence.
7. Apramatta Sanyati Complete observance of Mahavratas (Major Vows)
8. Apūrvakaraņa New channels of thought.
9. Anivāttibādara-sāmparāya Advanced thought-activity
10. Sukshma sāmparāya Slight greed left to be controlled or destroyed.
11. Upaśānta-kasāya The passions are still associated with the soul, but they are temporarily out of effect on the soul.
12. Ksīna kasāya Desirelessness, i.e., complete eradication of greed
13. Sayoga kevali (Arihant) Omniscience with vibrations. Sa means "with" and yoga refers to the three channels of activity, i.e., mind, speech and body.[122]
14. Ayoga kevali The stage of omniscience without any activity. This stage is followed by the soul's destruction of the aghātiā karmas.

At the second-to-last stage, a soul destroys all inimical karmas, including the knowledge-obscuring karma which results in the manifestation of infinite knowledge (Kevala Jnana), which is said to be the true nature of every soul.[123]

Those who pass the last stage are called siddha and become fully established in Right Faith, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct.[124] According to Jain texts, after the total destruction of karmas the released pure soul (Siddha) goes up to the summit of universe (Siddhashila) and dwells there in eternal bliss.[125]

The soul removes its ignorance (mithyatva) at the 4th stage, vowlessness (avirati) at the 6th stage, passions (kashaya) at the 12th stage, and yoga (activities of body, mind and speech) at the 14th stage, and thus attains liberation. [126]

GodEdit

 
Four and Twenty Tirthankaras
Main article: God in Jainism
 
Infinite Liberated souls (Siddhas)

Jain texts reject the idea of a creator or destroyer God and postulate an eternal universe. Jain cosmology divides the worldly cycle of time into two parts (avasarpiṇī and utsarpiṇī). According to Jain belief, in every half-cycle of time, twenty-four Tīrthankaras grace this part of the Universe to teach the unchanging doctrine of right faith, right knowledge and right conduct.[127][128][129] The word Tīrthankara signifies the founder of a tirtha, which means a fordable passage across a sea. The Tīrthankaras show the 'fordable path' across the sea of interminable births and deaths.[130] Rishabhanatha is said to be the first Tīrthankara of the present half-cycle (avasarpiṇī). Mahāvīra (6th century BC) is revered as the last Tīrthankara of avasarpiṇī.[131][132] Though Jain texts explain that Jainism has always existed and will always exist,[96] modern historians place the earliest evidence of Jainism in the 9th century BC.[133]

In Jainism, perfect souls with the body are called Arihant (victors) and perfect souls without the body are called Siddhas (liberated souls). Tirthankara is an Arihant who helps others to achieve liberation. Tirthankaras become role models for those seeking liberation. They are also called human spiritual guides.[134] They reorganise the four-fold order that consists of male ascetics (muni), female ascetics (aryika), laymen (śrāvaka) and laywomen (śrāvikā).[135][136] Jainism has been described as a transtheistic religion,[137] as it does not teach the dependency on any supreme being for enlightenment. The tirthankara is a guide and teacher who points the way to enlightenment, but the struggle for enlightenment is one's own. The following two verses of the Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra expound the definition of God according to Jainism:[138]

In the nature of things the true God should be free from the faults and weaknesses of the lower nature; [he should be] the knower of all things and the revealer of dharma; in no other way can divinity be constituted. (1–5)

He alone who is free from hunger, thirst, senility, disease, birth, death, fear, pride, attachment, aversion, infatuation, worry, conceit, hatred, uneasiness, sweat, sleep and surprise is called a God. (1–6)

HistoryEdit

Main article: History of Jainism
 
Ancient sculpture depicting Parshvanatha at Thirakoil, Tamil Nadu
 
Quadruple Jain Image, excavated from Kankali Tila, c. 1st century CE

OriginsEdit

The origins of Jainism are obscure.[139][140] Jainism is a philosophy of eternity, and Jains believe their religion to be eternal.[141][142][96] Ṛṣabhanātha is said to be the founder of Jainism in the present half cycle.[143] Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, the first Vice President of India wrote:

There is evidence to show that so far back as the first century B.C. there were people who were worshipping Ṛṣabhadeva, the first tīrthaṅkara. There is no doubt that Jainism prevailed even before Vardhamāna or Pārśvanātha. The Yajurveda mentions the name of three Tīrthaṅkaras-Ṛishabhadeva, Ajitnātha and Ariṣṭanemi. The Bhāgavata Purāṇa endorses the view that Ṛṣabha was the founder of Jainism.[144]

Further, he believed that Jainism was much older than Hinduism:[145]

There is nothing wonderful in my saying that Jainism was in existence long before the Vedas were composed.

And in the first volume of The Cultural Heritage of India:[146]

The Jains claim a great antiquity for their religion. Their earliest tirthankara was Rishabhdeva, who is mentioned even in the Vishnu and Bhagawat Puranas as belonging to a very remote past. In the earliest Brahmanic literature are found traces of the existence of a religious Order.

Jains revere Vardhamana Mahāvīra (6th century BCE) as the twenty-fourth tirthankara of this era. He appears in the tradition as one who, from the beginning, had followed a religion established long ago.[147]

Parshvanatha, predecessor of Mahāvīra and the twenty-third tirthankara was a historical figure.[132][148] He lived in the 9th century BCE.[149][150][151]

On antiquity of Jainism, Dr. Heinrich Zimmer was of the view that:

There is truth in the Jaina idea that their religion goes back to a remote antiquity, the antiquity in question being that of the pre-Aryan so called Dravidian period, which has recently been dramatically illuminated by the discovery of a series of great Late stone Age cities in the Indus Valley, dating from the third and perhaps even fourth millennium B.C.[152]

— Dr. Heinrich Zimmer

There is inscriptional evidence for the presence of Jain monks in south India by the second or first centuries BC, and archaeological evidence of Jain monks in Saurashtra in Gujarat by the second century CE.[153]

Royal patronageEdit

 
Inscription of the incoming of Shrutkevali Bhadrabahu swami and Samrat Chandragupt at Shravanbelgola. Chandragupta Maurya, a Jaina Shravaka, became a Jain monk in the latter part of his life

The ancient city Pithunda, capital of Kalinga (modern Odisha), is described in the Jain text Uttaradhyana Sutra as an important centre at the time of Mahāvīra, and was frequented by merchants from Champa.[154] Rishabhanatha, the first tirthankara, was revered and worshiped in Pithunda and was known as the Kalinga Jina. Mahapadma Nanda (c. 450 – 362 BCE) conquered Kalinga and took a statue of Rishabha from Pithunda to his capital in Magadha. Jainism is said to have flourished under the Nanda Empire.[155]

The Maurya Empire came to power after the downfall of the Nanda. According to the traditions, the first Mauryan emperor, Chandragupta Maurya (c. 322–298 BCE), became a Jain in the latter part of his life. He was a disciple of Bhadrabahu, the last srut-kevali (knower of all "Jain Agamas"), who migrated to South India.[156] Samprati (c. 224–215 BCE) (grandson of the Maurya emperor Ashoka) is said to have been converted to Jainism by a Jain monk named Suhastin.[157] After his conversion he was credited with actively spreading Jainism to many parts of India and beyond, both by making it possible for monks to travel to barbarian lands, and by building and renovating thousands of temples and establishing millions of icons.[158] He ruled a place called Ujjain.[159]

In the 1st century BCE, Emperor Kharavela, of the Mahameghavahana dynasty of Kalinga, invaded Magadha. He retrieved Rishabha's statue and installed it in Udaygiri, near his capital Shishupalgadh.[160] According to Michael Tobias, he was a Jain ruler, who was also a military victor.[161] However, according to Helmuth von Glasenapp, this cannot be said with certainty: Kharavela was probably a free-thinker who patronized all his subjects, including Jains.[162]

Xuanzang (629 – 645 CE), a Chinese traveller, notes that there were numerous Jains present in Kalinga during his time.[162] The Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves near Bhubaneswar, Odisha, are the only surviving stone Jain monuments in Orissa.[163]

King Vanaraja (c. 720 – 780 CE) of the Chawda dynasty in northern Gujarat, raised by a Jain monk named Silunga Suri, supported Jainism during his rule. The king of Kannauj Ama (c. 8th century CE) was converted to Jainism by Bappabhatti, a disciple of the famous Jain monk Siddhasena Divakara.[164] The most rulers of Chaulukya dynasty of Gujarat were Shaivaite, although they also patronized Jainism. The dynasty's founder Mularaja is said to have built Mulavasatika temple for Digambara and the Mulanatha-Jinadeva temple for the Svetambara Jains.[165] The earliest of the Dilwara Temples were constructed during the reign of Bhima I. Kumarapala started patronizing Jainism at some point in his life, and the subsequent Jain accounts portray him as the last great royal patron of Jainism.[166] Bappabhatti also converted Vakpati, the friend of Ama who authored a famous Prakrit epic titled Gaudavaho.[167]

DeclineEdit

Once a major religion, Jainism declined due to a number of factors, including proselytising by other religious groups, persecution, withdrawal of royal patronage, sectarian fragmentation and the absence of central leadership.[168] Since the time of Mahāvīra, Jainism faced rivalry with Buddhism and the various Hindu sects.[169] The Jains suffered isolated violent persecutions by these groups, but the main factor responsible for the decline of their religion was the success of Hindu reformist movements.[170] Around the 7th century, Shaivism saw considerable growth at the expense of Jainism due to the efforts of the Shaivite saints like Sambandar and Appar.[171]

Royal patronage has been a key factor in the growth as well as decline of Jainism.[168] The Pallava king Mahendravarman I (600–630 CE) converted from Jainism to Shaivism under the influence of Appar.[172] His work Mattavilasa Prahasana ridicules certain Shaiva sects and the Buddhists and also expresses contempt towards Jain ascetics.[173] Sambandar converted the contemporary Pandya king to Shaivism. During the 11th century, Basava, a minister to the Jain king Bijjala, succeeded in converting numerous Jains to the Lingayat Shaivite sect. The Lingayats destroyed various temples belonging to Jains and adapted them to their use.[174] The Hoysala king Vishnuvardhana (c. 1108–1152 CE) became a follower of the Vaishnava sect under the influence of Ramanuja, after which Vaishnavism grew rapidly in what is now Karnataka.[175] As the Hindu sects grew, the Jains compromised by following Hindu rituals and customs and invoking Hindu deities in Jain literature.[174]

There are several legends about the massacre of Jains in ancient times. The Buddhist king Ashoka (304–232 BCE) is said to have ordered killings of 18,000 Jains or Ajivikas after someone drew a picture of Buddha bowing at the feet of Mahāvīra.[176][177] The Shaivite king Koon Pandiyan, who briefly converted to Jainism, is said to have ordered a massacre of 8,000 Jains after his re-conversion to Shaivism. However, these legends are not found in the Jain texts, and appear to be fabricated propaganda by Buddhists and Shaivites.[178][179] Such stories of destruction of one sect by another sect were common at the time, and were used as a way to prove the superiority of one sect over the other. Another such legend about Vishnuvardhana ordering the Jains to be crushed in an oil mill does not appear to be historically true.[180]

The decline of Jainism continued after the Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent. The Muslims rulers, such as Mahmud Ghazni (1001), Mohammad Ghori (1175) and Ala-ud-din Muhammed Shah Khilji (1298) further oppressed the Jain community.[181] They vandalised idols and destroyed temples or converted them into mosques. They also burned the Jain books and killed Jains. Some conversions were peaceful, however; Pir Mahabir Khamdayat (c. 13th century CE) is well known for his peaceful propagation of Islam.[181][182] As bankers and financiers, the Jains had significant impact on Muslim rulers, but they rarely were able to enter into a political discourse which was framed in Islamic categories.[183] The Jains also enjoyed amicable relations with the rulers of the tributary Vedic Hindu kingdoms during this period; however, their number and influence had diminished significantly due to their rivalry with the Shaivite and Vaisnavite sects.[174]

CommunityEdit

Main article: Jain community

Followers of the path practiced and preached by the jinas are known as Jains.[3][184][185][89] The majority of Jains currently reside in India. With 6-7 million followers worldwide,[186] Jainism is relatively small compared to major world religions. Jains form 0.37% of India's population. Most of the Jains are concentrated in the states of Maharashtra (31.46% of Indian Jains), Rajasthan (13.97%), Gujarat (13.02%) and Madhya Pradesh (12.74%). Karnataka (9.89%), Uttar Pradesh (4.79%), Delhi (3.73%) and Tamil Nadu (2.01%) also have significant Jain populations.[187] Outside of India, large Jain communities can be found in Europe and United States. Smaller Jain communities also exist in Canada[188] and Kenya.[189]

Jains developed a system of philosophy and ethics that had a great impact on Indian culture. They have contributed to the culture and language in the Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Maharashtra.[190]

Jains encourage their monastics to do research and obtain higher education. Monks and nuns, particularly in Rajasthan, have published numerous research monographs. According to the 2001 Indian census, Jains have the highest degree of literacy of any religious community in India (94.1 percent), above the national average of 64.8 percent. The gap between male and female literacy is the lowest among Jains at 6.8% compared to the national average of 21% and work participation among males is also the highest at 55.2%.[191][192] Also, their manuscript libraries are the oldest in the country.[193] Jain libraries, including those at Patan and Jaisalmer, have a large number of well-preserved manuscripts.[193][194]

Schools and branchesEdit

The Jain community is divided into two major denominations, Digambara and Śvētāmbara. Monks of the Digambara ("sky-clad") tradition do not wear clothes. Female monastics of the Digambara sect wear unstitched plain white sarees and are referred to as Aryikas. Śvētāmbara ("white-clad") monastics on the other hand, wear white seamless clothes.[195]

During Chandragupta Maurya's reign, Acharya Bhadrabahu, the last śruta-kevali (all knowing by hearsay, that is indirectly) predicted a twelve-year-long famine and moved to Karnataka with his disciples. Sthulabhadra, a pupil of Acharya Bhadrabahu, stayed in Magadha.[196] After the famine, when followers of Acharya Bhadrabahu returned, they found that those who stayed at Magadha had started wearing white clothes, which was unacceptable to the others who remained naked.[197] This is how the Digambara and Śvētāmbara schism began, with the Digambara being naked while the Svetambara were white clothed.[198] Digambara saw this as being opposed to the Jain tenets which, according to them, required complete nudity. Evidence of gymnosophists ("naked philosophers") in Greek records as early as the fourth century BCE supports the claim of the Digambaras that they have preserved the ancient Śramaṇa practice.[199]

The earliest record of Digambara beliefs is contained in the Prakrit Suttapahuda of the Digambara Acharya, Kundakunda (c. 2nd century CE).[200] Digambaras believe that Mahavira remained unmarried, whereas Śvētāmbara believe that Mahavira married a woman who bore him a daughter.[201] The two sects also differ on the origin of Trishala, Mahavira's mother.[201] The Śvētāmbaras believe women may attain liberation and that the Tirthankara Māllīnātha was female.[202]

Excavations at Mathura revealed Jain statues from the time of the Kushan Empire (c. 1st century CE). Tirthankara represented without clothes, and monks with cloth wrapped around the left arm, are identified as the Ardhaphalaka ("half-clothed") mentioned in texts. The Yapaniyas, believed to have originated from the Ardhaphalaka, followed Digambara nudity along with several Śvētāmbara beliefs.[203]

Jain literatureEdit

Main article: Jain literature
 
Kalpasutra folio on Mahavira Nirvana. Note the crescent shaped Siddhashila, a place where all siddhas reside after Nirvana.
 
A King and a Monk (recto); Text (verso); Folio from an Uttaradhyayana Sutra, LACMA
 
Depiction of Pañca-Parameṣṭhi on Siddhaśilā from the Saṁgrahaṇīratna by Śrīcandra in Prakrit, 17th century British Library

The Digambara sect of Jainism maintains that the Agamas were lost during the same famine in which the purvas were lost. According to the Digambaras, Āchārya Bhutabali was the last ascetic who had partial knowledge of the original canon. Later on, some learned Āchāryas started to restore, compile, and put into written words the teachings of Mahāvīra, that were the subject matter of Aagamas.[204] Āchārya Dharasen, in the first century CE, guided two Āchāryas, Āchārya Pushpadant and Āchārya Bhutabali, to put these teachings in written form. The two Āchāryas wrote, on palm leaves, Ṣaṭkhaṅḍāgama – among the oldest-known Digambara Jain texts. Digambara texts are classified under four heads, namely Pratham-anuyoga,[205] charn-anuyoga,[206] karan-anuyoga and dravya-anuyoga (texts expounding reality, i.e. tattva).[207][208][209]

Some of the most famous Jain texts include Samayasara, Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra, and Niyamasara.[210]

Some scholars believe that the author of the oldest extant work of literature in Tamil (3rd century BCE), the Tolkāppiyam, was a Jain.[211] The Tirukkuṛaḷ by Thiruvalluvar is considered to be the work of a Jain by scholars such as Ka. Naa. Subramanyam,[212] V. Kalyanasundarnar, Vaiyapuri Pillai,[213] and P. S. Sundaram.[214] It emphatically supports vegetarianism in chapter 26 and states that giving up animal sacrifice is worth more than a thousand offerings in fire in verse 259.[215]

The Nālaṭiyār (a famous Tamil poetic work)[216] was composed by Jain monks from South India in 100–500.[217]

The Silappatikaram, the earliest surviving epic in Tamil literature, was written by a Jain, Ilango Adigal.[218] This epic is a major work in Tamil literature, describing the historical events of its time and also of the then-prevailing religions, Jainism, Buddhism and Shaivism.[218]

According to George L. Hart, who holds the endowed Chair in Tamil Studies at the University of California, Berkeley, the legend of the Tamil Sangams or "literary assemblies" was based on the Jain sangham at Madurai: "There was a permanent Jaina assembly called a Sangha established about 604 A.D. in Madurai. It seems likely that this assembly was the model upon which tradition fabricated the Sangam legend."[219]

Jain scholars and poets authored Tamil classics of the Sangam period, such as the Cīvaka Cintāmaṇi[220] and Nālaṭiyār.[216] In the beginning of the mediaeval period, between the 9th and 13th centuries, Kannada authors were predominantly Jains and Lingayatis. Jains were the earliest known cultivators of Kannada literature, which they dominated until the 12th century.[221] Jains wrote about the tirthankaras and other aspects of the faith. Adikavi Pampa is one of the greatest Kannada poets. Court poet to the Chalukya king Arikesari, a Rashtrakuta feudatory, he is best known for his Vikramarjuna Vijaya.[222]

Art and architectureEdit

Main article: Jain art
 
Paintings at the Sittanavasal Cave, 7th century, Pudukottai, Tamil Nadu

Jainism has contributed significantly to Indian art and architecture. Jains mainly depict tirthankara or other important people in a seated or standing meditative posture. Yakshas and yakshinis, attendant spirits who guard the tirthankara, are usually shown with them.[223] Figures on various seals from the Indus Valley Civilisation bear similarity to Jain images, nude and in a meditative posture.[223] The earliest known Jain image is in the Patna museum. It is approximately dated to the 3rd century BCE.[223] Bronze images of Pārśva can be seen in the Prince of Wales Museum, Mumbai, and in the Patna museum; these are dated to the 2nd century BCE.[224]

The Jain tower in Chittor, Rajasthan, is a good example of Jain architecture.[225] Decorated manuscripts are preserved in Jain libraries, containing diagrams from Jain cosmology.[226] Most of the paintings and illustrations depict historical events, known as Panch Kalyanaka, from the life of the tirthankara. Rishabha, the first tirthankara, is usually depicted in either the lotus position or kayotsarga, the standing position. He is distinguished from other tirthankara by the long locks of hair falling to his shoulders. Bull images also appear in his sculptures.[227] In paintings, incidents from his life, like his marriage and Indra's marking his forehead, are depicted. Other paintings show him presenting a pottery bowl to his followers; he is also seen painting a house, weaving, and being visited by his mother Marudevi.[228] Each of the twenty-four tirthankara is associated with distinctive emblems, which are listed in such texts as Tiloyapannati, Kahavaali and Pravacanasaarodhara.[229]

There are 26 caves, 200 stone beds, 60 inscriptions and over 100 sculptures in and around Madurai. This is also the site where Jain ascetics of yesteryear wrote great epics and books on grammar in Tamil.[230]

TemplesEdit

Main article: Jain temple

A Jain temple, Derasar or Basadi is a place of worship for Jains.[231] Jain temples are built with various architectural designs.[232][page needed] There are mainly two type of Jain temples:

There is always a main deity also known as moolnayak in every Jain temple placed inside sanctum called "Gambhara" (Garbha Graha). A Manastambha (column of honor) is a pillar that is often constructed in front of Jain temples.

Remnants of ancient Jain temples and cave temples can be found all around India. Notable among these are the Jain caves at Udaigiri Hills near Bhelsa (Vidisha) in Madhya Pradesh and Ellora in Maharashtra, Palitana temples in Gujarat and the Jain temples at Dilwara Temples near Mount Abu, Rajasthan.[233] Chaumukha temple in Ranakpur is considered one of the most beautiful Jain temple and famous for detailed carvings.[234][235][236]

Shikharji is believed to be the place where twenty of the twenty-four Jain tirthankaras along with many other monks attained Moksha, according to Nirvana Kanda and other texts.[237] Palitana temples is the holiest shrine for the Svetambara Murtipujaka.[238] Along with Shikharji the two sites are considered the holiest of all pilgrimage places by the Jain community.[239]

The Jain complex, Khajuraho and Jain Narayana temple are part of UNESCO World Heritage Site.[240][241] Shravanabelagola, Saavira Kambada Basadi or 1000 pillars and Brahma Jinalaya are important Jain centers in Karnataka.[242][243][244][245]

Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves dates back to 2nd-1st century BCE are dedicated to Jainism are rich with carvings of Jain tirthanakars and deities with inscriptions including Hathigumpha inscription.[246][247] Jain cave temples at Badami cave temples, Mangi-Tungi and Ellora Caves are considered important.[248]

The Sittanavasal Cave temple is regarded as one of the finest examples of Jain art. It is the oldest and most famous Jain centre in the region. It possesses both an early Jain cave shelter, and a medieval rock-cut temple with excellent fresco paintings comparable to Ajantha paintings; the steep hill contains an isolated but spacious cavern. Locally, this cavern is known as Eladipattam, a name that is derived from the seven holes cut into the rock that serve as steps leading to the shelter. Within the cave there are seventeen stone beds aligned into rows, and each of these has a raised portion that could have served as a pillow-loft. The largest stone bed has a distinct Tamil-Brahmi inscription assignable to the 2nd century BCE, and some inscriptions belonging to the 8th century BCE are also found on the nearby beds. The Sittannavasal cavern continued to be the "Holy Sramana Abode" until the 7th and 8th centuries. Inscriptions over the remaining stone beds name mendicants such as Tol kunrattu Kadavulan, Tirunilan, Tiruppuranan, Tittaicharanan, Sri Purrnacandran, Thiruchatthan, Ilangowthaman, sri Ulagathithan and Nityakaran Pattakali as monks.[249]

The 8th century Kazhugumalai temple marks the revival of Jainism in South India.[250]

Statues and sculpturesEdit

Main article: Jain sculpture

Jain sculptures are mainly the images depicting Tirthankaras. The sculpture could depict any of the twenty-four tirthankaras with images depicting Parshvanatha, Rishabhanatha or Mahāvīra being more popular. These tirthankaras are usually depicted in the lotus position or kayotsarga. The idols of Tirthankaras usually have Shrivatsa on their chest.[251] Sculptures of chaumukha (quadruple) image are also popular Jainism. Sculptures of Arihant Bahubali and protector deities like Ambika are also found. Tirthanakar idols looks similar and are differentiated on the basis of symbol belonging to each tirthanakar except Parshvanatha, statues of Parshvanath have snake crown on head. However, there are a few differences in Digambara and Svetambara depiction of idols.[252] Digambara images are naked without any beautification whereas Svetambara ones are clothed and decorated with temporary ornaments.[252]

A monolithic, 18-metre (59-foot) statue of Bahubali, referred to as Gommateshvara, built in 981 AD by the Ganga minister and commander Chavundaraya, is situated on a hilltop in Shravanabelagola in the Hassan district of Karnataka state. This statue was voted as the first in the SMS poll Seven Wonders of India conducted by The Times of India.[253] A Statue of Ahimsa (depicting Rishabhanatha) was erected in Nashik district in 2015 which is 33 m (108 ft) tall.[254] Idols made up from Ashtadhatu, Brass, Monolithic, Rock cut, precious stones are popular in Jainism.

A large number of ayagapata, votive tablets for offerings and the worship of Tīrthankara, were excavated from Kankali Tila, Mathura. These sculptures dated from the 2nd century BC to the 12th century CE.[255]

SymbolsEdit

Main article: Jain symbols
 
The Jain emblem

Swastika
The Swastika is an important Jain symbol. The four arms of the swastika symbolize the four states of existence according to Jainism:[111][256]

  1. Heavenly being (devas)
  2. Human being
  3. Hellish being
  4. Triyancha (subhuman like flora or fauna)

Symbol of Ahimsa
The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes Ahimsa in Jainism with "ahiṃsā" written in the middle. The wheel represents the dharmachakra, which stands for the resolve to halt the saṃsāra through the relentless pursuit of Ahimsa.[257]

Jain emblem
In 1974, on the 2500th anniversary of the nirvana of Mahavira, the Jain community chose one image as an emblem to be the main identifying symbol for Jainism. It consists of three Loks (realms) of Jain cosmology i.e., heaven, material world and hell. The semi-circular topmost portion symbolizes siddhashila, which is a zone beyond the three realms. The three dots on the top under the semi-circle symbolize the Ratnatraya – right belief, right knowledge, and right conduct. The swastika is present in top portion and The Symbol of Ahimsa in the lower portion.[258] The meaning of the mantra at the bottom, Parasparopagraho Jivanam, is "All life is bound together by mutual support and interdependence."[259]

Jain flag

 
Jain Flag

The five colours of the Jain flag represent the "Pañca-Parameṣṭhi" and the five vows, small as well as great:[260]

  • White - represents the arihants, souls who have conquered all passions (anger, attachments, aversion) and have attained omniscience and eternal bliss through self-realization. It also denotes peace or ahimsa (nonviolence).
  • Red - represents the siddha, souls that have attained salvation and truth. It also denotes truthfulness (satya).
  • Yellow - represents the acharya the Masters of Adepts. The colour also stands for non-stealing (achaurya).
  • Green - represents the upadhyaya (adepts), those who teach scriptures to monks. It also signifies chastity (brahmacharya).
  • Black - represents the Jain ascetics. It also signifies non-possession.

Om

 
Om in Jainism

In Jainism, Om is considered a condensed form of reference to the Pañca-Parameṣṭhi, by their initials A+A+A+U+M (o3m). According Dravyasamgraha by Acharya Nemicandra, AAAUM (or just "Om") is one syllable short form of the initials of the five parameshthis: "Arihant, Ashiri, Acharya, Upajjhaya, Muni".[261][262] The Om symbol is also used in ancient Jain scriptures to represent the five lines of the Namokar Mantra.[263]

Ashtamangala

 
Adinath with Ashtamangala according to Digambara tradition
 
Ashtamangala, according to Svetambara tradition, Jain manuscript, 16th century LACMA

The Ashtamangala are a set of eight auspicious symbols. These 8 symbols are different in Digambara & Śvētāmbara tradition.[264]

In the Digambara tradition, the eight symbols are:

  1. Parasol
  2. Dhvaja
  3. Kalasha
  4. Fly-whisk
  5. Mirror
  6. Chair
  7. Hand fan
  8. Vessel

In the Śvētāmbara tradition, the eight symbols are:

  1. Swastika
  2. Srivatsa
  3. Nandavarta
  4. Vardhmanaka (food vessel)
  5. Bhadrasana (seat)
  6. Kalasha (pot)
  7. Darpan (mirror)
  8. Pair of fish

ReceptionEdit

Like all religions,[weasel words] Jainism is both criticized and praised for some of its practices and beliefs.

The Jain theory of Karma has been challenged from an early time by the Vedanta and Sāṃkhya branches of Hindu philosophy. In particular, Vedanta Hindus considered the Jain position on the supremacy and potency of karma, specifically its insistence on non-intervention by any Supreme Being in regard to the fate of souls, as nāstika or atheistic.[265]

Mahatma Gandhi was greatly influenced by Jainism, and he adopted the Jain principles of asceticism, compassion for all forms of life, the importance of vows for self-discipline, vegetarianism, fasting for self-purification, and mutual tolerance among people of different creeds.[266] Mahatma Gandhi said:

No religion in the World has explained the principle of Ahimsa so deeply and systematically as is discussed with its applicability in every human life in Jainism. As and when the benevolent principle of Ahimsa or non-violence will be ascribed for practice by the people of the world to achieve their end of life in this world and beyond. Jainism is sure to have the uppermost status and Mahāvīra is sure to be respected as the greatest authority on Ahimsa.[267]

Swami Vivekananda appreciated the role of Jainism in the development of Indian religious philosophy. In his words, he asks:

What could have saved Indian society from the ponderous burden of omnifarious ritualistic ceremonialism, with its animal and other sacrifices, which all but crushed the very life of it, except the Jain revolution which took its strong stand exclusively on chaste morals and philosophical truths?[268]

See alsoEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ ""Jainism" (ODE)", Oxford Dictionaries 
  2. ^ ""Jainism"(Dictionary.com)", Dictionary.com 
  3. ^ a b Sangave 2006, p. 15.
  4. ^ Dundas 2002, p. 160.
  5. ^ Sethia 2004, p. 2.
  6. ^ Dundas 2002, pp. 176–177.
  7. ^ Umakant P. Shah 1987, p. 20.
  8. ^ a b Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. 34.
  9. ^ Voorst 2015, p. 105.
  10. ^ Dundas 2002, p. 161.
  11. ^ Sangave 1980, p. 260.
  12. ^ Dundas 2002, pp. 162–163.
  13. ^ a b S.A. Jain 1992, p. 197.
  14. ^ Sethia 2004, pp. 166–167.
  15. ^ Jaini 1998, p. 91.
  16. ^ Sethia 2004, pp. 123–136.
  17. ^ Sethia 2004, p. 115.
  18. ^ Sangave 2006, p. 48.
  19. ^ Koller 2000, pp. 400–407.
  20. ^ a b Sangave 2006, pp. 50–51.
  21. ^ Shah 1998b, p. 80.
  22. ^ a b Natubhai Shah 2004, p. 112.
  23. ^ Natubhai Shah 2004, p. 113.
  24. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. 76.
  25. ^ a b c Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. 77.
  26. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. 35.
  27. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2011, p. 100.
  28. ^ a b c d e von Glasenapp 1999, pp. 228–231.
  29. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. 33.
  30. ^ S.A. Jain 1992, p. 208.
  31. ^ Mahajan PT, Pimple P, Palsetia D, Dave N, De Sousa A (January 2013), "Indian religious concepts on sexuality and marriage", Indian J Psychiatry, 55 (Suppl 2): S256–62, doi:10.4103/0019-5545.105547, PMC 3705692 , PMID 23858264 
  32. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. 87–88.
  33. ^ Tukol 1976, p. 5.
  34. ^ Jaini 2000, p. 16.
  35. ^ Tukol 1976, p. 7.
  36. ^ Jaini 1998, p. 227.
  37. ^ Williams 1991, pp. 166–167.
  38. ^ Dundas 2002, p. 177.
  39. ^ Wiley 2009, p. 85.
  40. ^ Ram Bhushan Prasad Singh 2008, pp. 92-94.
  41. ^ Wiley 2009, p. 72.
  42. ^ Natubhai Shah 2004, p. 251.
  43. ^ Voorst 2015, p. 107.
  44. ^ Nayanar (2005b), p. 35 Gāthā 1.29
  45. ^ Vinoda Kapāsī 2007.
  46. ^ Jaini 1998, pp. 180–182.
  47. ^ S.A. Jain 1992, p. 261.
  48. ^ Natubhai Shah 2004, pp. 128–131.
  49. ^ a b c Jaini 1998, p. 190.
  50. ^ Champat Rai Jain 1929b, p. 52.
  51. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. 149–150.
  52. ^ a b c Dalal 2010, p. 164.
  53. ^ Melton 2011, p. 673.
  54. ^ Cort 1995, p. 160.
  55. ^ Natubhai Shah 2004, p. 211.
  56. ^ a b Pechilis & Raj 2013, p. 86.
  57. ^ Pechilis & Raj 2013, p. 85.
  58. ^ Lindsay Jones 2005, p. 4771.
  59. ^ Jaini 1998, pp. 196, 343, 347.
  60. ^ Jaini 1998, pp. 196–199.
  61. ^ Pal 1986, p. 29.
  62. ^ Titze 1998.
  63. ^ Cort 2001, p. 101.
  64. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2013, p. 197.
  65. ^ Dundas 2002, p. 152.
  66. ^ Dundas 2002, pp. 163–164.
  67. ^ Dundas 2002, p. 204.
  68. ^ a b Champat Rai Jain 1929b, p. 15.
  69. ^ Champat Rai Jain 1929b, p. 15–16.
  70. ^ "Dravya - Jainism", Encyclopædia Britannica 
  71. ^ Wiley 2009, p. 91.
  72. ^ a b Champat Rai Jain 1929b, p. 16.
  73. ^ Champat Rai Jain 1930, p. 1.
  74. ^ Jaini 1998, p. 90.
  75. ^ a b Champat Rai Jain 1929b, p. 17.
  76. ^ Champat Rai Jain 1975, pp. 518–520.
  77. ^ von Glasenapp 1999, p. 177.
  78. ^ S.A. Jain 1992, p. 7.
  79. ^ Jaini 1998, pp. 104–106.
  80. ^ a b Jaini 1998, p. 107.
  81. ^ Bailey 2012, p. 108.
  82. ^ Champat Rai Jain 1929b, p. 48.
  83. ^ S.A. Jain 1992, p. 62–63,196.
  84. ^ Shah, R. S. "JAINA MATHEMATICS: LORE OF LARGE NUMBERS." Bulletin of the Marathwada Mathematical Society 10.1 (2009): 43–61.
  85. ^ von Glasenapp 1999, pp. 241.
  86. ^ Shah 1998b, p. 25.
  87. ^ a b von Glasenapp 1999, pp. 178–182.
  88. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2011, p. 46.
  89. ^ a b Upinder Singh 2016, p. 313.
  90. ^ von Glasenapp 1999, pp. 271–272.
  91. ^ a b Dundas 2002, p. 13.
  92. ^ Champat Rai Jain 1929b, p. 124.
  93. ^ a b Dalal 2010, p. 27.
  94. ^ Wiley 2009, p. 5.
  95. ^ a b c von Glasenapp 1999, pp. 134–135.
  96. ^ a b c Dundas 2002, p. 12.
  97. ^ Joseph 1997, p. 178.
  98. ^ Umakant P. Shah 1987, p. 72.
  99. ^ Sangave 2001, p. 106.
  100. ^ Kailash Chand Jain 1991, p. 5.
  101. ^ Jaini 2000, p. 377.
  102. ^ Umakant P. Shah 1987, pp. 73–76.
  103. ^ S.A. Jain 1992, p. 16.
  104. ^ a b Vijay K. Jain 2011, p. 6.
  105. ^ Champat Rai Jain 1924, p. 11.
  106. ^ Champat Rai Jain 1929b, p. 135.
  107. ^ Champat Rai Jain 1929b, p. 136.
  108. ^ von Glasenapp 1999, pp. 109–110.
  109. ^ von Glasenapp 1999, pp. 112–117.
  110. ^ Jaini 1998, pp. 118-119.
  111. ^ a b Cort 2001, p. 17.
  112. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. 18.
  113. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. 165.
  114. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. 36, 165.
  115. ^ S.A. Jain 1992, p. 4.
  116. ^ Jaini 1991, p. 95.
  117. ^ Tatia, Nathmal (1994) p. 274–85
  118. ^ Jaini 1998, p. 272–273.
  119. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2014, p. 14.
  120. ^ a b Champat Rai Jain 1929b, p. 118.
  121. ^ a b c Champat Rai Jain 1929b, p. 119.
  122. ^ Champat Rai Jain 1929b, p. 120.
  123. ^ Sangave 2006, p. 16.
  124. ^ Champat Rai Jain 1929b, p. 121.
  125. ^ S.A. Jain 1992, p. 282–283.
  126. ^ "Gunsthana Stages", jainworld.com 
  127. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2015, p. 175.
  128. ^ Jansma & Jain 2006, p. 28.
  129. ^ Lindsay Jones 2005, p. 4764.
  130. ^ Balcerowicz 2009, p. 16.
  131. ^ Natubhai Shah 2004, pp. 21–28.
  132. ^ a b Zimmer 1953, pp. 182–183.
  133. ^ Sangave 1980, p. 359.
  134. ^ Rankin & Mardia 2013, p. 40.
  135. ^ Balcerowicz 2009, p. 17.
  136. ^ Natubhai Shah 2004, pp. 2–3.
  137. ^ Zimmer 1953, p. 182.
  138. ^ Champat Rai Jain 1917, p. 3.
  139. ^ Rankin & Mardia 2013, p. 975.
  140. ^ von Glasenapp 1999, p. 13.
  141. ^ Zimmer 1953, pp. x, 180–181.
  142. ^ von Glasenapp 1999, p. 15.
  143. ^ Sangave 2001, p. 131.
  144. ^ Radhakrishnan 1923, p. 287.
  145. ^ Lala Jain 2002, p. 114.
  146. ^ The Cultural Heritage of India (PDF), I 
  147. ^ Jacobi, Hermann, James Hastings, ed., Jainism IN Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, 7, p. 465 
  148. ^ von Glasenapp 1999, pp. 16–17.
  149. ^ Zimmer 1953, pp. 183.
  150. ^ Dundas, Paul (2013), Jainism, Encyclopædia Britannica 
  151. ^ Jaini 1998, p. 10.
  152. ^ Zimmer 1953, p. 59.
  153. ^ Cort 2010, p. 202.
  154. ^ Ghadai, Balabhadra (July 2009), "Maritime Heritage of Orissa" (PDF), Orissa Review 
  155. ^ von Glasenapp 1999, p. 41.
  156. ^ von Glasenapp 1999, p. 42.
  157. ^ Cort 2010, p. 199.
  158. ^ Cort 2010, p. 199–200.
  159. ^ von Glasenapp 1999, p. 44.
  160. ^ Champat Rai Jain 1929a, p. 67.
  161. ^ Tobias 1991, p. 100.
  162. ^ a b von Glasenapp 1999, p. 45.
  163. ^ Dundas 2002, pp. 113, 201.
  164. ^ von Glasenapp 1999, p. 52.
  165. ^ Cort 1998, p. 87.
  166. ^ Asoke Kumar Majumdar 1956, p. 119.
  167. ^ von Glasenapp 1999, p. 53.
  168. ^ a b Natubhai Shah 2004, pp. 69–70.
  169. ^ von Glasenapp 1999, p. 69.
  170. ^ Bleeker & Widengren 1971, p. 352.
  171. ^ von Glasenapp 1999, p. 70.
  172. ^ Lochtefeld 2002, p. 409.
  173. ^ Arunachalam 1981, p. 170.
  174. ^ a b c von Glasenapp 1999, pp. 75–77.
  175. ^ Das 2005, p. 161.
  176. ^ Block 2012, p. 116.
  177. ^ James Jones 2008, p. 82.
  178. ^ Phuoc 2010, p. 32.
  179. ^ K.A. Nilakanta Sastri 1976, p. 424.
  180. ^ Smith 1920, p. 203.
  181. ^ a b von Glasenapp 1999, pp. 74–75.
  182. ^ Emperor Akbar (1542–1605) gave up eating meat after being inspired by Jains, and several Mughal emperors were polite and kind to them.
  183. ^ Cort 1998, p. 86.
  184. ^ Shanti Lal Jain 1998, p. 11.
  185. ^ Jansma & Jain 2006, p. 15.
  186. ^ Melton & Baumann 2010, p. lix.
  187. ^ Office of registrar general and census commissioner (2011), C-1 Population By Religious Community, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India 
  188. ^ Wiley 2009, p. 43.
  189. ^ Mugambi 2010, p. 108.
  190. ^ Sangave 2001, p. 13.
  191. ^ Census 2001 Data on religion released, Government of India 
  192. ^ "Jains steal the show with 7 Padmas", The Times of India, 9 April 2015 
  193. ^ a b Dundas 2002, p. 83.
  194. ^ Guy, John (January 2012), "Jain Manuscript Painting", The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Heilburnn Timeline of Art History 
  195. ^ Dundas 2002, p. 45.
  196. ^ Clarke & Beyer 2009, p. 326.
  197. ^ Dundas 2002, p. 47.
  198. ^ von Glasenapp 1999, p. 46.
  199. ^ Zimmer 1953, p. 210.
  200. ^ Jaini 1991, p. 3.
  201. ^ a b Natubhai Shah 2004, pp. 73–74.
  202. ^ Vallely 2002, p. 15.
  203. ^ Jaini 2000, p. 167.
  204. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. xii.
  205. ^ Jaini 1998, p. 78.
  206. ^ Jaini 1998, p. 79.
  207. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2016.
  208. ^ Jaini 1998, p. 81.
  209. ^ von Glasenapp 1999, p. 124.
  210. ^ Jaini 1991, p. 32–33.
  211. ^ Singh 2001, p. 3144.
  212. ^ Subramanyam, Ka. Naa. (1987), Tiruvalluvar and his Tirukkural (1 ed.), New Delhi: Bharatiya Jnanpith 
  213. ^ Tirukkural, Vol. 1, S.M. Diaz, Ramanatha Adigalar Foundation, 2000,
  214. ^ The Kural, P. S. Sundaram, Penguin Classics, 1987
  215. ^ W.H.Drew and John Lazarus. "Thirukkural English Translation", Asian Educational Services, Chennai, p. 56
  216. ^ a b Dundas 2002, p. 116–117.
  217. ^ Pollock 2003, p. 293.
  218. ^ a b Adigal 1965, p. VIII.
  219. ^ The Milieu of the Ancient Tamil Poems, Prof. George Hart, 9 July 1997, archived from the original on 9 July 1997 
  220. ^ Cort 1998, p. 163.
  221. ^ Cort 1998, p. 164.
  222. ^ von Glasenapp 1999, p. 134.
  223. ^ a b c Shah 1998b, p. 184.
  224. ^ Umakant P. Shah 1987, p. 95.
  225. ^ Owen 2012, pp. 1-2.
  226. ^ Shah 1998b, p. 183.
  227. ^ Shah 1998b, p. 113.
  228. ^ Jain & Fischer 1978, p. 16.
  229. ^ Shah 1998b, p. 187.
  230. ^ S. S. Kavitha (31 October 2012), "Namma Madurai: History hidden inside a cave", The Hindu 
  231. ^ "Basadi", kamat.com 
  232. ^ Singhvi & Chopra 2002.
  233. ^ Barik, Bibhuti (22 June 2015), "Plan to beautify Khandagiri – Monument revamp to attract more tourists", The Telegraph, Bhubaneswar 
  234. ^ Sehdev Kumar 2001.
  235. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/11166701.cms
  236. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/tours/partners/riviera-travel/rajasthan-the-taj-mahal-and-amritsar-s-golden-temple/
  237. ^ Hachette India 2013, p. 123.
  238. ^ Peter 2010, p. 352.
  239. ^ "Murtipujakas, Jainism", Encyclopedia of World Religions (PHILTAR), University of Cambria 
  240. ^ UNESCO 
  241. ^ UNESCO 
  242. ^ Butalia, Tarunjit Singh, Religion in Ohio: Profiles of Faith Communities, Ohio University Press, ISBN 9780821415511 
  243. ^ Chugh, Lalit, Karnataka's Rich Heritage - Art and Architecture, ISBN 978-93-5206-825-8 
  244. ^ Bright, P.S., General Knowledge Digest, Bright publications, p. 465 
  245. ^ Jain, Surendranath Shripalji, Bahubali of Jainbadri (Shravanabelagola) and Other Jain Shrines of Deccan, S.D.J.M.I. Managing Committee 
  246. ^ "Source", proel.org 
  247. ^ Upinder Singh 2016, p. 460.
  248. ^ Owen 2012, p. 50.
  249. ^ S. S. Kavitha (3 February 2010), "Preserving the past", The Hindu 
  250. ^ "Arittapatti inscription throws light on Jainism", The Hindu, 15 September 2003 
  251. ^ Arora, p. 405.
  252. ^ a b Cort 2010.
  253. ^ "And India's 7 wonders are", The Times of India, 5 August 2007 
  254. ^ Botekar, Abhilash (4 December 2015), "70-crore plan for idol installation at Mangi-Tungi", The Times of India, Nashik, TNN 
  255. ^ Jain & Fischer 1978, pp. 9–10.
  256. ^ Jansma & Jain 2006, p. 123.
  257. ^ "Jain Symbols", religious-symbols.net 
  258. ^ "Symbols in Jainism: Meaning and Significance", speakingtree.in 
  259. ^ Sangave 2001, p. 123.
  260. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. iv.
  261. ^ "Om - significance in Jainism, Languages and Scripts of India, Colorado State University", cs.colostate.edu 
  262. ^ von Glasenapp 1999, pp. 410-411.
  263. ^ "Namokar Mantra", digambarjainonline.com 
  264. ^ Titze 1998, p. 234.
  265. ^ G.C. Pandey 1978, p. 1.
  266. ^ Rudolph & Rudolph 1984, p. 171.
  267. ^ Janardan Pandey 1998, p. 50.
  268. ^ Dulichand Jain 1998, p. 15.

SourcesEdit

External linksEdit