Padmavati (Jainism)

Padmāvatī is the protective goddess or śāsana devī (शासनदेवी) of Pārśvanātha (phonetic: Parshwanath), the twenty-third Jain tīrthāṅkara, complimenting Parshwa yaksha, the shasan deva.[1] She is a yakshi (attendant goddess) of Parshwanatha.[2]

Padmavati, 10th century, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Personal information

Jain BiographyEdit

There is another pair of souls of a nāga and nāginī who were saved by Parshwanath while being burnt alive in a log of wood by the tapas kamath, and who were subsequently reborn as Indra (Dharanendra in particular) and Padmavati (different from sashan devi) after their death.[3] According to the Jain tradition, Padmavati and her husband Dharanendra protected Lord Parshvanatha when he was harassed by Meghmali.[4][5] After Padmavati rescued Parshvanatha grew subsequently powerful in to yakshi, a powerful tantric deity and surpassed other snake goddess Vairotya.[6]



9th century Padmavati relief in Chitharal Jain Monuments

Goddess Padmavati along with Ambika, Chakreshvari are held as esteemed deities and worshipped in Jains along with tirthankaras.[7][8] Ambika and Padmavati are associated with tantric rituals. Both Padmavati and Dharanendra are revered exclusively as powerful intercessor deities.[1] These tantric rites involves yantra-vidhi, pitha-sthapana and mantra-puja.[9][6] Friday of every week is particularly popular day to worship the Goddess.[10]

In literatureEdit

  • Bhairava-Padmavati-Kalpa written by Mallisena in 12th century is tantric text to worship Padmavati. The text discusses rites connected with Padmavati, namely, stambha, vasya, akarsana, nimitta-jnana, garuda tantra etc.[11]
  • Adbhuta-Padmavati-Kalpa is Shvetambar text composed by Shri Chandra Suri, 12th century.[11]
  • Padmavati-astaka composed by Shvetambar scholar Parshvadeva gani is commentary of various tantric rites.[11]
  • Padmavati-catusadika composed by Jinaprabha suri.[11]
  • Padmavati-Pujanama, Padmavati-strota, Padmavati-sahasra-nama-strota, Rakta-Padmavati-Kalpa are tantric text dedicated to Padmavati.[11]


A snake's hood covers her head, and she sits on a lotus flower. Often a small image of the Lord Parshvanatha is placed in her crown. She may be depicted as four-armed, carrying noose and rosary (japa mala), elephant goad, lotus and a fruit.[4] Yaksha-Yakshi pair sculptures of Padmavati Ambika and Dharanendra are one of the most favoured along with Gomukha-Chakreshwari and Sarvahanabhuti-Ambika.[12]

Main templesEdit

See alsoEdit



  1. ^ a b Cort 2010, p. 186.
  2. ^ Cort 1987, pp. 235–255.
  3. ^ Babb 1996, p. 33.
  4. ^ a b Jain & Fischer 1978, p. 21.
  5. ^ Sūri, Raval & Shah 1987, p. 267.
  6. ^ a b Shah 1987, p. 221.
  7. ^ Krishna 2014, p. 68.
  8. ^ Chawdhri 1992, p. 128.
  9. ^ Tiwari 1989, p. 29.
  10. ^ Dundas 2002, pp. 213–214.
  11. ^ a b c d e Shah 1987, p. 277.
  12. ^ Tiwari 1989, p. 13.


External linksEdit