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Padmāvatī is the protective goddess or śāsana devī (शासनदेवी) of Pārśvanātha (phonetic: Parshwanath), the twenty-third Jain tīrthāṅkara, complimenting Parshwa yaksha, the shasan deva.[1] She is a yakshi (attendant goddess) of Parshwanatha.[2]

Padmavati, 10th century, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Personal information

Jain BiographyEdit

There is another pair of souls of a nāga and nāginī who were saved by Parshwanath while being burnt alive in a log of wood by the tapas kamath, and who were subsequently reborn as Indra (Dharanendra in particular) and Padmavati (different from sashan devi) after their death.[3] According to the Jain tradition, Padmavati and her husband Dharanendra protected Lord Parshvanatha when he was harassed by Meghmali.[4][5]



Goddess Padmavati along with Ambika, Chakreshvari are held as esteemed deities and worshipped in Jains along with tirthankaras.[6][7] Ambika and Padmavati are associated with tantric rituals. These tantric rites involves yantra-vidhi, pitha-sthapana and mantra-puja.[8][9]

In literatureEdit

  • Bhairava-Padmavati-Kalpa are tantric text to worship Ambika.[8]


A snake's hood covers her head, and she sits on a lotus flower. Often a small image of the Lord Parshvanatha is placed in her crown. She may be depicted as four-armed, carrying noose and rosary (japa mala), elephant goad, lotus and a fruit.[4] Yaksha-Yakshi pair sculptures of Padmavati Ambika and Dharanendra are one of the most favoured along with Gomukha-Chakreshwari and Sarvahanabhuti-Ambika.[10]

Main templesEdit

See alsoEdit



  1. ^ Cort 2010, p. 186.
  2. ^ Medieval Jaina Goddess Traditions, p. 235-255.
  3. ^ Babb 1996, p. 33.
  4. ^ a b Jain & Fischer 1978, p. 21.
  5. ^ Sūri, Raval & Shah 1987, p. 267.
  6. ^ Krishna 2014, p. 68.
  7. ^ Chawdhri 1992, p. 128.
  8. ^ a b Tiwari 1989, p. 29.
  9. ^ Shah 1987, p. 221.
  10. ^ Tiwari 1989, p. 13.


  • Shah, Umakant P. (1987), Jaina Iconography, Abhinav Publications, pp. 267–, ISBN 978-81-7017-208-6
  • Jain, Jyotindra; Fischer, Eberhard (1978), Jaina Iconography, BRILL, pp. 21–, ISBN 978-90-04-05259-8
  • Cort, John (2010), Framing the Jina: Narratives of Icons and Idols in Jain History, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780199739578
  • Babb, Lawrence A. (1996), Absent Lord: Ascetics and Kings in a Jain Ritual Culture, University of California Press, ISBN 9780520203242, retrieved 22 September 2017
  • Tiwari, Dr. Maruti Nandan Prasad (1989), Ambika in Jaina Art and Literature, Bharatiya Jnanpith
  • Krishna, Nanditha (2014), Sacred Plants of India, Penguin UK, ISBN 9789351186915
  • Chawdhri, L. R. (1992), Secrets of Yantra, Mantra and Tantra, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd, ISBN 9781845570224
  • Babb, Lawrence (1996). Absent lord : ascetics and kings in a Jain ritual culture. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520917088. OCLC 43476107.
  • Jain, Jyotindra; Fischer, Eberhard (1978). Jaina iconography. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9004052607.
  • Sūri, Padmasundara; Raval, D. P; Shah, Nagin J (1987). Padmasundarasūriviracita Yadusundaramahākāvya (in Sanskrit). Ahamadābād: Lālabhāī Dalapatabhāī Bhāratīya Saṃskṛti Vidyāmadira.
  • Cort, John (1 January 1987). "Medieval Jaina Goddess Traditions". Numen. 34 (2doi=10.1163/156852787X00047). ISSN 1568-5276.