Jabalpur

Jabalpur (formerly Jubbulpore) is a tier 2 city in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. According to the 2011 census, it is the third-largest urban agglomeration in Madhya Pradesh and the country's 37th-largest urban agglomeration. Jabalpur is an important Administrative, Industrial and Business center of Madhya Pradesh. It is a major education hub in India. The Madhya Pradesh High Court and other important Administrative Headquarters of India and Madhya Pradesh are situated in Jabalpur. It is generally accepted that the game of Snooker originated in Jabalpur.[8] Jabalpur is the administrative headquarters of Jabalpur district (the second-most-populous district in Madhya Pradesh) and the Jabalpur division. The city is known for the marble rocks on the river Narmada at Bhedaghat.

Jabalpur
Jubbulpore
MP HIGH COURT JABALPUR - panoramio.jpg
Jabalpur Engineering College (JEC)'s Admin Building.jpg
Dhuandhar Waterfalls.jpg
From top: MP High Court, Jabalpur Engineering College & Dhuandhar Waterfall
Nickname(s): 
Sanskaar Dhaani, Tripur Tirth
Jabalpur is located in Madhya Pradesh
Jabalpur
Jabalpur
Location of Jabalpur in India
Jabalpur is located in India
Jabalpur
Jabalpur
Jabalpur (India)
Coordinates: 23°10′N 79°56′E / 23.167°N 79.933°E / 23.167; 79.933Coordinates: 23°10′N 79°56′E / 23.167°N 79.933°E / 23.167; 79.933
CountryIndia
StateMadhya Pradesh
DistrictJabalpur
Government
 • TypeMayor–Council
 • BodyJabalpur Municipal Corporation
 • MayorSwati Godbole
 • District MagistrateKarmveer Sharma IAS [1]
 • Municipal commissionerChandramauli Shukla
 • MPRakesh Singh
Area
 • Metropolis367 km2 (142 sq mi)
Elevation
412 m (1,352 ft)
Population
 (2011)[3][4][5]
 • Metropolis1,267,564
 • Rank37th
 • Density3,390/km2 (8,800/sq mi)
 • Metro1,444,667
 • Metro rank 37th
37th
DemonymsJabalpurians, Jabalpuriya, Jabalpurites
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
482001 to 482011
Telephone code+91-761
ISO 3166 codeIN-MP
Vehicle registrationMP-20
Sex ratio929 /
Average Literacy Rate82.13%
Official languageHindi[7]
Websitehttps://jabalpur.nic.in/en/

EtymologyEdit

According to a prevalent theory, Jabalpur was named after a sage named Jabali, who meditated on the banks of the Narmada river. Another theory suggests an Arabic origin of the word since jabal in Arabic means granite boulders or huge boulders, which were common in the region. According to a fringe theory, the name refers to Jauli Pattala, a sub-divisional unit, mentioned in Kalachuri inscriptions. Jauli also refers to the Huna queen of the Kalachuri king, Karna. It was spelled as Jubbulpore during British rule.[9]

In 2006, the Jabalpur Municipal Corporation renamed the city to Jabalpur.[10]

HistoryEdit

Mythology describes three Asuras (evil spirits) in the Jabalpur region, who were defeated by the Hindu god Shiva. Tripurasura being the main asura, gave the city its puranic name Tripur Tirth.[11] Tripuri region corresponds to the ancient Chedi Kingdom of Mahabharata times, to which king Shishupala belongs.

Ashokan relics dating to 300 BCE have been found in Rupnath, 84 kilometres (52 mi) north of the city, indicating the presence of the Mauryan Empire (322 to 185 BCE) in the region.[11] When the empire fell, Jabalpur became a city-state before coming under the rule of the Satavahana dynasty (230 BCE to 220 CE). After their reign, the region was ruled locally by the Bodhis and the Senas, following which it became a vassal state of the Gupta Empire (320 to 550).[11]

From 675 to 800, the region was ruled by Bamraj Dev of the Kalachuri Dynasty from Karanbel. The best known Kalachuri ruler was Yuvraj Dev I (r. 915–945), who married Nohla Devi (a princess of the Chalukya dynasty).

One of the Kalachuri ministers, Golok Simha Kayastha, was instrumental in founding the Chausath Yogini Temple near Bhedaghat. His descendants include Bhoj Simha, who was the Dewan to Sangramsahi (r. 1491–1543); Dewan Adhar Simha, who was the prime minister to Rani Durgavati (r. 1550–1564), and Beohar Raghuvir Sinha, the last Jagirdar of Jabalpur who reigned until 1947.

Gondwana ruleEdit

 
Rani Durgavati preparing for the battle of Narrai; fresco by Beohar Rammanohar Sinha in Jabalpur's Shaheed-Smarak

The Gondwana king, Raje Madan Shah Madawi of Mandla, (r. 1138–1157) built a watchtower and a small hilltop fort at Madan Mahal, an area in Jabalpur. In the 1500s, the Gond king, Sangram (whose son, Raje Dalpat Shah Madawi married Rani Durgavati) held Singaurgarh fort in Sangrampur. Rani Durgawati was a warrior of the Gond Dynasty, known for her prosperous kingdom. She was well aware of the importance of water conservation and hence she built more than 85 ponds in Jabalpur, mainly Ranital, Haathital, Madhatal and Hanumantal.[12]

In 1564, during the reign of Veer Narayan (Sangram's grandson), Abdul Majeed Harawi (viceroy of Kara-Manikpur in the Mughal Empire) conquered Jabalpur and its surrounding areas. However, the Mughal supremacy in Jabalpur was more nominal than real.

In 1698, the Gondwana king, Raje Hriday Shah (r. 1652–1704) moved his court to the Mandla fort. He secured water sources and built irrigation structures. Later, Gondwana was seized by Nizam (r. 1753–1780). After Nizam, the Gondwana Kingdom was conquered by the Marathas.

Maratha ruleEdit

The Maratha rulers of Sagar, came to power in about 1781. Around 1798, the Maratha Peshwa gave the Nerbuddah valley to the Bhonsle kings of Nagpur, who ruled the area until 1818, when it was seized by the British East India Company after the Battle of Sitabuldi.

ClimateEdit

Jabalpur
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
19
 
 
24
8
 
 
16
 
 
28
11
 
 
16
 
 
34
16
 
 
5
 
 
39
21
 
 
11
 
 
42
26
 
 
169
 
 
38
26
 
 
382
 
 
31
24
 
 
458
 
 
29
23
 
 
188
 
 
31
23
 
 
39
 
 
32
19
 
 
12
 
 
29
12
 
 
11
 
 
25
9
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: IMD

Jabalpur has a humid subtropical climate typical of north-central India (Madhya Pradesh and southern Uttar Pradesh). Summer begins in late March, lasting until June. May is the hottest month, with an average temperature exceeding 40 °C (104 °F). Summer is followed by the southwest monsoon, which lasts until early October and produces 889 mm (35 in) of rain from July to September. The average annual precipitation is nearly 1,386 mm (54.6 in). Winter begins in late November and lasts until early March. January is the coldest month, with an average daily temperature near 15 °C (59 °F).

Climate data for Jabalpur Airport (1981–2010, extremes 1901–2011)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.4
(92.1)
37.6
(99.7)
41.1
(106.0)
45.4
(113.7)
46.7
(116.1)
46.1
(115.0)
41.7
(107.1)
38.4
(101.1)
35.8
(96.4)
37.9
(100.2)
35.8
(96.4)
33.2
(91.8)
46.7
(116.1)
Average high °C (°F) 24.6
(76.3)
27.8
(82.0)
33.4
(92.1)
38.5
(101.3)
41.1
(106.0)
37.7
(99.9)
31.3
(88.3)
29.8
(85.6)
31.1
(88.0)
31.7
(89.1)
28.9
(84.0)
25.7
(78.3)
31.8
(89.2)
Average low °C (°F) 10.6
(51.1)
13.2
(55.8)
17.8
(64.0)
22.9
(73.2)
27.1
(80.8)
26.8
(80.2)
24.6
(76.3)
24.0
(75.2)
23.5
(74.3)
20.0
(68.0)
14.5
(58.1)
10.8
(51.4)
19.6
(67.3)
Record low °C (°F) 1.1
(34.0)
0.0
(32.0)
3.3
(37.9)
10.6
(51.1)
17.2
(63.0)
19.0
(66.2)
20.6
(69.1)
18.3
(64.9)
16.7
(62.1)
6.8
(44.2)
3.9
(39.0)
0.6
(33.1)
0.0
(32.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 21.9
(0.86)
24.6
(0.97)
14.9
(0.59)
4.8
(0.19)
11.4
(0.45)
168.0
(6.61)
376.6
(14.83)
401.9
(15.82)
220.9
(8.70)
30.2
(1.19)
10.1
(0.40)
6.0
(0.24)
1,291.4
(50.84)
Average rainy days 1.8 1.6 1.2 0.5 1.2 7.4 14.3 14.9 9.0 2.0 0.7 0.6 55.2
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 49 37 25 19 21 47 73 79 70 53 51 51 48
Source: India Meteorological Department[13][14]

DemographicsEdit

Religions in Jabalpur district[15]
Religion Percent
Hindu
86.75%
Muslim
8.27%
Jain
1.37%
Christian
0.94%
Sikh
0.54%
No religion stated
0.21%
Buddhist
0.18%
Others†
0.85%
Distribution of religions
Population Growth Since 2011 Census[16]
Year Population
2011
1,268,848
2012
1,295,000
2013
1,320,000
2014
1,360,000
2015
1,385,000
2016
1,400,000
2017
1,440,000
2018
1,450,000

In the 2011 India census, the Jabalpur city (the area covered by the municipal corporation) recorded a population of 1,081,677.[4] The Jabalpur metropolitan area (urban agglomeration) recorded a population of 1,268,848.[5]

 
Bada Fuhara and Kamania Gate in the heart of old Jabalpur city

EconomyEdit

The Narmada river bringing in freshwater from the Vindyachal Ranges has developed Jabalpur district into an agrarian economy. The land of the Narmada basin with its fertile alluvial soil gives good yields of sorghum, wheat, rice, and millet in the villages around Jabalpur. Important among commercial crops are pulses, oilseeds, cotton, sugar cane, and medicinal crops. The state is poised for a breakthrough in soybean cultivation. In Kharif crops occupy 60% and Rabi crops 40% area with 71.4% area under food grain production. Nearly 59% of landholders are marginal whereas small farmed share 18% of farmland. Low literacy rates (35.45%), undulating topography, high percentages of wasteland (13.2%), underdeveloped irrigation potential (23%), low groundwater utilization, a large proportion of rain-fed agriculture (75%), the practice of Kharif fallows (3.6%), low cropping intensity (131%), low fertilizer consumption (50 kg/ha), a high proportion of low-value crops, and high numbers of unproductive livestock constrain production in the state.

Jabalpur has a variety of industries largely based in mineral substances of economic value found in the district, although the ready-made garments industry is a substantial portion of production in Jabalpur.

Defence establishments started in the early 20th century. Jabalpur has Vehicle Factory Jabalpur, Grey Iron Foundry, Gun Carriage Factory Jabalpur and Ordnance Factory Khamaria which belong to the Ordnance Factories Board manufacturing various products for the Indian Armed Forces. The Gun Carriage Factory was started in the year 1904 is well equipped and manufacture gun parts, mounting, shells, and a variety of the other product for war purposes. Vehicle Factory Jabalpur (VFJ) was started as a manufacturer of trucks and other defence vehicles. The other two are Grey Iron Foundry (GIF) and Ordnance Factory Khamaria (OFK).

Armed forces make up a large portion of the city and economy in this city. The city has three regimental centres: Grenadiers, Jammu and Kashmir rifles and the Signals regiment. Jabalpur is also the army headquarters of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, and Orissa. Jabalpur is an important divisional headquarters, having eight districts: Jabalpur, Seoni, Mandla, Chhindwara, Narsimhapur, Katni, Dindori, Balaghat. The Jabalpur District has been reconstituted on May 25, 1998. It now has four tehsils Jabalpur, Sihora, Patan, and Kundam. Jabalpur also has the headquarters of the Madhya Pradesh State Electricity Board, Homeguards, and many other state and central government offices. There are seven blocks in the district with 1449 inhabited villages, 60 uninhabited, 1209 revenue villages, and 4 forest villages. The presence of several industries in Jabalpur bolstered the industrial scenario of the city. However, the industrial growth of the area owes much to the defense establishments and the four ordnance factories.

The presence of the military base and the ordnance factories have improved the infrastructure of the city. This has boosted the industrial development of Jabalpur. The important industries in Jabalpur are:

  • Readymade garments units
  • Poultry/hatchery
  • Electrical goods industry
  • Sawmills
  • Wood cutting industry
  • Industries relating to limestone products
  • Building materials
  • Glassware
  • Telephone parts
  • Furniture making industry
  • Shaw Wallace Gelatin Factory
  • Steel structures works
  • Cement industries
  • Commercial Engineers & Body Builders Co Limited [CEBBCO ]
  • Tobacco business
  • Retail business
  • Food processing industry
  • Vendors for Coca-Cola India & Parle

GDP ($US) : 12.2 billion

Information technology and parkEdit

M.P. State Electronics Development Corporation Ltd. has setup an I.T. park (Techno Park)[17] in Bargi Hills having total area of 60 acres, 22KM from the Jabalpur airport. Paytm started their operations at Jabalpur in 2018.[18]

Government and public servicesEdit

Civic administrationEdit

Jabalpur covers an area of 263 square kilometres (102 sq mi).[2] The Jabalpur Municipal Corporation (JMC), is charged with governance of the city's civic and infrastructural assets. The corporation has two wings: deliberative and executive. The head of the executive wing is a municipal commissioner who is responsible for the corporation's day-to-day operation and assists the deliberative wing in the decision-making process. The JMC council has one elected representative (corporate) from each ward. Council elections, by popular vote, are held every five years. A corporate from the majority party is selected as mayor.

Jabalpur contributes one member to the Lok Sabha. Rakesh Singh of Bharatiya Janata Party had been elected as the Member of Parliament in the 2019 Lok Sabha election.[19] The city sends eight members to the State Legislative Assembly: four from the city (Jabalpur Purba, Jabalpur Uttar, Jabalpur Cantonment and Jabalpur Paschim) and four from rural areas of the district. Jabalpur is divided into eight zones, each consisting of several wards.

Division headquartersEdit

Jabalpur is the divisional headquarters for eight districts: Jabalpur, Seoni, Mandla, Chhindwara, Narsinghpur, Katni, Dindori and Balaghat. The district, which was reconstituted on 25 May 1998, has seven tehsils: Jabalpur, Sihora, Patan, Majhouli, Shahpura, Panagar and Kundam. The city is the headquarters of the Madhya Pradesh State Electricity Board, the Home-guards and other state and central-government offices.

Military establishmentsEdit

The Jabalpur Cantonment is one of the largest cantonments in India.[20] In addition to the ordnance factories, other organisations present in the city include HQ Madhya Bharat Area, the Jammu & Kashmir Rifles Regimental Centre, the Grenadiers Regimental Centre, 1 Signal Training Centre, College of Material Management, Central Ordnance Depot, 506 Army Base Workshop, Military Hospital, HQ Chief Engineer Jabalpur Zone, Military Dairy Farm, and HQ Recruiting Zone. Civilian organisations which are part of the Ministry of Defence are the Cantonment Board, Controller of Defence Accounts, Defence Standardisation Cell and the Canteen Stores Department.

CultureEdit

CuisineEdit

Sweets in Jabalpur's local delicacy include Doodh ka Halwa, Kalakand, Bhaji Wada, Dal Mangode, Aloo Bonda, Khoye ki Jalebi,[21] Mawa-Bati, Khoprapak, Shrikhand, Malpua, Imarti and Makkhanvada.[22] Khoye ki Jalebi, which is quite popular in Madhya Pradesh,[22] was invented by Harprasad Badkul in 1889 at his shop, Badkul Halwai.[23][24][25]

TourismEdit

Jabalpur is an important tourism city in Madhya Pradesh and central India. Notable sites in Jabalpur include Hanumantal Bada Jain Mandir, Jabalpur Madan Mahal, Dhuandhar Falls, Chausta -Yogini, various ghat and Marble Rocks in Bhedaghat, Balancing rock near Madan Mahal Fort and the Shiv Statue at Kachnar City. The world-renowned tiger reserves like Kanha National Park, Bandhavgarh National Park, and Pench National Park can be easily visited via Jabalpur.

Hanumantal Bada Jain Mandir is a 17th-century Jain temple that appears like a fortress with numerous shikharas. The temple has 22 shrines (vedis), making it the largest independent Jain temple in India. Madan Mahal is a fort built by the Gondi king Madansahi in 1116 which is situated atop a hill in Jabalpur. Kachnar city in Jabalpur is known for a 23-metre-high (76 ft) Shiva statue housing a cavern with replicas of Shiva lingas from 12 shrines nationwide.[26] The city also houses the Rani Durgawati Museum which was built in 1964 to commemorate Rani Durgavati. The museum hosts ancient relics, sculptures and a collection of items related to Mahatma Gandhi. Dumna Nature Reserve Park is an ecotourism site open to the public which is located in the Jabalpur district. It houses the Khandari Dam, which is a source of drinking water to the city and has many crocodiles. The Bargi Dam Reservoir near Jabalpur is known for boat rides.

Tourist attractions in Jabalpur also include the boat rides on the Narmada river, which is 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) away from the city, specially in moonlight. The journey through Narmada reveals the Marble Rocks, where the river has carved the soft marble, creating a gorge of about 8 km in length, and the Dhuandhar falls, which is one of the most visited tourist destinations in Jabalpur.[citation needed] Lamheta Ghaat[27] and Tilwara Ghaat[28] are well-knownGhats on the banks of Narmada River.[citation needed] The Tilwadeshwar temple is located near the Tilwara Ghat and it is also the place where Gandhi's ashes were immersed.

Other tourist destinations near the city include Chausath Yogini Temple, Bhedaghat Fall,[29] Bhadbhada fall,[30] Gughra Fall,[31] Osho Amritdham,[32] Pisanhari Ki Madiya which is a historic Jain pilgrimage near Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Medical College,[33] and Nandishwardeep Jain temple.

TransportEdit

AirEdit

The nearest airport is Jabalpur.

 
Airport terminal building

The 130-hectare (310-acre) Jabalpur Airport (JLR), also known as Dumna Airport, is about 20 kilometres (12 mi) away from the city centre.

Rail Edit

 
Railway Station

Jabalpur Junction railway station, headquarters of the West Central Railway, is located within the city.

Jabalpur city has the divisional headquarters of the railways besides having the zonal headquarter of the West Central Railway (WCR). The boundaries of divisional headquarters extend up to Itarsi Junction station in the south, Bina Junction station in the north, Manikpur Junction station and Riwa station in the North East and Singaroli station in the east. All these railway lines are broad gauge lines. A narrow-gauge line was existing between Jabalpur to Gondia station which is presently under conversion to broad gauge. After completion, this line will provide direct connectivity to Nagpur Junction station. The zonal headquarters include three divisions namely Jabalpur division, Bhopal Division and Kota division.[34][citation needed]

Road Edit

Jabalpur is connected by road to Varanasi, Damoh, Sagar, Nagpur, Bhopal, Jaipur, Kota, Raipur, Allahabad, Hyderabad, Bilaspur and Bangalore. National Highway 30 connects it to Allahabad, Lucknow. National Highway 34 connects it to Kanpur.

EducationEdit

 
St. Aloysius Senior Secondary School established in the year 1868 is among the oldest schools in India

Jabalpur became a centre of higher education by the end of the 19th century, with institutions such as the Hitkarini Sabha, established by local citizens in 1868,[35] and Robertson College (now bifurcated into the Government Science College, Jabalpur, and Mahakoshal Arts & Commerce College) was established in Sagar in 1836 and moved to Jabalpur in 1873.[36] Government Engineering College, Jabalpur was the first technical institution in Central India to be established by the British. IIITDM Jabalpur was founded in 2005. Scholars, authors and politicians such as Ravishankar Shukla, Rajneesh, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and Gajanan Madhav Muktibodh had been in Jabalpur for some time in their life.

Jabalpur is known for many universities such as Rani Durgavati University (also called the University of Jabalpur), Madhya Pradesh Medical Science University, Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University, Nanaji Deshmukh Veterinary Science University and Dharmashastra National Law University, Jabalpur, Indian Council of Medical Research-NIRTH.

Jabalpur also hosts a Government Medical College named Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Medical College.

MediaEdit

Several television news channels have branches in the city. Various cable operators operate digital cable TV system in city.[37]

NewspapersEdit

National and local newspapers are published in Jabalpur in Hindi and English:

Newspaper Language Founded
Naiduniya Hindi 1947
Patrika Hindi 2009
Nava Bharat Hindi 1934
Deshbandhu Hindi 1959
Hari Bhoomi Hindi 1996
The Times of India English 1838
Hindustan Times English 1924
Hindustan Hindi
The Hitavada English 1911
Business Standard English, Hindi 1975
Dainik Bhaskar Hindi 1958
Yash Bharat Hindi 2006

RadioEdit

Radio stations in Jabalpur include:

Name Frequency (MHz) Tagline
Red FM 93.5 Bajaate raho
MY FM 94.3 Jiyo Dil se!
Radio Mirchi 98.3 Its Hot!
Radio orange 106.4 Dhinchak
Akashvani 102.9

Akashvani Jabalpur broadcasts on 801 kHz AM with a 200 kW transmitter.

SportsEdit

The city has two stadiums: Wright Town Stadium and Rani Tal Stadium. It is generally accepted that while serving at Jabalpur in 1875, Colonel Sir Neville Chamberlain developed a new variation of black pool by introducing coloured balls into the game in the British Army officer's mess. This game was later dubbed snooker.[8]

Notable people and residentsEdit

Historical icons

Movie and TV personalities

Armed Forces Officers

Civil Servants

Politicians

Business

Spiritual gurus

Journalists

Engineers

Doctors

Authors and Poets

Sportspersons

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Who's Who | District Administration Jabalpur, Government of Madhya Pradesh | India". Who's Who. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  2. ^ a b "Jabalpur City" (PDF). Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  3. ^ "District Census Handbook, Indore" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 May 2016. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  4. ^ a b "Jabalpur district" (PDF). 2011 Census of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  5. ^ a b "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 November 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
  6. ^ "Presentation on Towns and Urban Agglomerations". Census of India 2011. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
  7. ^ "52nd Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India" (PDF). nclm.nic.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  8. ^ a b "The History of Snooker". Titansports.co.uk. Archived from the original on 17 December 2002. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
  9. ^ "MP Trail: When two Britishers disagreed on the name of Jabalpur". www.telegraphindia.com. 27 November 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  10. ^ "Now, Indore to become Indur, Bhopal Bhojpal". The Times of India. 18 December 2006. Archived from the original on 28 October 2009. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
  11. ^ a b c Jabalpur City Guide. Archived 18 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine Goodearth Publications, 2008 p8. ISBN 9788187780731.
  12. ^ "Gondwana rulers". Archived from the original on 7 October 2017.
  13. ^ "Station: Jabalpur Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 339–340. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  14. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M120. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  15. ^ "Jabalpur District Religion Data - Census 2011". www.census2011.co.in. Archived from the original on 6 September 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  16. ^ "Major Agglomerations of the World - Population Statistics and Maps". www.citypopulation.de. Archived from the original on 13 September 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  17. ^ "M.P. State Electronics Development Corporation Ltd". MPSEDC.
  18. ^ "Nai Duniya Newspaper". Nai Duniya Newspaper. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
  19. ^ "Jabalpur Election Results 2019 Live Updates: Rakesh Singh of BJP Wins". News18. 23 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  20. ^ "Jabalpur Cantonment Board". Jabalpur Cantonment Board. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  21. ^ "7 Must Have Dishes From Madhya Pradesh You Just Cannot Miss". HolidayIQ. Archived from the original on 18 October 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  22. ^ a b "10 Sweets that You can't afford to miss while you're travelling around Madhya Pradesh! - MP Travelogue". MP Travelogue. Archived from the original on 18 October 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  23. ^ Siddhantacharya Phulachandra Shastri, Parwar Jain Samaj ka Itihas, 1990, Jabalpur, p. 418
  24. ^ "Sugar rush: TravelKhana to deliver sweets to train passenger, DNA, 18 Mar 2016". 18 March 2016. Archived from the original on 24 March 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  25. ^ "Tasty dishes you must try from these lesser known corners of India". www.msn.com. Archived from the original on 18 October 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  26. ^ "Jabalpur". Jabalpur Tourism Promotion Council. Jabalpur Tourism Promotion Council. Archived from the original on 19 April 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
  27. ^ "Lamheta Ghat". Archived from the original on 19 October 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  28. ^ "Tilwara Ghat". Archived from the original on 19 October 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  29. ^ "Bhedaghat Water Fall". Archived from the original on 19 October 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  30. ^ "Bhadbhada Waterfall". Archived from the original on 19 October 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  31. ^ "Ghughra Fall". Archived from the original on 19 October 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
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