2019 Indian general election
The 2019 Indian general election was held in seven phases from 11 April to 19 May 2019 to constitute the 17th Lok Sabha. The votes were counted and result was declared on 23 May. About 900 million people were eligible to vote and voter turnout was over 67 per cent – the highest ever as well as the highest participation by women voters.[note 2]
543[note 1] (of the 545) seats in the Lok Sabha
272 seats needed for a majority
Seat results by constituency. As this is a FPTP election, seat totals are not determined by popular vote, but instead by the result in each constituency.
The Bharatiya Janata Party won 303 seats, further increasing its substantial majority and the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance won 353 seats. The Indian National Congress won 52 seats, and the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance won 91. Other parties and their alliances won 98 seats.
Legislative assembly elections in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha and Sikkim were held simultaneously with the general election, as well as by-elections to twenty two seats of the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly.
- 1 Election system
- 2 Election schedule
- 3 Campaigning
- 3.1 Issues
- 3.2 Campaign controversies
- 3.3 Party campaigns
- 3.4 Party Manifestos
- 3.5 Campaign finance
- 4 Parties and alliances
- 5 Voter statistics
- 6 Opinion polls, exit polls and seat projections
- 7 Results
- 8 Aftermath
- 9 Timeline
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
All 543 elected MPs are elected from single-member constituencies using first-past-the-post voting. The President of India appoints an additional two members from the Anglo-Indian community if he believes that community is under-represented.
Eligible voters must be Indian citizens, 18 or older than 18, an ordinary resident of the polling area of the constituency and registered to vote (name included in the electoral rolls), possess a valid voter identification card issued by the Election Commission of India or an equivalent. Some people convicted of electoral or other offences are barred from voting.
The election was scheduled to be held in seven phases. In Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, the election was held in all seven phases. The polling for the Anantnag constituency in the state of Jammu and Kashmir was held in three phases due to violence in the region.
|Election dates and number of constituencies|
|Phase 1||Phase 2||Phase 3||Phase 4||Phase 5||Phase 6||Phase 7|
|11 April||18 April||23 April||29 April||6 May||12 May||19 May|
|Jammu and Kashmir||6||2||2||1⁄3[n 1]||1⁄3[n 1]||11⁄3[n 1]|
|Tamil Nadu||39||38[n 2]|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||1||1|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||1||1|
|Daman and Diu||1||1|
|Total constituencies by end of phase||542||91||186||3021⁄3||3732⁄3||424||483||542[n 2]|
|% complete by end of phase||17%||34%||56%||69%||78%||89%||100%|
Rescheduled voting, cancellations
- Vellore, Tamil Nadu: Over ₹11 crore (US$1.6 million) in cash was seized in Vellore from DMK leaders – a regional party in Tamil Nadu. According to The News Minute, this cash is alleged to have been for bribing the voters. Based on the evidence collected during the raids, the Election Commission of India cancelled 18 April election date in the Vellore constituency. The DMK leaders have denied wrongdoing and alleged a conspiracy.
- Tripura East, Tripura: The Election Commission of India deferred polling from 18 to 23 April due to the law and order situation. The poll panel took the decision following reports from the Special Police Observers that the circumstances were not conducive for holding free and fair elections in the constituency.
Allegations of undermining institutions
The opposition parties have accused the NDA government is destroying democratic institutions and processes. Modi denied and blamed Congress and the communists for undermining institutions including the police, CBI and the CAG, and cited the murder of BJP activists in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh. The Congress party, other opposition parties and a group of retired civil servants have accused the ECI as being compromised and as endorsing the model code of conduct violations by Narendra Modi and other BJP political leaders during their campaign. Another group of 81 retired civil servants, judges and academics disputed these allegations, made counter-allegations, and stated that the ECI acted fairly and similarly in alleged violations by either side. The group states that such political attacks on the ECI are a "deliberate attempt to denigrate and delegitimise the democratic institutions".
According to The Times of India, the major economic achievements of the incumbent NDA government include an inflation rate less than 4 per cent, the GST reform, the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code. Its programs, in recent years, that have positively touched many among the Indian masses, include the Jan Dhan Yojana, rural cooking gas and electricity for homes. According to the IMF, the Indian economy has been growing in recent years, its GDP growth rate is among the highest in the world for major economies, and India is expected to be the fastest growing major economy in 2019–2020 and 2020–2021, with real GDP projected to grow at 7.3 per cent. The GDP growth data has been disputed by a group of Indian social scientists, economists and the political opposition's election campaign, while a group of Indian chartered accountants has defended the data, the GDP calculation methodology, and questioned the motivations of those disputing the recent Indian GDP statistics.
The opposition's election campaign has claimed that both the demonetisation and GST law have "seriously hit small business, farmers and casual labour", states The Times of India. The incumbent has claimed that they inherited a country from the previous Congress-led government that was "a legacy of policy paralysis, corruption and economic fragility", and that the BJP-led government policies have placed India on better economic fundamentals and a fast gear. Modi claims that his government pursued demonetisation in the national interest, his government has identified and de-registered 338,000 shell companies, identified and recovered ₹130,000 crore (US$19 billion) in black money since 2014, and almost doubled India's tax base. The Congress party disputes the incumbents' claims, and has alleged that BJP offices have "become hubs of creating black money", and seeks a judicial inquiry into the Rafale deal with France and BJP's role in corruption.
National security and terrorism
In response to the 2019 Pulwama attack, the Indian Air Force conducted airstrikes inside Pakistan — for the first time since the 1971 Indo-Pak war. The ongoing conflict with Pakistan became a significant factor in the election. The opposition parties accused of politicising the army, whilst the BJP countered their accusations by stating that such allegations raised by them were adversely affecting the morale of armed forces.
According to the Pew Research Center, both before and after the outbreak of recent India-Pakistan tensions, their 2018 and 2019 surveys suggest that the significant majority of the voters consider Pakistan as a "very serious threat" to their country, and terrorism to be a "very big problem".
According to the Pew Research Center, a majority of Indian voters consider the lack of employment opportunities as a "very big problem" in their country. "About 18.6 million Indians were jobless and another 393.7 million work in poor-quality jobs vulnerable to displacement", states the Pew report.
A report on unemployment prepared by the National Sample Survey Office's (NSSO's) periodic labour force survey, has not been officially released by the government. According to Business Today, this report is the "first comprehensive survey on employment conducted by a government agency after Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced demonetisation move in November 2016". According to this report, the 2017–2018 "usual status"[note 3] unemployment rate in India is 6.1 per cent, which is a four-decade high.[note 3] The government has claimed that the report was not final. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO) – a United Nations agency, unemployment is rising in India and the "unemployment rate in the country [India] will stand at 3.5 percent in 2018 and 2019 – the same level of unemployment seen in 2017 and 2016", instead of dropping to 3.4 percent as it had previously projected. According to the ILO's World Employment Social Outlook Report, the unemployment rate in India has been in the 3.4 to 3.6 percent range over the UPA-government led 2009–2014 and the NDA-government led 2014–2019 periods.
Opposition parties have claimed in their election campaign that the unemployment in India has reached crisis levels. The NDA government has denied the existence of any job crisis. Prime minister Narendra Modi claimed that jobs are not lacking but the accurate data on jobs has been lacking.
The opposition has attacked the NDA government's performance with the NSSO reported 6.1 percent unemployment data. Modi and his government have questioned this job statistics report, stating that "most surveys that try to capture unemployment rate are skewed since these did not cover the unorganised sector, which accounts for 85–90 per cent of jobs [in India]".
Agrarian and rural distress
The Congress party campaign has highlighted "agrarian distress" as an election issue. The BJP campaign has highlighted that the Congress party had been in power for five generations of the Nehru dynasty and its past promises and campaign issues have been empty. It claims that the recent farmer loan waivers by Congress have not reached "even 10% of the farmers" nor has it helped the financial situation of the farmers. BJP highlights that its "Kisan Samman Nidhi" helps the small farmers at the time of seed planting through a direct deposit of ₹6000 to their accounts. The opposition has accused this as being an attempt to lure voters.
According to The Times of India, a group of farmer associations have demanded that the 2019 election manifesto of competing political parties should promise to "keep agriculture out of the World Trade Organization (WTO)" and that the interests of Indian farmers must not be compromised in global trade treaties. They have also demanded loan waivers and income support for the agriculture sector. According to the Business Standard and the United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization, India has witnessed record crop harvests in recent years including 2017 when its farmers grew more foodgrains than ever before. However, the farmers consider the "low remunerative prices" they receive in the free market to be too low and a need for the Indian government to establish higher minimum support prices for agricultural products. These farmers consider this an issue for the 2019 general elections.
The BJP has highlighted that the Congress party has relied on Nehru's dynasty for leadership since India's independence, its lack of internal party institutions and claimed that whenever Congress has been in power, the freedom of press and Indian government institutions have "taken a severe beating". During the election campaign, its leaders have mentioned the Emergency of 1975, the nepotism, corruption and widespread abuses of human rights under the Congress rule in the past. Congress-led alliance leader H. D. Kumaraswamy – the son of a former prime minister of India and the current chief minister of Karnataka, has countered that "India developed because of dynasty politics", stating that "dynasty politics are not the main issue, rather country's problems are". The Congress has alleged hypocrisy by the BJP, claiming that the BJP itself forms alliances with dynasty-based parties such as the Akali Dal in Punjab, and that family relatives of senior BJP leaders such as Rajnath Singh and Arun Jaitley have been in politics too.
According to an IndiaSpend report published by the BloombergQuint, the smaller and regional parties such as the Jammu and Kashmir National Conference, Lok Jan Sakti Party, Shiromani Akali Dal, Biju Janata Dal and Samajwadi Party have higher densities of dynasty-derived candidates and elected representatives in recent years. While both the Congress and the BJP have also nominated candidates from political dynasties, states the report, the difference between them is that in Congress "top party leadership has been handed down from generation to generation within the same [Nehru Gandhi dynasty] family", while there has been a historic non-dynastic diversity in the top leadership within the BJP. According to the report, while BJP has also nominated candidates from political dynasties, its better public relations operation "can leap to its defence when attacked on the same grounds". In contrast to the IndiaSpend report, analysis of Kanchan Chandra, a prominent professor of Politics, of the 2004, 2009 and 2014 general elections included a finding that the Congress party has had about twice or more dynastic parliamentarians than the BJP at those elections, and higher than all major political parties in India except the Samajwadi Party.[note 4] Many of these dynastic politicians in India who inherit the leadership positions have never held any jobs and lack state or local experience, states Anjali Bohlken – a professor and political science scholar, and this raises concerns of rampant nepotism and appointments of their own friends, relatives and cronies if elected. The BJP has targeted the Congress party in the 2019 elections for alleged nepotism and a family dynasty for leadership.
Income tax raids
In April 2019, raids conducted by the Income Tax Department found bundles of unaccounted for cash amounting to ₹281 crore (US$41 million), along with liquor and documentary evidence in premises of people with close connections to Madhya Pradesh chief minister Kamal Nath of the Congress. Modi has highlighted this evidence to attack the Congress in its election campaign, alleging corruption is part of Congress party's culture.
Social media abuses and fake news
According to The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, the election had attracted a systematic attempt to spread misinformation through social media. Facebook said that over a hundred of these advocacy accounts spreading disinformation were traced to "employees of the Pakistani military public relations wing". Some others have been linked to the INC and BJP.
Political parties spent over ₹53 crore (US$7.7 million) with the largest spending by BJP on digital platforms for online ads. The BJP placed 2,500 ads on Facebook while the Congress placed 3,686 ads. According to a study by Vidya Narayanan and colleagues at the Oxford Internet Institute, social media was used by all the major parties and alliances, and all of them linked or posted divisive and conspiratorial content and images. According to Narayanan, "a third of the BJP's images, a quarter of the INC's images, and a tenth the SP-BSP's images were catalogued as divisive and conspiratorial". The Narayanan et al. study added that "we observed very limited amounts of hate speech, gore or pornography in either platform samples" by BJP, Congress or SP-BSP, but the election did include proportionally more polarising information on social media than other countries except for the US presidential election in 2016.
About 50,000 fake news stories were published during the recent Lok Sabha elections and shared 2 million times, according to a study conducted by fact-checking startup Logically.
NaMo TV and Modi biopic
According to The Financial Times and other news sources, on 31 March 2019, the cable and satellite operators – such as Tata Sky, DishTV, and Videocon – added a new "NaMo TV" channel to the dozens of news and entertainment channels they already offer. Further, independently, a Bollywood biopic named "PM Narendra Modi" starring Vivek Oberoi was due for release in early April. The NaMo TV channel exclusively focuses on replaying Narendra Modi's speeches, the live coverage of rallies by Modi and key leaders of the Bharatiya Janata Party, and presenting the incumbent government's initiatives and achievements in the last five years to the audience that chooses to tune to the channel. The election time Bollywood biopic, states The Financial Times, is "adulatory, which depicts his [Modi's] rise from humble origins as the son of a railway station tea-seller to a strongman who vows to avenge Pakistani terror attacks".
The Indian opposition led by the Congress Party and activists opposed to the incumbent Bharatiya Janata Party have expressed outrage and alleged that it violates India's election laws and the regulations on "broadcast channels" under the Programme Codes of the Cable TV Act of 1994. The Bharatiya Janata Party and its supporters claim that this is an exercise of the "Right to Free Speech" protected by the Article 19 of the Indian Constitution, a means to address the bias against them and to communicate directly to the voters. They also claim that the NaMo TV does not violate any regulations or laws, as similar "Direct-to-Home (DTH) operator channels" have already been distributed by cable and satellite operators in the past since 2006. Others state that the audience has a choice to ignore or tune into the channel, and "only Modi's most devoted loyalists were likely to tune in". However, they state that if the BJP pressures public facilities and commercial establishments to show it exclusively during the elections then that would lead to abuse. The Congress Party and activists have filed a complaint to the Indian Election Commission, demanding that the NaMo TV channel be stopped. The Election Commission announced on 12 April that any content broadcast on the NaMo TV must be pre-approved by its committee, and only pre-certified content can be broadcast. On 13 April 2019, the BJP submitted the contents of NaMo TV to the Election Commission designated "certification and monitoring committee" for its review and pre-certification. The Election Commission ruled on 19 April 2019, that live speeches of Narendra Modi and other BJP leaders can be broadcast on NaMo TV as well as Twitter platform tweets can be broadcast by Rahul Gandhi and Congress leaders during the silence period. However, neither should mention the constituency or candidates covered by the silence period immediately prior to the polling date.
EC actions under Article 324
- 12 January 2019 – Prime Minister Modi launched the BJP's election campaign.
- 14 February 2019 – The INC president Rahul Gandhi launched his campaign from Lal Dungri village in Gujarat's Dharampur.
- 24 March 2019 – The Aam Aadmi Party began its campaign in Delhi.
- 2 April 2019 – The Trinamool Congress party launched its campaign from Dinhata, Coochbehar.
- 7 April 2019 – Bahujan Samaj Party and Samajwadi Party began campaigning together as an alliance (Mahagathbandhan) along with regional parties such as the Rashtriya Lok Dal. Their first joint campaign started in Deoband in Saharanpur district of Uttar Pradesh.
Highlights of the Congress manifesto
- Introduce a Nyuntam Aay Yojana welfare program wherein ₹72,000 (US$1,000) per year will be transferred directly to the bank account of a woman-member in each family in the poorest 20 percent households.
- Create 1 million "Seva Mitra" jobs in rural and urban local government bodies. Fill all 400,000 central government vacancies before March 2020, and encourage state governments to fill their 2,000,000 vacancies. Enact a law that requires all non-government controlled employers with over 100 employees to implement an apprentice program.
- Enact a permanent National Commission on Agricultural Development and Planning and introduce a "Kisan Budget" (Farmer Budget) in the parliament every year. Waive all farmer loans in all states with any amounts outstanding.
- Enact a Right to Homestead Act that will provide free land to every household that does not own a home.
- Enact a Right to Healthcare Act and guarantee every citizen free diagnostics, free medicines, free hospitalisation, and free out-patient care. Double spending on healthcare to 3 percent of its GDP by 2024.
- Double spending on education to 6 percent of its GDP by 2024.
- Revise the national GST law from three tax tiers to a single moderate rate of tax. Reduce taxes on exported products to zero. Exempt from the GST essential goods and services that are currently not exempt. Enact a new Direct Taxes Code.
- Augment and rapid construction of national highways. Modernise Indian railway infrastructure. Promote green energy. Manufacturing promotion.
- Increase defence spending.
- Enact a National Election Fund, wherein public funds will be distributed to recognised political parties to run their campaign
- Preserve special status and special rights to natives of Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370 and 35A.
- Amend the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958. End the Sedition law (Section 124A of the Indian Penal Code).
Highlights of the BJP manifesto
- Double farmer incomes by 2022 by completing all major and micro-irrigation infrastructure projects, opening adequate markets and modern farm produce storage centres, implement minimum price supports for farmer produce, farmer loans and all-weather rural roads. Introduce a pension bill for small and marginal farmers to provide social security after 60 years of age.
- Bring all secondary schools under the national board quality purview. Invest ₹100,000 crore (US$14 billion) in higher education, open new and increase seats at existing engineering, management and law schools. Establish skills and innovations centre at block-level in every town. Enhance higher education opportunities for women by introducing financial support and subsidies programs. Source 10 percent of government procurement from companies with more than 50 percent female employees.
- Ensure a pucca (lit. brick-solid, modern) house, safe potable water, toilet, LPG gas cylinder, electricity, and banking account for every family. Reduce the percentage of families living under the poverty line to a single digit by 2024.
- Double the length of national highways. Improve fuel quality by mandating 10 percent ethanol in petrol. Scale renewable energy capacity to 175 GW.
- Electrify and convert to broad gauge all railway tracks.
- Establish 150,000 health and wellness centres. Start 75 new medical colleges. Raise doctor-to-population ratio to 1:1400. Triple childcare facilities. Achieve 100 percent immunisation of all babies.
- Raise India's ranking further in "ease of doing business". Double exports, introduce single-window compliance procedures for all businesses.
- Reduce air pollution by eliminating all crop residue burning.
- Digitise paperwork and proceedings, modernise the courts.
- Launch and promote a National Digital Library with e-books and leading journals to provide free knowledge accessible to all students. Launch a "Study in India" program to bring foreign students to institutes of higher education.
- Zero tolerance for terrorism, fund resources to strengthen national security, guarantee veterans, and soldier welfare, modernise police forces.
- End special status and special rights to natives of Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370 and 35A.
Other national and regional parties have released their manifestos too:
- The Tamil Nadu-based regional parties AIADMK and DMK released their manifesto on 18 March 2019, with each promising to release the seven Tamils jailed after being found guilty for their role in the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi, a former Congress party leader and prime minister of India. The AIADMK promised to press for the political rights of the Tamil people in the Eelam region of Sri Lanka, while the DMK has promised Indian citizenship to all Sri Lankan expats. According to the Deccan Herald, the AIADMK has promised a cash transfer of ₹18,000 (US$260) per year to "all families below the poverty level, destitute women, widows without income, differently-abled, landless agricultural labourers, rural and urban manual labourers and destitute senior citizens". The AIADMK also promised to raise the tax exemption limit and revisions to the GST law. The DMK promised a probe into Rafale fighter jet deal, and a plan to distribute free sanitary napkins to working women along with starting martial arts schools for girls.
- Biju Janata Dal (BJD) released its manifesto on 9 April 2019. It promised a ₹100,000 (US$1,400) zero-interest crop loan to farmers every year, a ₹500,000 (US$7,200) zero-interest loan to women-run self-help groups, 75 percent jobs reservation in Odisha-based companies to Odisha youth, free education to all girls and a marriage assistance grant of ₹25,000 (US$360) to daughters of poor families. It also promised to complete two expressways.
- Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPIM) manifesto promised to raise the minimum wage to ₹216,000 (US$3,100) per year, an old age pension of ₹72,000 (US$1,000) per year and universal public distribution of 35 kilograms of foodgrains per family. It also stated the restoration of inheritance tax and an increase in the taxes on individuals and corporations. It also promised spending 6 per cent of GDP on education, enacting a Right to Free Health Care with 3.5 per cent of GDP on health in the short term and 5 per cent in the long term, introduction of price controls on essential drugs, breaking monopoly of drug multinationals, as well as enact a Right to Guaranteed Employment in urban areas.
- Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) promised to open talks with Pakistan on terrorism. It also promised to expand trade and political relationship with Russia, and seek to weaken Russia's ties with China and Pakistan.
- Samajwadi Party promised an annual pension of ₹36,000 (US$520) to poor families in a form of a cash transfer to women. It has also proposed a new property tax of 2 percent on homes valued above ₹25,000,000 (US$360,000) as well as raising income taxes on the affluent. It also promised to create 100,000 new jobs every year.
- Telugu Desam Party released its manifesto on 5 April 2019. It promised zero-interest loans to farmer without any caps, a grant of ₹15,000 (US$220) per year to each farmer as investment support, a grant of ₹100,000 (US$1,400) to each family with a daughter in the year of her marriage, an unemployment allowance of ₹3,000 (US$43) for any youth who has completed intermediate education, and free laptops to all students at the intermediate level.
- AITMC's manifesto was released on 27 March 2019. It promised a judicial probe into demonetisation, a review of GST law, and sought to bring back the Planning Commission. It also promised free medical care, expanding the "100-day work scheme" currently operating in India to "200-day work scheme" along with a pay increase.
- Aam Aadmi Party released its manifesto on 25 April 2019 promising full statehood for Delhi to give the Delhi government control over police and other institutions. The manifesto promised 85 per cent reservations in the Delhi-based colleges and jobs for the voters of Delhi and their families.
Several organisations have offered varying estimates for the cost of election campaign. The Centre for Media Studies in New Delhi estimates the election campaign could exceed $7 billion. According to the Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR), an election watchdog, in the financial year 2017–18 BJP received ₹4,370,000,000 (US$63 million), about 12 times more donations than Congress and five other national parties combined.
The electoral bonds in denominations ranging from 1,000 rupees to 10 million rupees ($14 to $140,000) can be purchased and donated to a political party. The bonds don't carry the name of the donor and are exempt from tax.[note 5] Factly – an India data journalism portal, traced the electoral bond donations for 2018 under India's Right to Information Act. According to Factly, electoral bonds worth about ₹10,600,000,000 (US$150 million) were purchased and donated in 2018. According to Bloomberg, this accounted for 31.2 percent of political donations in 2018, while 51.4 percent of the total donated amount were each below ₹20,000 (US$290) and these too were from unknown donors. About 47 percent of the donations to political parties were from known sources. Between 1 January and 31 March 2019, donors bought ₹17,100,000,000 (US$250 million) worth of electoral bonds and donated. The spending in elections boosts national GDP, and the 2009 election spending contributed about 0.5 percent to GDP.
According to Centre for Media Studies, the BJP spent over Rs 28,000 crore (or 45 per cent) of the Rs 60,000 crore spent by all political parties during the polls. Congress questions BJP over its poll expenditure 
Parties and alliances
With the exception of 2014, no single party has won the majority of seats in the Lok Sabha since 1984, and therefore, forming alliances is the norm in Indian elections.
There were five main national pre-poll alliances. They are the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) headed by the BJP, the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) headed by the INC, Mahagathbandhan (or Grand Alliance), or MGB, Federal Front headed by All India Trinamool Congress, and the left front of Communist-leaning parties. Given the volatile nature of coalition politics in India, alliances may change during and after the election.
The INC has not formed an alliance in states where it is in direct contest with the BJP. These states include Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh. It has formed alliances with regional parties in Jammu and Kashmir, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Jharkhand, and Kerala.
In January 2019, Bahujan Samaj Party and Samajwadi Party announced a grand alliance (Mahagathbandhan) to contest 76 out of the 80 seats in Uttar Pradesh leaving two seats, namely Amethi and Rae Bareli, for INC and another two for other political parties.
More than 650 parties contested in these elections. Most of them were small with regional appeal. The main parties are the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Indian National Congress (INC).It was the first time when BJP (437) contested more seats than Congress (421) in the Lok Sabha elections.
Altogether 8,039 candidates are in the fray for 542 parliamentary constituencies, i.e., 14.8 candidates per constituency on an average, according to PRS India, an NGO.
About 40% of the candidates fielded by Prime Minister Narendra Modi's Bharatiya Janata Party have a criminal case against them. Key opposition party Congress is not far behind with 39% of the candidates with criminal charges, according to Association of Democratic Reforms analysis.
|Parties||States/UTs||Seats contested||Seats won|
|Aam Aadmi Party||Andaman & Nicobar Islands||1||35||0||1||4||-3|
|NCT OF Delhi||7||0|
|All Jharkhand Students Union (AJSU)||Jharkhand||1||1||0||+1|
|All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||22||1||37||-36|
|All India Majlis-E-Ittehadul Muslimeen||Bihar||1||3||0||2||1||+1|
|All India Trinamool Congress||Andaman & Nicobar Islands||1||62||0||22||34||-12|
|All India United Democratic Front||Assam||3||1||3||-2|
|Apna Dal (Soneylal)||Uttar Pradesh||2||2||0||+2|
|Bahujan Samaj Party||Andaman & Nicobar Islands||1||0||10||0||+10|
|Dadra & Nagar Haveli||1||0|
|Daman & Diu||1||0|
|Jammu & Kashmir||2||0|
|NCT OF Delhi||5||0|
|Bharatiya Janata Party||Andaman & Nicobar Islands||1||436||0||303||282||+21|
|Dadra & Nagar Haveli||1||0|
|Daman & Diu||1||1|
|Jammu & Kashmir||6||3|
|NCT OF Delhi||7||10|
|Biju Janata Dal||Odisha||21||12||20||-8|
|Communist Party Of India||Andhra Pradesh||2||49||0||2||1||+1|
|Communist Party Of India (MARXIST)||Andhra Pradesh||2||69||0||3||9||-6|
|Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||24||23||0||+23|
|Independent||Andaman & Nicobar Islands||9||3443||0||4||3||+1|
|Dadra & Nagar Haveli||4||1|
|Daman & Diu||1||0|
|Jammu & Kashmir||36||0|
|NCT OF Delhi||43||0|
|Indian National Congress||Andaman & Nicobar Islands||1||421||1||52||44||+8|
|Dadra & Nagar Haveli||1||0|
|Daman & Diu||1||0|
|Jammu & Kashmir||5||0|
|NCT OF Delhi||7||0|
|Indian Union Muslim League||Andhra Pradesh||3||9||0||3||2||+1|
|Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (NC)||Jammu & Kashmir||3||3||0||+3|
|Janata Dal (Secular)||Arunachal Pradesh||2||9||0||1||2||-1|
|Janata Dal (United)||Bihar||17||25||0||16||2||+14|
|Jammu & Kashmir||1||0|
|Jharkhand Mukti Morcha||Bihar||4||13||0||1||2||-1|
|Lok Janshakti Party||Bihar||6||6||6||0|
|Mizo National Front (MNF)||Meghalaya||1||1||0||+1|
|Naga People's Front||Manipur||1||1||0||+1|
|National People's Party||Arunachal Pradesh||1||19||0||1||1||0|
|Nationalist Congress Party||Assam||2||34||0||5||6||-1|
|Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party (NDPP)||Nagaland||1||1||0||+1|
|Rashtriya Loktantrik Party||Rajasthan||1||1||0||+1|
|Revolutionary Socialist Party||Kerala||1||6||1||1||1||0|
|Samajwadi Party||Andhra Pradesh||2||49||0||5||5||0|
|Shiromani Akali Dal||Punjab||10||2||4||-2|
|Dadra & Nagar Haveli||2||0|
|Jammu & Kashmir||3||0|
|Sikkim Krantikari Morcha||Sikkim||1||1||0||+1|
|Telangana Rashtra Samithi||Telangana||16||9||11||-2|
|Telugu Desam Party||Andhra Pradesh||25||3||15||-12|
|Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi||Andhra Pradesh||3||7||0||1||0||+1|
|Yuvajana Sramika Rythu Congress Party||Andhra Pradesh||25||22||8||+14|
|All India N.R. Congress||Puducherry||1||0||1||-1|
|Pattali Makkal Katchi||Tamil Nadu||7||1||-1|
|Rashtriya Janata Dal||Bihar||19||21||4||-4|
|Rashtriya Lok Samta Party||Bihar||5||3||-3|
|Sikkim Democratic Front||Sikkim||1||1||-1|
|Indian National Lok Dal||Haryana||10||2||-2|
|Aap Aur Hum Party||Bihar||1||0||0|
|Aam Adhikar Morcha||Bihar||4||5|
|Akhil Bhartiya Apna Dal||Bihar||1||5|
|Adim Bhartiya Dal||Haryana||1|
|Akhil Bhartiya Gondwana Party||Madhya Pradesh||4||5|
|Akhil Bharat Hindu Mahasabha||Jharkhand||1||5|
|Akhil Bhartiya Mithila Party||Bihar||1|
|Akhil Bhartiya Jharkhand Party||Jharkhand|
|Akhil Bharatiya Jan Sangh||Bihar||1||6|
|NCT OF Delhi||1|
|Akhil Bharatiya Muslim League (Secular)||Karnataka||1||2|
|Akhil Bharatiya Manavata Paksha||Maharashtra||1||2|
|NCT OF Delhi||1|
|Akhil Bhartiya Navnirman Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Atulya Bharat Party||NCT OF Delhi||1||2|
|Aajad Bharat Party (Democratic)||Madhya Pradesh||2||6|
|Akhil Bharatiya Sena||Maharashtra||1|
|Akhil Bhartiya Sarvadharma Samaj Party||Maharashtra||1|
|Andhra Chaitanya Party||Andhra Pradesh||1|
|Adarshwaadi Congress Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Adhunik Bharat Party||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Aadarsh Janata Sewa Party||Haryana||1|
|Ahila India Dhayaga Makkal Munnetra Katchi||Tamil Nadu||1|
|Asli Deshi Party||Bihar||4|
|Aadarsh Sangram Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Apna Dal United Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Adhikar Vikas Party||Chhattisgarh||1||2|
|Asom Gana Parishad||Assam||3||4|
|Akhil Hind Forward Bloc (Krantikari)||Bihar||2|
|Akhand Hind Party||Maharashtra||1|
|Ahimsa Socialist Party||Tamil Nadu||1|
|All India Forward Bloc||Andhra Pradesh||2||34|
|Jammu & Kashmir||1|
|NCT OF Delhi||1|
|All India Hindustan Congress Party||Andaman & Nicobar Islands||1||4|
|All India Jana Andolan Party||West Bengal||1|
|All India Labour Party||West Bengal||1|
|All India Minorities Front||Maharashtra||1||2|
|Agila India Makkal Kazhagam||Kerala||1||4|
|All Indians Party||Sikkim||1|
|All India Praja Party||Andhra Pradesh||3|
|All Indian Rajiv Congress Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|All India Ulama Congress||Madhya Pradesh||1|
|All India Uzhavargal Uzhaippalargal Katchi||Tamil Nadu||1|
|Akila India Vallalar Peravai||Tamil Nadu||1|
|Asom Jana Morcha||Assam||4|
|Aam Janta Party (India)||Uttar Pradesh||7|
|Aam Janta Party Rashtriya||Bihar||3|
|Aapki Apni Party (Peoples)||Haryana||7||21|
|NCT OF Delhi||6|
|Akhil Bhartiya Ekata Party||Maharashtra||1|
|Akhil Bhartiya Lok Dal||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Apna Kisan Party||Bihar||1|
|Akhand Samaj Party||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Al-Hind Party||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|All India Peoples' Front (Radical)||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|All Pensioner’S Party||Tamil Nadu||1|
|Aasra Lokmanch Party||Maharashtra||2|
|Anaithu Makkal Katchi||Tamil Nadu||1|
|Azad Mazdoor Kissan Party||Karnataka||1|
|Aadarsh Mithila Party||Bihar||2|
|Anaithu Makkal Puratchi Katchi||Tamil Nadu||2|
|Ambedkar Yug Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Anaithu India Makkal Katchi||1|
|Anjaan Aadmi Party||NCT OF Delhi||1|
|Ambedkar National Congress||Andhra Pradesh||2||21|
|NCT OF Delhi||1|
|Annadata Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Andaman & Nicobar Janta Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Aihra National Party||Jharkhand||3||8|
|Adarsh Nyay Rakshak Party||Madhya Pradesh||1|
|Ahinsa Samaj Party||Madhya Pradesh||1|
|Anti Corruption Dynamic Party||Maharashtra||1||11|
|Apna Desh Party||Gujarat||2|
|Ambedkarite Party Of India||Andhra Pradesh||1||77|
|Apna Samaj Party||1|
|All Peoples Party||Andhra Pradesh||1|
|Ambedkarist Republican Party||Maharashtra||2|
|Andhra Rastra Praja Samithi||Andhra Pradesh||1|
|Akhand Rashtrawadi Party||Madhya Pradesh||1||4|
|NCT OF Delhi||2|
|Autonomous State Demand Committee||Assam||1|
|Assam Dristi Party||Assam||1|
|Akhil Bharat Samagra Kranti Party||Chhattisgarh||1|
|Adarsh Samaj Party||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Ambedkar Samaj Party||Karnataka||4||8|
|All India Puratchi Thalaivar Makkal Munnettra Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||1|
|Aarakshan Virodhi Party||Madhya Pradesh||2||4|
|Awami Samta Party||Uttar Pradesh||3|
|Anna Ysr Congress Party||Andhra Pradesh||2|
|B. C. United Front||Andhra Pradesh||1|
|Bharatiya Aavaam Ekta Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Bahujan Azad Party||Bihar||1||2|
|Bahujan Samyak Party (Mission)||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Bahujan Awam Party||Uttar Pradesh||4|
|Bharatiya Aam Awam Party||Bihar||1|
|Bhartiya Anarakshit Party||Telangana||3||4|
|Bhartiya Azad Sena||Jharkhand||1|
|Bharatiya Bahujan Congress||Bihar||5||6|
|Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh||Karnataka||2|
|Bharat Bhrashtachar Mitao Party||Bihar||1|
|Bhartiya Bhaichara Party||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Bharatiya Bahujan Samta Party||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Bharath Dharma Jana Sena||Kerala||4|
|Bharatrashtra Democratic Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Bharatiya Gana Parishad||Assam||4|
|Bhartiya Amrit Party||Madhya Pradesh||2|
|Bharatiya Bahujan Parivartan Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Bharatiya Jan Morcha Party||Madhya Pradesh||1|
|Bharatiya Praja Surajya Paksha||Maharashtra||8|
|Bharatiya Rashtravadi Samanta Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Bharatiya Samta Samaj Party||Bihar||1||3|
|Bharatiya Sarvodaya Kranti Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Bhartiya Janta Dal (Integrated)||NCT OF Delhi||1|
|Bharatiya National Janta Dal||West Bengal||1|
|Bhartiya Lokmat Rashtrwadi Party||Bihar||2||7|
|Bhartiya Manvadhikaar Federal Party||1|
|Bhartiya Naujawan Inklav Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Bharatiya Bahujan Party||Chhattisgarh||1|
|Bharat Bhoomi Party||Chhattisgarh||2||3|
|Bhartiya Dalit Party||Bihar||3|
|Bhartiya Hind Fauj||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Bhartiya Janta Dal||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Bhartiya Janraj Party||Haryana||2||4|
|Bahujan Maha Party||Andhra Pradesh||1||20|
|Bharat Nirman Party||Bihar||1|
|Bhartiya Harit Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Bharatiya Peoples Party||Karnataka||1|
|Bharatiya Rashtravadi Paksha||Gujarat||1|
|Bharatiya Sampuran Krantikari Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Bhartiya Sarvodaya Party||Jharkhand||1||2|
|Bhartiya Insan Party||Bihar||1||3|
|NCT OF Delhi||2|
|Bharat Jan Aadhar Party||Maharashtra||4|
|Bharatiya Jan Kranti Dal (Democratic)||Bihar||4||7|
|Bhartiya Jan Nayak Party||Uttar Pradesh||4|
|Bhartiya Jan Samman Party||Chandigarh||1||2|
|Bhartiya Jan Sampark Party||Madhya Pradesh||1|
|Bhartiya Jan Satta Party||Rajasthan||1|
|Bundelkhand Kranti Dal||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Bhartiya Kisan Party||Chandigarh||4||15|
|NCT OF Delhi||1|
|Bharatiya Kisan Parivartan Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Bhartiya Krishak Dal||Uttar Pradesh||4|
|Bhartiya Kisan Union Samaj Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Bhartiya Kranti Vir Party||Bihar||1|
|Bihar Lok Nirman Dal||Bihar||8|
|Bhartiya Lok Seva Dal||Jharkhand||1||10|
|Bharat Lok Sewak Party||NCT OF Delhi||3||4|
|Bhartiya Manavadhikaar Federal Party||Chandigarh||1||9|
|Bharateeya Manavadhikar party||West Bengal||2|
|Bharatiya Momin Front||Bihar||7||8|
|Bharatiya Majdoor Janta Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Bahujan Mukti Party||Assam||1||120|
|Dadra & Nagar Haveli||1|
|Bharatiya Minorities Suraksha Mahasangh||Jharkhand||1||2|
|Bhartiya Manav Samaj Party||Madhya Pradesh||1||3|
|Bhartiya Mitra Party||Bihar||3|
|Bahujan Nyay Dal||Bihar||3||4|
|Bhartiya Nojawan Dal||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Bhartiya Navodaya Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Bharatiya Nyay-Adhikar Raksha Party||West Bengal||7|
|Bhartiya Navjawan Sena (Paksha)||Maharashtra||3|
|Bhartiya New Sanskar Krantikari Party||Bihar||1|
|Bhartiya Pragatisheel Congress||NCT OF Delhi||1|
|Bhartiya Panchyat Party||Jharkhand||2|
|Bodoland Peoples Front||Assam||1|
|Bharat Prabhat Party||Bihar||2||53|
|NCT OF Delhi||2|
|Bharatiya Prajagala Kalyana Paksha||Karnataka||2|
|Bharatiya Rashtriya Morcha||Bihar||1||2|
|Bahujana Raajyam Party (Phule Ambedkar)||Telangana||1|
|Bharat Rakshak Party (Democratic)||Rajasthan||2|
|Bhartiya Republican Party (Insan)||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Bahujan Republican Socialist Party||Gujarat||1||27|
|Bhartiya Rashtrawadi Party||Chandigarh||1|
|Bhartiya Shakti Chetna Party||Chhattisgarh||5||35|
|Bahujan Suraksha Dal||Gujarat||1|
|Bhartiya Sarvjan Hitey Samaj Party||Chhattisgarh||1|
|Bhartiya Tribal Party||Chhattisgarh||2||19|
|Dadra & Nagar Haveli||1|
|Bahujan Samaj Party (AMBEDKAR)||Chandigarh||1||5|
|Bahujan Vikas Aaghadi||Maharashtra||1|
|Bajjikanchal Vikas Party||Bihar||7|
|Bhartiya Vanchitsamaj Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Corruption Abolition Party||NCT OF Delhi||1|
|Christian Democratic Front||Tamil Nadu||1|
|Challengers Party||NCT OF Delhi||2|
|Chandigarh Ki Aawaz Party||Chandigarh||1|
|Communist Party Of India (MARXIST-LENINIST) (LIBERATION)||Andhra Pradesh||2||18|
|Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) CPI(M)(L)||4|
|Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Red Star||4|
|Communist Party Of India (Marxist–Leninist) Red Star||Andhra Pradesh||1||25|
|Chhattisgarh Swabhiman Manch||Chhattisgarh||1||2|
|Chhattisgarh Vikas Ganga Rashtriya Party||Chhattisgarh||1||2|
|Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Dal||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Dalita Bahujana Party||Telangana||3|
|Democratic Corruption Liberation Front||1|
|Democratic Party of India (Ambedkar)||Punjab||1||3|
|Desh Janhit Party||Maharashtra||1|
|Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||4|
|Desiya Makkal Sakthi Katchi||Maharashtra||1||9|
|Dogra Swabhiman Sangathan Party,||Jammu & Kashmir||2|
|Democratic Party Of India||1|
|Democratic Prajakranthi Party Secularist||Karnataka||1|
|Dalit Soshit Pichhara Varg Adhikar Dal||Haryana||1||3|
|Desiya Uzhavar Uzhaipalar Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||3|
|Ekta Samaj Party||NCT OF Delhi||1|
|Ezhuchi Tamilargal Munnetra Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||3|
|Forward Democratic Labour Party||Chhattisgarh||1|
|Fauji Janta Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Freethought Party Of India||Odisha||3|
|Gareeb Aadmi Party||Karnataka||1|
|Gondvana Gantantra Party||Chhattisgarh||9||23|
|Garvi Gujarat Party||Gujarat||3|
|Garib Janshakti Party||Bihar||2|
|Gujarat Janta Panchayat Party||Gujarat||1|
|Ganasangam Party Of India||Tamil Nadu||3|
|Gorkha Rashtriya Congress||West Bengal||1|
|Hindustani Awam Morcha (Secular)||Bihar||3|
|Hamari Apni Party||Maharashtra||1|
|Hardam Manavtawadi Rashtriya Dal||Andhra Pradesh||1|
|Hind Congress Party||Haryana||1||2|
|Hindu Samaj Party||1|
|Hindustan Janta Party||Karnataka||3||7|
|Hindusthan Praja Paksha||Maharashtra||1|
|Himachal Jan Kranti Party||Himachal Pradesh||1|
|Hindusthan Nirman Dal||Assam||5||47|
|Jammu & Kashmir||1|
|Hamro Sikkim Party||Sikkim||1|
|Hind Samrajya Party||Bihar||1|
|Hindustan Shakti Sena||Chandigarh||1||9|
|Hum Bhartiya Party||Jharkhand||1||9|
|NCT OF Delhi||1|
|Hum Sabki Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Indian Christian Front||Karnataka||2||4|
|Indian Democratic Republican Front||Punjab||1||2|
|Indian Gandhiyan Party||Kerala||1||2|
|Indian Indira Congress (R)||Rajasthan||1|
|Indian Labour Party (Ambedkar Phule)||Andhra Pradesh||1||4|
|Ilantamilar Munnani Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||1|
|Indian New Congress Party||Karnataka||4|
|Independent People’S Party||Jammu & Kashmir||1|
|Indian National League||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|India Praja Bandhu Party||Andhra Pradesh||4||11|
|Indigenousn People'S Front Of Tripura||Tripura||2|
|Indian Peoples Green Party||Rajasthan||2|
|Indian Rakshaka Nayakudu Party||Telangana||1|
|Indian Unity Centre||West Bengal||2|
|Inqalab Vikas Dal||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Jan Adesh Akshuni Sena||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Jan Adhikar Party||Bihar||6||19|
|Jan Adhikar Party (Loktantrik)||Bihar||1|
|Jharkhand Anushilan Party||West Bengal||1|
|Janta Dal Rashtravadi||Bihar||3|
|Jamat-E-Seratul Mustakim||West Bengal||2|
|Jago Hindustan Party||Bihar||3|
|Jharkhand Party (Secular)||Jharkhand||1|
|Janhit Bharat Party||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Jai Hind Party||Bihar||1|
|Jai Hind Samaj Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Jai Jawan Jai Kisan Party||Haryana||1||4|
|Jannayak Janta Party||Haryana||7|
|Janhit Kisan Party||Bihar||2||8|
|Jammu & Kashmir Pir Panjal Awami Party||Jammu & Kashmir||1|
|Jai Lok Party||Madhya Pradesh||1|
|Jai Maha Bharath Party||Maharashtra||1||3|
|NCT OF Delhi||1|
|Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (Ulgulan)||1|
|Jana Jagruti Party||Andhra Pradesh||7|
|Jharkhand Party (Naren)||Jharkhand||1||2|
|Janapaalana Party (Democratic)||Andhra Pradesh||1|
|Jai Prakash Janata Dal||Bihar||5||11|
|NCT OF Delhi||2|
|Jharkhand People's Party||Jharkhand||4|
|Jharkhand People's Party||1|
|Janta Raj Party||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Janral Samaj Party||Chandigarh||1||5|
|Janta Raj Vikas Party||Bihar||1|
|Jan Shakti Dal||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Jansatta Dal Loktantrik||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Jan Shakti Ekta Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Jan Samman Party||Madhya Pradesh||1||3|
|NCT OF Delhi||1|
|Jan Sangh Party||West Bengal||1|
|Janasena Party||Andhra Pradesh||17||24|
|Jan Satya Path Party||Gujarat||4|
|Jai Swaraj Party||Telangana||1|
|Jan Seva Sahayak Party||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Jansatta Party||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Jan Sangharsh Virat Party||Gujarat||2||5|
|Janta Kranti Party (Rashtravadi)||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Jai Vijaya Bharathi Party||Karnataka||1|
|Jantantrik Vikas Party||Bihar||3|
|Jharkhand Vikas Morcha (Prajatantrik)||Jharkhand||2|
|Jwala Dal||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Jammu & Kashmir National Panthers Party||Bihar||1|
|Jammu & Kashmir||5|
|NCT OF Delhi||1|
|Jammu & Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party +||Jammu & Kashmir||2|
|Jammu & Kashmir People Conference||Jammu & Kashmir||3|
|Kamatapur People’S Party (United)||West Bengal||6|
|Kannada Chalavali Vatal Paksha||Karnataka||1|
|Kisan Raj Party||Madhya Pradesh||1|
|Kisan Raksha Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Karnataka Jantha Paksha||Karnataka||2|
|Karnataka Karmikara Paksha||Karnataka||4|
|Kisan Majdoor Berojgar Sangh||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Kisan Mazdoor Sangharsh Party||Uttar Pradesh||4|
|Karnataka Pragnyavantha Janatha Party||Karnataka||1|
|Kisan Party Of India||Madhya Pradesh||2|
|Karnataka Praja Party (Raithaparva)||Karnataka||2|
|Kranti Kari Jai Hind Sena||Karnataka||1||5|
|Kartavya Rashtriya Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Kanshiram Bahujan Dal||NCT OF Delhi||1||5|
|Khusro Sena Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Kalyankari Jantantrik Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Lok Chetna Dal||Bihar||1|
|Lok Gathbandhan Party||Gujarat||1||7|
|Lok Insaaf Party||Punjab||3|
|Lok Jan Sangharsh Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Loktantrik Jan Swaraj Party||Bihar||1|
|Lok Jan Vikas Morcha||Bihar||2|
|Lok Dal||Uttar Pradesh||5|
|Loktantrik Janshakti Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Lokpriya Samaj Party||Haryana||1|
|Loktanter Suraksha Party||Haryana||2|
|Loktantrik Rashrtavadi Party||Gujarat||1|
|Lok Sewa Dal||Bihar||1|
|Maharashtra Swabhimaan Paksh||Maharashtra||2|
|Makkal Sananayaga Kudiyarasu Katchi||Tamil Nadu||1|
|Manipur People’S Party||Manipur||1|
|Moulik Adhikar Party||Bihar||1||13|
|Mera Adhikaar Rashtriya Dal||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Marxist Communist Party Of India (United)||Andhra Pradesh||1||6|
|Mazdoor Dalit Kisaan Mahila Gareeb Party (Hindustani)||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Minorities Democratic Party||Madhya Pradesh||2||3|
|Manipur Democratic Peoples's Front||Manipur||1|
|Mundadugu Praja Party||Andhra Pradesh||4|
|Mahamukti Dal||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Mahasankalp Janta Party||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Makkalatchi Katchi||Tamil Nadu||2|
|Manav Kranti Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Maharashtra Kranti Sena||Maharashtra||2|
|Majdoor Kisan Union Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Mazdoor Kirayedar Vikas Party||NCT OF Delhi||5|
|Marxist Leninist Party Of India (Red Flag)||Karnataka||1||3|
|Mithilanchal Mukti Morcha||Bihar||1|
|Makkal Needhi Maiam||Puducherry||1||38|
|Manvadhikar National Party||Gujarat||2||4|
|Jammu & Kashmir||2|
|Manavtawadi Samaj Party||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Madhya Pradesh Jan Vikas Party||Madhya Pradesh||3|
|Mulnibasi Party of India||West Bengal||2|
|Moolniwasi Samaj Party||Bihar||2||3|
|Maanavvaadi Janta Party||Bihar||2|
|Manuvadi Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Mahila & Yuva Shakti Party||Haryana||1|
|New All India Congress Party||Gujarat||2|
|National Apni Party||NCT OF Delhi||1|
|Nationalist People'S Front||Rajasthan||1|
|Nirbhay Bharteey Party||Gujarat||1|
|National Bhrashtachar Mukt Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Navsarjan Bharat Party||Dadra & Nagar Haveli||1|
|National Dalitha Dhal Party||Andhra Pradesh||1|
|National Development Party||Karnataka||1|
|New Democratic Party of India||West Bengal||3|
|Navbharat Ekta Dal||Himachal Pradesh||1|
|North East India Development Party||Manipur||2|
|Nagrik Ekta Party||Uttar Pradesh||4|
|National Fifty Fifty Front||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Naam Indiar Party||Tamil Nadu||2|
|Nationalist Janshakti Party||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|National Jagaran Party||Bihar||1|
|National Labour Party||Kerala||1|
|National Lokmat Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Nationalist Justice Party||Punjab||4|
|National Nava Kranthi Party||Andhra Pradesh||1|
|Navbharat Nirman Party||Maharashtra||1|
|Nava Praja Rajyam Party||Telangana||1|
|National Republican Congress||Assam||2|
|The National Road Map Party Of India||Assam||1||2|
|NCT OF Delhi||1|
|Nava Samaj Party||Andhra Pradesh||1|
|Netaji Subhash Chander Bose Rashtriya Azad Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Naam Tamilar Katchi||Puducherry||1||38|
|Navarang Congress Party||Andhra Pradesh||3||5|
|Jammu & Kashmir||2|
|Navodayam Party||Andhra Pradesh||2|
|Navataram Party||Andhra Pradesh||1|
|New India Party||Telangana||2|
|National Women'S Party||Madhya Pradesh||1||3|
|Nawan Punjab Party||Punjab||1|
|National Youth Party||NCT OF Delhi||2|
|Odisha Pragati Dal||Odisha||1|
|Proutist Bloc, India||Bihar||1||9|
|NCT OF Delhi||3|
|Puducherry Development Party||Puducherry||1|
|Peoples Democratic Party||Jammu & Kashmir||1||5|
|Party For Democratic Socialism||West Bengal||5|
|People's Party Of India(secular)||Tamil Nadu||2||3|
|People’S Union Party||Maharashtra||1|
|Punjab Ekta Party||Punjab||3||3|
|Pichhra Samaj Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Prajatantra Aadhar Party||Gujarat||1|
|Prem Janata Dal||Telangana||1|
|Prahar Janshakti Party||Maharashtra||1|
|Purvanchal Janta Party (Secular)||Assam||6||14|
|Pragatisheel Lok Manch||Uttarakhand||1|
|Punjab Labour Party||Punjab||1|
|Public Mission Party||Bihar||2|
|Pragatisheel Manav Samaj Party||Uttar Pradesh||3|
|Pravasi Nivasi Party||Kerala||1|
|Peoples Party Of India (Democratic)||Bihar||9||56|
|NCT OF Delhi||5|
|People'S Party Of Arunachal||Arunachal Pradesh||2|
|Pyramid Party Of India||Andhra Pradesh||20||48|
|NCT OF Delhi||5|
|Prajatantrik Samadhan Party||Madhya Pradesh||1|
|Poorvanchal Rashtriya Congress||Madhya Pradesh||1||2|
|Peoples Representation For Identity And Status Of Mizoram (Prism) Party||Mizoram||1||6|
|NCT OF Delhi||5|
|Prithviraj Janshakti Party||Uttar Pradesh||3|
|Prabuddha Republican Party||Maharashtra||4||5|
|Praja Shanthi Party||Andhra Pradesh||4|
|Praja Satta Party||Karnataka||1||2|
|Pragatishil Samajwadi Party (Lohia)||Bihar||8||82|
|Jammu & Kashmir||1|
|Pichhara Samaj Party United||Jharkhand||1||2|
|Proutist Sarva Samaj||Bihar||1||7|
|Pragatisheel Samaj Party||Uttar Pradesh||3|
|Prajaa Swaraaj Party||Telangana||1|
|Parivartan Samaj Party||Madhya Pradesh||1||3|
|NCT OF Delhi||1|
|Rashtriya Ambedkar Dal||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Radical Democrats||Andhra Pradesh||1|
|Rashtriya Aadarsh Member Party||Madhya Pradesh||1|
|Raita Bharat Party||Karnataka||1|
|Rajnaitik Vikalp Party||Bihar||1|
|Rashtriya Ahinsa Manch||West Bengal||1|
|Rashtriya Aamjan Party||Madhya Pradesh||1|
|Rajyadhikara Party||Andhra Pradesh||1|
|Rashtrawadi Party of India,||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Rashtriya Indepndent Morcha||Odisha||1|
|Rashtriya Janasachetan Party (R.J.P.)||West Bengal||5|
|Rashtriya Jansanchar Dal||1|
|Rashtriya Janta Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Rashtriya Janwadi Party (Socialist)||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Rashtriya Mahan Gantantra Party||Bihar||3|
|Rashtriya Mahila Party||1|
|Rashtriya Matadata Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Rashtriya Naujawan Dal||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Rashtriya Sahara Party||Haryana||1||3|
|Rastriya Aam Jan Seva Party||Maharashtra||1|
|Rastriya Insaaf Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Rashtriya Vikas Party||Haryana||1|
|Rayalaseema Rashtra Samithi||Andhra Pradesh||1|
|Rashtriya Bahujan Congress Party||Maharashtra||1|
|Rashtriya Bhagidari Samaj Party||Haryana||1|
|Rashtriya Bharatiya Jan Jan Party||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Rashtriya Backward Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Republican Bahujan Sena||Maharashtra||1|
|Rashtriya Dal United||Bihar||1|
|Real Democracy Party||Gujarat||1|
|Rashtriya Garib Dal||Haryana||1||2|
|Rashtriya Gondvana Party||Chhattisgarh||1|
|Rashtriya Jansena Party||Maharashtra||1|
|Rashtriya Hind Sena||Bihar||6|
|Rashtriya Jansabha Party||Chhattisgarh||7|
|Rashtriya Jan Adhikar Party||NCT OF Delhi||1||2|
|Rashtriya Jan Adhikar Party (United)||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Rashtriya Janadhikar Suraksha Party||West Bengal||6|
|Rashtriya Jatigat Aarakshan Virodhi Party||Haryana||1|
|Rashtriya Jantantrik Bharat Vikas Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Rashtriya Jan Gaurav Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Rashtriya Janhit Sangharsh Party||Manipur||1|
|Rashtriya Jankranti Party||Chandigarh||1||3|
|Jammu & Kashmir||1|
|Rashtriya Janmat Party||Uttar Pradesh||1||2|
|Rashtriya Jansurajya Party||Maharashtra||2|
|Rashtriya Janshakti Party (Secular)||Maharashtra||2||7|
|Rashtriya Jansambhavna Party||Bihar||7||13|
|NCT OF Delhi||1|
|Rashtriya Jansangharsh Swaraj Party||Jharkhand||2|
|Rashtriya Janutthan Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Rashtravadi Kranti Dal||Maharashtra||1|
|Rashtriya Kranti Party||Rajasthan||1||5|
|Rashtriya Krantikari Samajwadi Party||Andhra Pradesh||1||4|
|Rashtriya Lok Sarvadhikar Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Rashtriya Lok Dal||Uttar Pradesh||3|
|Rashtriya Lokswaraj Party||Chandigarh||1||8|
|Rashtriya Mazdoor Ekta Party||Haryana||1||3|
|Rashtriya Mangalam Party||Rajasthan||1|
|Rashtriya Maratha Party||Maharashtra||5|
|Revolutionary Marxist Party of India||Haryana||1||2|
|Rashtra Nirman Party||Haryana||1||5|
|NCT OF Delhi||3|
|Rashtriya Nav Nirman Bharat Party||Gujarat||1|
|Republican Paksha (Khoripa)||Chhattisgarh||1|
|Rashtriya Praja Congress (Secular)||Andhra Pradesh||1|
|Rashtriya Pragati Party||Bihar||1|
|Republican Party Of India||Bihar||1||8|
|Republican Party Of India (Kamble)||Gao||1|
|Republican Party Of India (A)||Andhra Pradesh||5||33|
|NCT OF Delhi||5|
|Republican Party Of India (KHOBRAGADE)||Andhra Pradesh||1||2|
|Republican Party of India (Reformist)||Madhya Pradesh||1||2|
|Republican Party Of India (Karnataka)||Karnataka||4|
|Republican Party of India Ektavadi||Haryana||1|
|Rashtriya Power Party||Gujarat||2||3|
|Rashtriya Rashtrawadi Party||Bihar||1||7|
|NCT OF Delhi||3|
|Rashtriya Apna Dal||Madhya Pradesh||1||2|
|Rashtrawadi Shramjeevi Dal||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Rashtriya Sangail Party||Jharkhand||1|
|Rashtriya Sahyog Party||Bihar||1|
|Rashtriya Samaj Paksha||Gujarat||1||12|
|Rashtriya Samanta Dal||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Rashtriya Samrasta Party||NCT OF Delhi||3|
|Rashtriya Samta Party (Secular)||Bihar||4||5|
|Rashtravadi Party (Bharat)||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Revolutionary Socialist Party Of India(Marxist)||1|
|Rashtriya Samajwadi Party (Secular)||Gujarat||1||2|
|Rashtra Sewa Dal||Bihar||1|
|Rashtriya Shoshit Samaj Party||Madhya Pradesh||2||7|
|Rashtriya Samta Vikas Party||Rajasthan||1|
|Rashtriya Sarvjan Vikas Party||Bihar||2|
|Rashtriya Azad Manch||Himachal Pradesh||2|
|Rashtriya Janvikas Party (Democratic)||Bihar||1|
|Right To Recall Party||Gujarat||4||14|
|NCT OF Delhi||2|
|Rashtriya Ulama Council||Bihar||1||10|
|Rashtravadi Janata Party||Bihar||2||4|
|Rashtriya Viklang Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Rashtriya Vyapari Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Rashtra Vikas Zumbes Party||Gujarat||1|
|Rashtrawadi Chetna Party||1|
|Sathi Aur Aapka Faisala Party||Bihar||2|
|Shiromani Akali Dal (Amritsar)(Simranjit Singh Mann)||Punjab||2|
|Samaj Adhikar Kalyan Party||Chandigarh||1||6|
|Samajwadi Samaj Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Sabse Achchhi Party||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Sarvshreshth Dal||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Saman Aadmi Saman Party||Madhya Pradesh||1|
|Sabka Dal United||Uttar Pradesh||3|
|Swatantra Bharat Paksha||Maharashtra||3|
|Sabhi Jan Party||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Samaj Bhalai Morcha||1|
|Swarna Bharat Party||Assam||1||3|
|Suheldev Bharatiya Samaj Party||Bihar||5||24|
|Socialist Party (India)||Madhya Pradesh||1||3|
|Shiromani Akali Dal (Taksali)||Punjab||1|
|Secular Democratic Congress||Karnataka||1||4|
|Social Democratic Party Of India||Andhra Pradesh||1||14|
|Samajwadi Forward Bloc||Andhra Pradesh||1||11|
|Saaf Party||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Shane Hind Fourm||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Shiromani Akali Dal(Taksali)||1|
|Shri Janta Party||Madhya Pradesh||1|
|Smart Indians Party||Madhya Pradesh||4|
|Samajwadi Janata Dal Democratic||Bihar||1|
|Samajwadi Jan Parishad||West Bengal||1|
|Swatantra Jantaraj Party||Madhya Pradesh||1||9|
|Samajwadi Janata Party(Karnataka)||Karnataka||1|
|Social Justice Party Of India||Telangana||3|
|Sajag Samaj Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Sanjhi Virasat Party||NCT OF Delhi||1|
|Sankhyanupati Bhagidari Party||Bihar||2|
|Samata Kranti Dal||Odisha||1|
|Satya Kranti Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Shiromani Lok Dal Party||1|
|Sarvjan Lok Shakti Party||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Samrat Ashok Sena Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Samajik Nyaya Party||Haryana||2|
|Samta Vikas Party||Madhya Pradesh||1|
|Socialist Janata Party||NCT OF Delhi||1|
|Swaraj Party (Loktantrik)||Bihar||2|
|Samajtantric Party Of India||West Bengal||1|
|Samaanya Praja Party||Andhra Pradesh||1|
|Sarvadharam Party (MADHYA PRADESH)||Chhattisgarh||1||2|
|Sanman Rajkiya Paksha||Maharashtra||1|
|Sikkim Republican Party||Sikkim||1|
|Sarvodaya Prabhat Party||NCT OF Delhi||1|
|Shakti Sena (Bharat Desh)||Chhattisgarh||1|
|Shoshit Samaj Dal||Bihar||7|
|Samata Samadhan Party||Madhya Pradesh||1|
|Samdarshi Samaj Party||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Sanatan Sanskriti Raksha Dal||Madhya Pradesh||1||7|
|NCT OF Delhi||3|
|Satya Bahumat Party||Himachal Pradesh||1||7|
|NCT OF Delhi||3|
|Subhashwadi Bhartiya Samajwadi Party (Subhas Party)||Uttar Pradesh||3|
|Socialist Unity Centre Of India (COMMUNIST)||Andhra Pradesh||2||114|
|NCT OF Delhi||1|
|Sikkim United Front (SUF)||Sikkim||1|
|Sunder Samaj Party||Chhattisgarh||1|
|Samagra Utthan Party||Bihar||1||7|
|Svatantra Bharat Satyagrah Party||Gujarat||2|
|Sarvodaya Bharat Party||Chhattisgarh||1||8|
|Sarva Janata Party||Karnataka||3|
|Sarv Vikas Party||Uttarakhand||1|
|Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Party||Gujarat||4|
|Sarvjan Sewa Party||Chandigarh||1||2|
|Swarnim Bharat Inquilab||Madhya Pradesh||1|
|Swatantra Samaj Party||Bihar||1|
|Sanyukt Vikas Party||Bihar||1||6|
|NCT OF Delhi||1|
|Tamil Nadu Ilangyar Katchi||Tamil Nadu||16|
|Telangana Communist Party Of India||Telangana||1|
|The Future India Party||Tamil Nadu||1|
|Telangana Jana Samithi||Telangana||2|
|Tamil Maanila Congress (MOOPANAR)||Tamil Nadu||1|
|Tamizhaga Murpokku Makkal Katchi||Tamil Nadu||1|
|Telangana Prajala Party||Telangana||1|
|Telangana Sakalajanula Party||Telangana||1|
|Tamil Telugu National Party||Tamil Nadu||1|
|Telangana Yuva Shakti||Telangana||1|
|Tripura Peoples Party||Tripura||1|
|Universal Brotherhood Movement||Tamil Nadu||1|
|United Democratic Front Secular||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|United Democratic Party||Meghalaya||1|
|Uttarakhand Kranti Dal||Uttarakhand||4|
|Uttarakhand Kranti Dal (Democratic)||Uttarakhand||4|
|Uttarakhand Parivartan Party||Uttarakhand||1|
|Ulzaipali Makkal Katchy||Tamil Nadu||6|
|United People’S Party, Liberal||Assam||2|
|Uttarakhand Pragatisheel Party||NCT OF Delhi||1||2|
|Uttar Pradesh Navnirman Sena||Jharkhand||1|
|Uttama Prajaakeeya Party||Karnataka||27|
|United States Of India Party||Tamil Nadu||1|
|Vanchit Bahujan Aaghadi||Maharashtra||46|
|Vikassheel Insaan Party||Bihar||4|
|Vishwa Jana Party||Andhra Pradesh||2|
|Vishwa Manav Samaj Kalyan Parishad||Uttar Pradesh||1|
|Vikas Insaf Party||Uttar Pradesh||2|
|Vivasayigal Makkal Munnetra Katchi||Tamil Nadu||1|
|Voters Party International||Assam||7||20|
|NCT OF Delhi||1|
|Vyavastha Parivartan Party||Gujarat||4|
|Vanchitsamaj Insaaf Party||Uttar Pradesh||3|
|Vishva Shakti Party||Jharkhand||2||3|
|Vanchit Samaj Party||Bihar||4|
|Wazib Adhikar Party||Bihar||1|
|Welfare Party Of India||West Bengal||2|
|Yuva Jan Jagriti Party||Gujarat||6|
|Yuva Krantikari Party||Bihar||4|
|Yekikrutha Sankshema Rashtriya Praja Party||Telangana||1|
|Yuva Vikas Party||Uttar Pradesh||1|
According to the ECI, 900 million people were eligible to vote, with an increase of 84.3 million voters since the last election in 2014, making it the largest-ever election in the world. 15 million voters aged 18–19 years became eligible to vote for the first time. 468 million eligible voters were males, 432 million were females and 38325 identified themselves belonging to third gender. Total 71,735 overseas voters also enrolled.
Electronic voting machines and security
The ECI deployed a total of 1.74 million voter-verified paper audit trail (VVPAT) units and 3.96 million electronic voting machines (EVM) in 1,035,918 polling stations. Approximately 270,000 paramilitary and 2 million state police personnel provided organisational support and security at various polling booths. On 9 April 2019, the Supreme Court ordered the ECI to increase VVPAT slips vote count to five randomly selected EVMs per assembly constituency, which meant that the ECI had to count VVPAT slips of 20,625 EVMs before it could certify the final election results.
In the first phase, 69.58 per cent of the 142 million eligible voters cast their vote to elect their representatives for 91 Lok Sabha seats. The voter turnout was 68.77 per cent in the same constituencies in the 2014 general elections. In the second phase, 156 million voters were eligible to vote for 95 Lok Sabha seats and the turnout was 69.45 per cent, compared to 69.62 per cent in 2014. For the third phase, 189 million voters were eligible to elect 116 Lok Sabha representatives. According to ECI, the turnout for this phase was 68.40 per cent, compared to 67.15 per cent in 2014. In the fourth of seven phases, 65.50 per cent of the 128 million eligible voters cast their vote to elect 72 representatives to the Indian parliament while the turnout for the same seats in the 2014 election was 63.05 per cent. The fifth phase was open to 87.5 million eligible voters, who could cast their vote in over 96,000 polling booths. In the sixth phase, 64.40 per cent of the 101 million eligible voters cast their vote in about 113,000 polling stations.
The final turnout stood at 67.11 per cent, the highest ever turnout recorded in any of the general elections till date. The percentage is 1.16 per cent higher than the 2014 elections whose turnout stood at 65.95 per cent. Over 600 million voters polled their votes in 2019 Indian General elections.
|State/UT||Total||Voter turnout by phase[a]|
|Seats||Turnout (%)||Seats||Turnout (%)||Seats||Turnout (%)||Seats||Turnout (%)||Seats||Turnout (%)||Seats||Turnout (%)||Seats||Turnout (%)||Seats||Turnout (%)|
|Jammu and Kashmir[b]||6||TBA||2||57.38||2||45.66||1⁄3||13.68||1⁄3||10.32||11⁄3||19.92||–||–||–||–|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||1||65.08||1||65.08||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||1||79.59||–||–||–||–||1||79.59||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Daman and Diu||1||71.83||–||–||–||–||1||71.83||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
- / indicate change from the 2014 elections.
- Polling in Anantnag was scheduled over three days.
- Tamil Nadu has 39 constituencies. Polling in Vellore was cancelled.
Opinion polls, exit polls and seat projections
Various organisations have carried out opinion polling to gauge voting intentions in India. Results of such polls are displayed in this list. The date range for these opinion polls is from the previous general election, held in April and May 2014, to the present day. The ECI banned the release of exit polls from 11 April to 19 May, the last phase of the elections. The commission also banned the publication or broadcast in the media of predictions made by astrologers and tarot card readers.
|Poll type||Date published||Polling agency||Others||Majority||Ref|
|Exit polls||India Today-Axis||352 ± 13||93 ± 15||82 ± 13||70 ± 13|||
|News24-Today's Chanakya||350 ± 14||95 ± 9||97 ± 11||68 ± 14|||
|Times Now-VMR||306 ± 3||132 ± 3||104 ± 3||34 ± 3|||
|Republic-Jan Ki Baat||305||124||113||33|||
|India TV-CNX||300 ± 10||120 ± 5||122 ± 6||28 ± 10|||
|Opinion polls||8 April 2019||Times Now-VMR||279||149||115||7|||
|6 April 2019||India TV-CNX||275||126||142||3|||
|1 Feb – 4 April 2019||Jan Ki Baat||310||122||111||38|||
|Mar 2019||Times Now-VMR||283||135||125||11|||
|Mar 2019||News Nation||270||134||139||Hung|||
|Mar 2019||India TV-CNX||285||126||132||13|||
|Mar 2019||Zee 24 Taas||264||165||114||Hung|||
|Feb 2019||VDP Associates||242||148||153||Hung|||
|Jan 2019||Times Now-VMR||252||147||144||Hung|||
|Jan 2019||ABP News-CVoter||233||167||143||Hung|||
|Jan 2019||India Today-Karvy||237||166||140||Hung|||
|Jan 2019||VDP Associates||225||167||150||Hung|||
|Dec 2018||India Today||257||146||140||Hung|||
|Dec 2018||ABP News-CVoter||247||171||125||Hung|||
|Dec 2018||India TV-CNX||281||124||138||9|||
|Nov 2018||ABP News-CVoter||261||119||163||Hung|||
|Oct 2018||ABP News||276||112||155||4|||
|Aug 2018||India Today-Karvy||281||122||140||9|||
|May 2018||ABP News-CSDS||274||164||105||2|||
|Jan 2018||India Today||309||102||132||37|||
The Bharatiya Janata Party-led NDA won the elections with the BJP itself winning a clear majority. The BJP become the single largest party in the House and surpassed expectations to win 303 seats, with its alliance partners bringing the NDA to a total of 353 seats. Reasons attributed to the victory included the personal popularity of Narendra Modi, effective voter turnout drives by the NDA, a surge in public nationalism following the Pulwama attack, the consolidation of Hindu voters in a multi-caste coalition and the successful implementation of social welfare programmes during the First Modi ministry's term.
The counting of votes was held on 23 May 2019, and was completed early the following day. Initial returns showed the BJP leading in all 303 constituencies it eventually won, and opposition leader Rahul Gandhi conceded defeat prior to the official certification of most results.
With the results, the BJP was able to gain 21 seats in the House, having won 282 in the 2014 Indian general election. It was the second time in India's independent history that voters re-elected the same party to power with a bigger majority to the Lok Sabha – India's lower house of parliament. The BJP's total vote share stood at 37.4 per cent, an increase of over 6 percentage points from 31.34 per cent in 2014. The National Democratic Alliance secured a vote share of 45 per cent, compared to 38 per cent in 2014. In contrast, the vote share of Indian National Congress remained the same at 19.5 per cent. About 1.04 percent of the voters in India chose to vote for None Of The Above (NOTA) in the 2019 elections, with Bihar leading with 2.08 percent NOTA voters.
Modi became the only Indian prime minister in history whose government was re-elected with both an increase in the total percentage of votes along with a full majority. His opponent, Rahul Gandhi, ran in two constituencies, winning from Wayanad, but losing from the Amethi constituency – the seat he, his mother (Sonia Gandhi), his father (Rajiv Gandhi), and his uncle (Sanjay Gandhi) had collectively held for decades. In addition, many candidates who were members of popular political dynasties were defeated across India in favour of the BJP or other parties' candidates.
The election had been called a referendum on Modi and the BJP's Hindu nationalistic policies and advocacy. According to The Wall Street Journal, Modi's victory "sets (sic) the stage for further economic change in one of Asia’s fastest-growing economies." Alasdair Pal and Mayank Bhardwaj, in an article published by Reuters, claimed that the result was a mandate for business-friendly policies and tougher national security positions, reinforcing "a global trend of right-wing populists sweeping to victory, from the United States to Brazil and Italy, often after adopting harsh positions on protectionism, immigration and defence."
According to a data analysis by the Mint, "Overall, the BJP’s appeal seems to transcend the divides of caste, education, and affluence, but there are some differences — with the BJP less successful in more educated constituencies" in a study of about 140 seats where Congress and Others were more successful. The BJP was favored in all income groups, states the Mint. The newspaper added, "In constituencies with high presence of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes (SCs/STs), the BJP is more popular than other parties, but in constituencies with high presence of Muslims, it is less popular."
According to India Today, Detailed accounts and reports suggest that the country's overall growth was not among top factors that helped Narendra Modi's party cruise to a landslide victory in the Lok Sabha elections 2019. 
Nissim Mannathukkaren, in an article published by Wire, claimed that, In the run up to the 2019 elections, the media failed to question either the government or the prime minister.The newspaper added, The 55% of Indians who did not vote for Modi and the National Democratic Alliance do not live in Lutyens' Delhi. Can they be called “the liberals”? More importantly, do these 55% also count as “the people”? The problem with electoral first-past-the-post majorities is that they give the impression of a complete assent from the whole of the population, even when the majorities are in the range of 40%-45%. This does not at all delegitimise these electoral victories, but the attempt to silence the actual majority who did not vote for the winner is thoroughly anti-democratic. “The people have spoken, so you cannot raise questions about Modi,” goes the mocking admonishment. 
Indian National Congress party leaders such as Rahul Gandhi and others conceded defeat and congratulated Modi and his party. Other opposition parties and political leaders such as Sharad Pawar, Mamata Banerjee and Omar Abdullah, congratulated PM Modi and BJP for their victory.
The leaders of Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burundi, Canada, China, Comoros, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Kuwait, Latvia, Lesotho, Lichtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mexico, Mongolia, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Nicaragua, North Korea, Nigeria, New Zealand, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Qatar, Russia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Sri Lanka, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, and Zimbabwe congratulated Narendra Modi and the BJP on their victory.
- Two seats are reserved for Anglo-Indians and filled through Presidential nomination, while the poll in one constituency was cancelled.
- In 9 states and union territories of India – such as Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala and Uttarakhand – more women turned out to vote than men in 2019.
- The unemployment data in India is not collected on a monthly or an annual basis, rather it is determined through a sample survey once every 5 years, with a few exceptions. The survey methodology is unlike those in major world economies, and sub-classifies unemployment into categories such as "usual status unemployment" and "current status unemployment" based on the answers given by the individuals interviewed. Its methodology and results have been questioned by various scholars. The report and the refusal of the BJP government to release it has been criticised by economist Surjit Bhalla. According to Bhalla, the survey methodology is flawed and its results absurd, because the sample survey-based report finds that India's overall population has declined since 2011–12 by 1.2 per cent (contrary to the Census data which states a 6.7 per cent increase). The report finds that India's percent urbanisation and urban workforce has declined since 2012, which is contrary to all other studies on Indian urbanisation trends, states Bhalla. According to NSSO's report's data, "the Modi government has unleashed the most inclusive growth anywhere, and at any time in human history" – which is as unbelievable as the unemployment data it reports, states Bhalla. The NSSO report suggests the inflation-adjusted employment income of casual workers has dramatically increased while those of the salaried wage-earners has fallen during the 5-years of BJP government. The NSSO has also changed the sampling methodology in the latest round, state Bhalla and Avik Sarkar, which is one of the likely sources of its flawed statistics and conclusions.
- According to Chandra: in 2009 after the persistently dynastic Samajwadi party, the larger Biju Janata Dal ranked next, followed by the Congress party. In 2004 and 2014, Congress ranked second.
- Stanley Kochanek in 1987 published about the "briefcase politics" tradition in Indian politics during the decades when the Congress party dominated Indian national politics. Similarly, Rajeev Gowda and E Sridharan in 2012 have discussed the history of campaign financing laws in India and the role of black money in Indian elections. Devesh Kapur and Milan Vaishnav discuss the rise of "briefcase" black money donations in India triggered by the 1969 campaign financing bans proposed and enacted by Indira Gandhi, and the campaign finance law reforms thereafter through 2017. They call the recent reforms as yielding "greater transparency than ever before, though limited".
- Contested the seat of Lakshadweep without pre-poll seat sharing
- "EC may announce Lok Sabha election schedule in March first week: Sources – Times of India". The Times of India.
- Staff, Scroll. "2019 General Elections: Voting to be held in 7 phases from April 11 to May 19, counting on May 23". Scroll.in. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- "Lok Sabha Election 2019 Dates Schedule LIVE, Assembly Elections Dates For Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, 2019 Election Date Time for Polling, Counting and Results". timesnownews.com. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- "Lok Sabha elections will begin on April 11 and polling will be held over seven phases through May 19, followed by counting of votes on May 23. Lok Sabha Election 2019 : Key Dates, Live News Updates, Election Calendar". english.manoramaonline.com. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
- At 67.1%, 2019 turnout's a record: Election Commission, The Times of India (20 May 2019)
- Polls Are Closed in India's Election: What Happens Next?, The New York Times, Douglas Schorzman and Kai Schultz (19 May 2019)
- Women turn out in greater numbers than in previous elections, The Economic Times, Aanchal Bansal (20 May 2019)
- "India Election Results: Modi and the B.J.P. Make History". NYT. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- "Modi thanks India for 'historic mandate'". 23 May 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
- "Lok Sabha Election 2019 - Party Alliance Details, General Elections". India Today. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
- "Assembly polls in 4 states with Lok Sabha elections but not in J&K- Malayala Manorama". english.manoramaonline.com. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "Lok Sabha elections 2019: Congress MP favours more seats for RJD in Bihar". 4 September 2018. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
- "AIADMK Proves it Mettle in Tamil Nadu, Maintains Hold on Govt After Winning 9 Bypoll Seats".
- Electoral system IPU
- Lok Sabha Election 2019 Phase 3 voting: How to vote without voter ID card, Business Today (23 April 2019)
- "General Voters". Systematic Voters' Education and Electoral Participation. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
- Singh, Vijaita (1 September 2018). "General election will be held in 2019 as per schedule, says Rajnath Singh". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
- "Lok Sabha Elections dates announced: Polls to be held from April 11 in 7 phases, counting on May 23". The Economic Times. 11 March 2019. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "Announcement of Schedule for General Elections to Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies in Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha & Sikkim, 2019". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
- Ahmad, Mudasir (11 March 2019). "Kashmir: Why Polls in Anantnag Lok Sabha Seat Will Be Held in Three Phases". The Wire. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
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- Turkmenistan: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- Uganda: "Kaguta Museveni "@KagutaMuseveni"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- Ukraine: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- United Kingdom: UK govt welcomes Modi's 'inspiring' re-election, PTI, Business Standard (23 May 2019)
- United States: Donald J. Trump (@realDonaldTrump), Twitter (23 May 2019)
- Uzbekistan: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 25 May 2019.
- Venezuela: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 25 May 2019.
- Vietnam: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 23 May 2019.
- Zambia: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 28 May 2019.
- Zimbabwe: "Emmerson Mnangagwa "@edmnangagwa"". Twitter. 23 May 2019.
- May 30, TIMESOFINDIA COM | Updated:; 2019; Ist, 23:03. "Cabinet Ministers of Modi Government: Full list of ministers in Modi Cabinet 2019 | India News – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 30 May 2019.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
- Lok Sabha Election Result Impact: Sensex creates history, breaches 40,000 mark to set record high, Zee Business (23 May 2019)
- Media related to 2019 Indian general election at Wikimedia Commons