2019 Indian general election
The 2019 Indian general election was held in seven phases from 11 April to 19 May 2019 to constitute the 17th Lok Sabha. The votes were counted and result was declared on 23 May. About 900 million people were eligible to vote and turnout was over 67 per cent – the highest ever as well as the highest participation by women voters.[note 2]
543[note 1] (of the 545) seats in the Lok Sabha
272 seats needed for a majority
Seat results by constituency. As this is a FPTP election, seat totals are not determined by popular vote, but instead by the result in each constituency.
The Bharatiya Janata Party won 303 seats, further increasing its substantial majority and the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance won 353 seats. The Indian National Congress party won 52 seats, and the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance won 91. Other parties and their alliances won 98 seats. Indian National Congress again failed to secure the requisite 10% of the seats (54 seats) in the Lok Sabha and hence India remains without an official opposition party.
Legislative assembly elections in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha and Sikkim were held simultaneously with the general election, as well as by-elections to twenty two seats of the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly.
All 543 elected MPs are elected from single-member constituencies using first-past-the-post voting. The President of India appoints an additional two members from the Anglo-Indian community if he believes that community is under-represented.
Eligible voters must be Indian citizens, 18 or older, an ordinary resident of the polling area of the constituency and registered to vote, possess a valid voter identification card issued by the Election Commission of India or an equivalent. some people convicted of electoral or other offences are barred from voting.
The election was scheduled to be held in seven phases. In Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, the election was held in all seven phases. The polling for the Anantnag constituency in the state of Jammu and Kashmir was held in three phases due to violence in the region.
|Election dates and number of constituencies|
|Phase 1||Phase 2||Phase 3||Phase 4||Phase 5||Phase 6||Phase 7|
|11 April||18 April||23 April||29 April||6 May||12 May||19 May|
|Jammu and Kashmir||6||2||2||1⁄3[n 1]||1⁄3[n 1]||11⁄3[n 1]|
|Tamil Nadu||39||38[n 2]|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||1||1|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||1||1|
|Daman and Diu||1||1|
|Total constituencies by end of phase||91||186||3021⁄3||3732⁄3||424||483||542[n 2]|
|per cent complete by end of phase||17%||34%||56%||69%||78%||89%||100%|
Rescheduled voting, cancellationsEdit
- Vellore, Tamil Nadu: Over ₹11 crore (US$1.6 million) in cash was seized in Vellore from DMK leaders – a regional party in Tamil Nadu. According to The News Minute, this cash is alleged to have been for bribing the voters. Based on the evidence collected during the raids, the Election Commission of India cancelled the 18 April election date in the Vellore constituency. The DMK leaders have denied wrongdoing and alleged a conspiracy.
- Tripura East, Tripura: The Election Commission of India deferred polling from 18 to 23 April due to the law and order situation. The poll panel took the decision following reports from the Special Police Observers that the circumstances were not conducive for holding free and fair elections in the constituency.
Allegations of undermining institutionsEdit
The opposition parties have accused the NDA government is destroying democratic institutions and processes. Modi denied and blamed Congress and the communists for undermining institutions including the police, CBI and the CAG, and cited the murder of BJP activists in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh. The Congress party, other opposition parties and a group of retired civil servants have accused the ECI as being compromised and as endorsing the model code of conduct violations by Narendra Modi and other BJP political leaders during their campaign. Another group of 81 retired civil servants, judges and academics disputed these allegations, made counter-allegations, and stated that the ECI acted fairly and similarly in alleged violations by either side. The group states that such political attacks on the ECI are a "deliberate attempt to denigrate and delegitimise the democratic institutions".
According to The Times of India, the major economic achievements of the incumbent NDA government include an inflation rate less than 4 per cent, the GST reform, the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code. Its programs, in recent years, that have positively touched many among the Indian masses, include the Jan Dhan Yojana, rural cooking gas and electricity for homes. According to the IMF, the Indian economy has been growing in recent years, its GDP growth rate is among the highest in the world for major economies, and India is expected to be the fastest growing major economy in 2019–2020 and 2020–2021, with real GDP projected to grow at 7.3 per cent. The GDP growth data has been disputed by a group of Indian social scientists, economists and the political opposition's election campaign, while a group of Indian chartered accountants has defended the data, the GDP calculation methodology, and questioned the motivations of those disputing the recent Indian GDP statistics.
The opposition's election campaign has claimed that both the demonetisation and GST law have "seriously hit small business, farmers and casual labour", states The Times of India. The incumbent has claimed that they inherited a country from the previous Congress-led government that was "a legacy of policy paralysis, corruption and economic fragility", and that the BJP-led government policies have placed India on better economic fundamentals and a fast gear. Modi claims that his government pursued demonetisation in the national interest, his government has identified and de-registered 338,000 shell companies, identified and recovered ₹130,000 crore (US$19 billion) in black money since 2014, and almost doubled India's tax base. The Congress party disputes the incumbents' claims, and has alleged that BJP offices have "become hubs of creating black money", and seeks a judicial inquiry into the Rafale deal with France and BJP's role in corruption.
Income tax raidsEdit
In April 2019, raids conducted by the Income Tax Department found bundles of unaccounted for cash amounting to ₹281 crore (US$41 million), along with liquor and documentary evidence in premises of people with close connections to Madhya Pradesh chief minister Kamal Nath of the Congress. Modi has highlighted this evidence to attack the Congress in its election campaign, alleging corruption is part of Congress party's culture.
National security and terrorismEdit
In response to the 2019 Pulwama attack, the Indian Air Force conducted airstrikes inside Pakistan — for the first time since the 1971 Indo-Pak war. The ongoing conflict with Pakistan became a significant factor in the election. The opposition parties accused of politicising the army, whilst the BJP countered their accusations by stating that such allegations raised by them were adversely affecting the morale of armed forces.
According to the Pew Research Center, both before and after the outbreak of recent India-Pakistan tensions, their 2018 and 2019 surveys suggest that the significant majority of the voters consider Pakistan as a "very serious threat" to their country, and terrorism to be a "very big problem".
According to the Pew Research Center, a majority of Indian voters consider the lack of employment opportunities as a "very big problem" in their country. "About 18.6 million Indians were jobless and another 393.7 million work in poor-quality jobs vulnerable to displacement", states the Pew report.
A report on unemployment prepared by the National Sample Survey Office's (NSSO's) periodic labour force survey, has not been officially released by the government. According to Business Today, this report is the "first comprehensive survey on employment conducted by a government agency after Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced demonetisation move in November 2016". According to this report, the 2017–2018 "usual status"[note 3] unemployment rate in India is 6.1 per cent, which is a four-decade high.[note 3] The government has claimed that the report was not final. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO) – a United Nations agency, unemployment is rising in India and the "unemployment rate in the country [India] will stand at 3.5 percent in 2018 and 2019 – the same level of unemployment seen in 2017 and 2016", instead of dropping to 3.4 percent as it had previously projected. According to the ILO's World Employment Social Outlook Report, the unemployment rate in India has been in the 3.4 to 3.6 percent range over the UPA-government led 2009–2014 and the NDA-government led 2014–2019 periods.
Opposition parties have claimed in their election campaign that the unemployment in India has reached crisis levels. The NDA government has denied the existence of any job crisis. Prime minister Narendra Modi claimed that jobs are not lacking but the accurate data on jobs has been lacking.
The opposition has attacked the NDA government's performance with the NSSO reported 6.1 percent unemployment data. Modi and his government have questioned this job statistics report, stating that "most surveys that try to capture unemployment rate are skewed since these did not cover the unorganised sector, which accounts for 85–90 per cent of jobs [in India]".
Agrarian and rural distressEdit
The Congress party campaign has highlighted "agrarian distress" as an election issue. The BJP campaign has highlighted that the Congress party had been in power for five generations of the Nehru dynasty and its past promises and campaign issues have been empty. It claims that the recent farmer loan waivers by Congress have not reached "even 10% of the farmers" nor has it helped the financial situation of the farmers. BJP highlights that its "Kisan Samman Nidhi" helps the small farmers at the time of seed planting through a direct deposit of ₹6000 to their accounts. The opposition has accused this as being an attempt to lure voters.
According to The Times of India, a group of farmer associations have demanded that the 2019 election manifesto of competing political parties should promise to "keep agriculture out of the World Trade Organization (WTO)" and that the interests of Indian farmers must not be compromised in global trade treaties. They have also demanded loan waivers and income support for the agriculture sector. According to the Business Standard and the United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization, India has witnessed record crop harvests in recent years including 2017 when its farmers grew more foodgrains than ever before. However, the farmers consider the "low remunerative prices" they receive in the free market to be too low and a need for the Indian government to establish higher minimum support prices for agricultural products. These farmers consider this an issue for the 2019 general elections.
Social media abuses and fake newsEdit
According to The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, the election had attracted a systematic attempt to spread misinformation through social media. Facebook said that over a hundred of these advocacy accounts spreading disinformation were traced to "employees of the Pakistani military public relations wing". Some others have been linked to the INC and BJP.
Political parties spent over ₹53 crore (US$7.7 million) with the largest spending by BJP on digital platforms for online ads. The BJP placed 2,500 ads on Facebook while the Congress placed 3,686 ads. According to a study by Vidya Narayanan and colleagues at the Oxford Internet Institute, social media was used by all the major parties and alliances, and all of them linked or posted divisive and conspiratorial content and images. According to Narayanan, "a third of the BJP's images, a quarter of the INC's images, and a tenth the SP-BSP's images were catalogued as divisive and conspiratorial". The Narayanan et al study added that "we observed very limited amounts of hate speech, gore or pornography in either platform samples" by BJP, Congress or SP-BSP, but the election did include proportionally more polarising information on social media than other countries except for the US presidential election in 2016.
NaMo TV and Modi biopicEdit
According to The Financial Times and other news sources, on 31 March 2019, the cable and satellite operators – such as Tata Sky, DishTV, and Videocon – added a new "NaMo TV" channel to the dozens of news and entertainment channels they already offer. Further, independently, a Bollywood biopic named "PM Narendra Modi" starring Vivek Oberoi was due for release in early April. The NaMo TV channel exclusively focuses on replaying Narendra Modi's speeches, the live coverage of rallies by Modi and key leaders of the Bharatiya Janata Party, and presenting the incumbent government's initiatives and achievements in the last five years to the audience that chooses to tune to the channel. The election time Bollywood biopic, states The Financial Times, is "adulatory, which depicts his [Modi's] rise from humble origins as the son of a railway station tea-seller to a strongman who vows to avenge Pakistani terror attacks".
The Indian opposition led by the Congress Party and activists opposed to the incumbent Bharatiya Janata Party have expressed outrage and alleged that it violates India's election laws and the regulations on "broadcast channels" under the Programme Codes of the Cable TV Act of 1994. The Bharatiya Janata Party and its supporters claim that this is an exercise of the "Right to Free Speech" protected by the Article 19 of the Indian Constitution, a means to address the bias against them and to communicate directly to the voters. They also claim that the NaMo TV does not violate any regulations or laws, as similar "Direct-to-Home (DTH) operator channels" have already been distributed by cable and satellite operators in the past since 2006. Others state that the audience has a choice to ignore or tune into the channel, and "only Modi's most devoted loyalists were likely to tune in". However, they state that if the BJP pressures public facilities and commercial establishments to show it exclusively during the elections then that would lead to abuse. The Congress Party and activists have filed a complaint to the Indian Election Commission, demanding that the NaMo TV channel be stopped. The Election Commission announced on 12 April that any content broadcast on the NaMo TV must be pre-approved by its committee, and only pre-certified content can be broadcast. On 13 April 2019, the BJP submitted the contents of NaMo TV to the Election Commission designated "certification and monitoring committee" for its review and pre-certification. The Election Commission ruled on 19 April 2019, that live speeches of Narendra Modi and other BJP leaders can be broadcast on NaMo TV as well as Twitter platform tweets can be broadcast by Rahul Gandhi and Congress leaders during the silence period. However, neither should mention the constituency or candidates covered by the silence period immediately prior to the polling date.
The BJP has highlighted that the Congress party has relied on Nehru's dynasty for leadership since India's independence, its lack of internal party institutions and claimed that whenever Congress has been in power, the freedom of press and Indian government institutions have "taken a severe beating". During the election campaign, its leaders have mentioned the Emergency of 1975, the nepotism, corruption and widespread abuses of human rights under the Congress rule in the past. Congress-led alliance leader H. D. Kumaraswamy – the son of a former prime minister of India and the current chief minister of Karnataka, has countered that "India developed because of dynasty politics", stating that "dynasty politics are not the main issue, rather country's problems are". The Congress has alleged hypocrisy by the BJP, claiming that the BJP itself forms alliances with dynasty-based parties such as the Akali Dal in Punjab, and that family relatives of senior BJP leaders such as Rajnath Singh and Arun Jaitley have been in politics too.
According to an IndiaSpend report published by the BloombergQuint, the smaller and regional parties such as the Jammu and Kashmir National Conference, Lok Jan Sakti Party, Shiromani Akali Dal, Biju Janata Dal and Samajwadi Party have higher densities of dynasty-derived candidates and elected representatives in recent years. While both the Congress and the BJP have also nominated candidates from political dynasties, states the report, the difference between them is that in Congress "top party leadership has been handed down from generation to generation within the same [Nehru Gandhi dynasty] family", while there has been a historic non-dynastic diversity in the top leadership within the BJP. According to the report, while BJP has also nominated candidates from political dynasties, its better public relations operation "can leap to its defence when attacked on the same grounds". In contrast to the IndiaSpend report, analysis of Kanchan Chandra, a prominent professor of Politics, of the 2004, 2009 and 2014 general elections included a finding that the Congress party has had about twice or more dynastic parliamentarians than the BJP at those elections, and higher than all major political parties in India except the Samajwadi Party.[note 4] Many of these dynastic politicians in India who inherit the leadership positions have never held any jobs and lack state or local experience, states Anjali Bohlken – a professor and political science scholar, and this raises concerns of rampant nepotism and appointments of their own friends, relatives and cronies if elected. The BJP has targeted the Congress party in the 2019 elections for alleged nepotism and a family dynasty for leadership.
EC actions under Article 324Edit
- 12 January 2019 – Prime Minister Modi launched the BJP's election campaign.
- 14 February 2019 – The INC president Rahul Gandhi launched his campaign from Lal Dungri village in Gujarat's Dharampur.
- 24 March 2019 – The Aam Aadmi Party began its campaign in Delhi.
- 2 April 2019 – The Trinamool Congress party launched its campaign from Dinhata, Coochbehar.
- 7 April 2019 – Bahujan Samaj Party and Samajwadi Party began campaigning together as an alliance (Mahagathbandhan) along with regional parties such as the Rashtriya Lok Dal. Their first joint campaign started in Deoband in Saharanpur district of Uttar Pradesh.
Highlights of the Congress manifestoEdit
- Introduce a Nyuntam Aay Yojana welfare program wherein ₹72,000 (US$1,000) per year will be transferred directly to the bank account of a woman-member in each family in the poorest 20 percent households.
- Create 1 million "Seva Mitra" jobs in rural and urban local government bodies. Fill all 400,000 central government vacancies before March 2020, and encourage state governments to fill their 2,000,000 vacancies. Enact a law that requires all non-government controlled employers with over 100 employees to implement an apprentice program.
- Enact a permanent National Commission on Agricultural Development and Planning and introduce a "Kisan Budget" (Farmer Budget) in the parliament every year. Waive all farmer loans in all states with any amounts outstanding.
- Enact a Right to Homestead Act that will provide free land to every household that does not own a home.
- Enact a Right to Healthcare Act and guarantee every citizen free diagnostics, free medicines, free hospitalisation, and free out-patient care. Double spending on healthcare to 3 percent of its GDP by 2024.
- Double spending on education to 6 percent of its GDP by 2024.
- Revise the national GST law from three tax tiers to a single moderate rate of tax. Reduce taxes on exported products to zero. Exempt from the GST essential goods and services that are currently not exempt. Enact a new Direct Taxes Code.
- Augment and rapid construction of national highways. Modernise Indian railway infrastructure. Promote green energy. Manufacturing promotion.
- Increase defence spending.
- Enact a National Election Fund, wherein public funds will be distributed to recognised political parties to run their campaign
- Preserve special status and special rights to natives of Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370 and 35A.
- Amend the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958. End the Sedition law (Section 124A of the Indian Penal Code).
Highlights of the BJP manifestoEdit
- Double farmer incomes by 2022 by completing all major and micro-irrigation infrastructure projects, opening adequate markets and modern farm produce storage centres, implement minimum price supports for farmer produce, farmer loans and all-weather rural roads. Introduce a pension bill for small and marginal farmers to provide social security after 60 years of age.
- Bring all secondary schools under the national board quality purview. Invest ₹100,000 crore (US$14 billion) in higher education, open new and increase seats at existing engineering, management and law schools. Establish skills and innovations centre at block-level in every town. Enhance higher education opportunities for women by introducing financial support and subsidies programs. Source 10 percent of government procurement from companies with more than 50 percent female employees.
- Ensure a pucca (lit. brick-solid, modern) house, safe potable water, toilet, LPG gas cylinder, electricity, and banking account for every family. Reduce the percentage of families living under the poverty line to a single digit by 2024.
- Double the length of national highways. Improve fuel quality by mandating 10 percent ethanol in petrol. Scale renewable energy capacity to 175 GW.
- Electrify and convert to broad gauge all railway tracks.
- Establish 150,000 health and wellness centres. Start 75 new medical colleges. Raise doctor-to-population ratio to 1:1400. Triple childcare facilities. Achieve 100 percent immunisation of all babies.
- Raise India's ranking further in "ease of doing business". Double exports, introduce single-window compliance procedures for all businesses.
- Reduce air pollution by eliminating all crop residue burning.
- Digitise paperwork and proceedings, modernise the courts.
- Launch and promote a National Digital Library with e-books and leading journals to provide free knowledge accessible to all students. Launch a "Study in India" program to bring foreign students to institutes of higher education.
- Zero tolerance for terrorism, fund resources to strengthen national security, guarantee veterans, and soldier welfare, modernise police forces.
- End special status and special rights to natives of Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370 and 35A.
Other national and regional parties have released their manifestos too:
- The Tamil Nadu-based regional parties AIADMK and DMK released their manifesto on 18 March 2019, with each promising to release the seven Tamils jailed after being found guilty for their role in the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi, a former Congress party leader and prime minister of India. The AIADMK promised to press for the political rights of the Tamil people in the Eelam region of Sri Lanka, while the DMK has promised Indian citizenship to all Sri Lankan expats. According to the Deccan Herald, the AIADMK has promised a cash transfer of ₹18,000 (US$260) per year to "all families below the poverty level, destitute women, widows without income, differently-abled, landless agricultural labourers, rural and urban manual labourers and destitute senior citizens". The AIADMK also promised to raise the tax exemption limit and revisions to the GST law. The DMK promised a probe into Rafale fighter jet deal, and a plan to distribute free sanitary napkins to working women along with starting martial arts schools for girls.
- Biju Janata Dal (BJD) released its manifesto on 9 April 2019. It promised a ₹100,000 (US$1,400) zero-interest crop loan to farmers every year, a ₹500,000 (US$7,200) zero-interest loan to women-run self-help groups, 75 percent jobs reservation in Odisha-based companies to Odisha youth, free education to all girls and a marriage assistance grant of ₹25,000 (US$360) to daughters of poor families. It also promised to complete two expressways.
- Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPIM) manifesto promised to raise the minimum wage to ₹216,000 (US$3,100) per year, an old age pension of ₹72,000 (US$1,000) per year and universal public distribution of 35 kilograms of foodgrains per family. It also stated the restoration of inheritance tax and an increase in the taxes on individuals and corporations. It also promised spending 6 per cent of GDP on education, enacting a Right to Free Health Care with 3.5 per cent of GDP on health in the short term and 5 per cent in the long term, introduction of price controls on essential drugs, breaking monopoly of drug multinationals, as well as enact a Right to Guaranteed Employment in urban areas.
- Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) promised to open talks with Pakistan on terrorism. It also promised to expand trade and political relationship with Russia, and seek to weaken Russia's ties with China and Pakistan.
- Samajwadi Party promised an annual pension of ₹36,000 (US$520) to poor families in a form of a cash transfer to women. It has also proposed a new property tax of 2 percent on homes valued above ₹25,000,000 (US$360,000) as well as raising income taxes on the affluent. It also promised to create 100,000 new jobs every year.
- Telugu Desam Party released its manifesto on 5 April 2019. It promised zero-interest loans to farmer without any caps, a grant of ₹15,000 (US$220) per year to each farmer as investment support, a grant of ₹100,000 (US$1,400) to each family with a daughter in the year of her marriage, an unemployment allowance of ₹3,000 (US$43) for any youth who has completed intermediate education, and free laptops to all students at the intermediate level.
- AITMC's manifesto was released on 27 March 2019. It promised a judicial probe into demonetisation, a review of GST law, and sought to bring back the Planning Commission. It also promised free medical care, expanding the "100-day work scheme" currently operating in India to "200-day work scheme" along with a pay increase.
- Aam Aadmi Party released its manifesto on 25 April 2019 promising full statehood for Delhi to give the Delhi government control over police and other institutions. The manifesto promised 85 per cent reservations in the Delhi-based colleges and jobs for the voters of Delhi and their families.
Several organisations have offered varying estimates for the cost of election campaign. The Centre for Media Studies in New Delhi estimates the election campaign could exceed $7 billion. According to the Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR), an election watchdog, in the financial year 2017–18 BJP received ₹4,370,000,000 (US$63 million), about 12 times more donations than Congress and five other national parties combined.
The electoral bonds in denominations ranging from 1,000 rupees to 10 million rupees ($14 to $140,000) can be purchased and donated to a political party. The bonds don't carry the name of the donor and are exempt from tax.[note 5] Factly – an India data journalism portal, traced the electoral bond donations for 2018 under India's Right to Information Act. According to Factly, electoral bonds worth about ₹10,600,000,000 (US$150 million) were purchased and donated in 2018. According to Bloomberg, this accounted for 31.2 percent of political donations in 2018, while 51.4 percent of the total donated amount were each below ₹20,000 (US$290) and these too were from unknown donors. About 47 percent of the donations to political parties were from known sources. Between 1 January and 31 March 2019, donors bought ₹17,100,000,000 (US$250 million) worth of electoral bonds and donated. The spending in elections boosts national GDP, and the 2009 election spending contributed about 0.5 percent to GDP.
According to Centre for Media Studies, the BJP spent over Rs 28,000 crore (or 45 per cent) of the Rs 60,000 crore spent by all political parties during the polls. Congress questions BJP over its poll expenditure 
Candidates with criminal chargesEdit
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2019)
According to the Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR) – an Indian advocacy group, 464 of the total 2,856 contestants in the first two phases of the election have disclosed criminal cases against themselves in their nomination papers, as required by Indian election disclosure laws. In the first two phases of elections, the Congress Party topped the list, having nominated 23 candidates with pending criminal cases to compete in the parliamentary elections. The BJP and BSP ranked next, each with 16 candidates.
Parties and alliancesEdit
More than 50 parties contested in these elections. Most of them were small with regional appeal. The main parties are the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Indian National Congress (INC). With the exception of 2014, no single party has won the majority of seats in the Lok Sabha since 1984, and therefore,forming alliances is the norm in Indian elections.
There were four main national pre-poll alliances. They are the NDA headed by the BJP, the UPA headed by the INC, the grand alliance of regional parties, and the left front of Communist-leaning parties. Given the volatile nature of coalition politics in India, alliances may change during and after the election. It was the first time when BJP (437) contested more seats than Congress (421) in the Lok Sabha elections.
The INC has not formed an alliance in states where it is in direct contest with the BJP. These states include Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh. It has formed alliances with regional parties in Jammu and Kashmir, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Jharkhand, and Kerala.
In January 2019, Bahujan Samaj Party and Samajwadi Party announced a grand alliance (Mahagathbandhan) to contest 76 out of the 80 seats in Uttar Pradesh leaving two seats, namely Amethi and Rae Bareli, for INC and another two for other political parties.
|Bharatiya Janata Party||Andhra Pradesh||25||437||0||National Democratic Alliance (NDA)|
|Jammu and Kashmir||6||3|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||1||0|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||1||0|
|Daman and Diu||1||1|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||1||0|
|All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||20||1|
|Janata Dal (United)||Bihar||17||19||16|
|Shiromani Akali Dal||Punjab||10||2|
|Pattali Makkal Katchi||Tamil Nadu||7||0|
|Lok Janshakti Party||Bihar||6||6|
|Bharath Dharma Jana Sena||Kerala||4||0|
|Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||4||0|
|Asom Gana Parishad||Assam||3||0|
|Apna Dal (Sonelal)||Uttar Pradesh||2||2|
|All Jharkhand Students Union||Jharkhand||1||1|
|Puthiya Tamilagam||Tamil Nadu||1||0|
|Tamil Maanila Congress||Tamil Nadu||1||0|
|Puthiya Needhi Katchi||Tamil Nadu||1||0|
|All India N.R. Congress||Puducherry||1||0|
|Bodoland People's Front||Assam||1||0|
|Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party||Nagaland||1||1|
|Kerala Congress (Thomas)||Kerala||1||0|
|Rashtriya Loktantrik Party||Rajasthan||1||1|
|Indian National Congress||Andhra Pradesh||25||421||0||United Progressive Alliance (UPA)|
|Jammu and Kashmir||5||0|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||1||1|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||1||0|
|Daman and Diu||1||0|
|Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||20 +||23|
|Nationalist Congress Party||Maharashtra||20||27||4|
|Rashtriya Janata Dal||Bihar||19||20||0|
|Janata Dal (Secular)||Karnataka||7||9||1|
|Rashtriya Lok Samta Party||Bihar||7||0|
|Jharkhand Mukti Morcha||Jharkhand||4||9||1|
|Jan Adhikar Party||Uttar Pradesh||3||9||0|
|Jan Adhikar Party (Loktantrik)||Bihar||1||0|
|Communist Party of India (State level)||Odisha||1||3||0|
|Communist Party of India (Marxist) (State level)||Odisha||1||3||0|
|Hindustani Awam Morcha||Bihar||3||0|
|Indian Union Muslim League||Kerala||2||6||2|
|Vikassheel Insaan Party||Bihar||6||0|
|Jharkhand Vikas Morcha||Jharkhand||2||0|
|Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi||Tamil Nadu||2||7||1|
|Bahujan Vikas Aaghadi||Maharashtra||1||0|
|Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation (State level)||Bihar||1||0|
|Indhiya Jananayaga Katchi||Tamil Nadu||1||0|
|Kerala Congress (M)||Kerala||1||1|
|Kongunadu Makkal Desia Katchi||Tamil Nadu||1||0|
|Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||1||0|
|Revolutionary Socialist Party (State level)||Kerala||1||1|
|Bahujan Samaj Party||Andhra Pradesh||3||338||0||Mahagathbandhan
|Jammu and Kashmir||2||0|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||1||0|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||1||0|
|Daman and Diu||1||0|
|Samajwadi Party||Madhya Pradesh||2||47||0|
|Rashtriya Lok Dal||Uttar Pradesh||3||0|
|Gondwana Ganatantra Party||Madhya Pradesh||1||0|
|Loktantra Suraksha Party||Haryana||2||0|
|Punjab Ekta Party||Punjab||3||0|
|Lok Insaaf Party||Punjab||3||0|
|Communist Party of India (State level)||Andhra Pradesh||2||4||0|
|Communist Party of India (Marxist) (State level)||Andhra Pradesh||2||0|
|Revolutionary Marxist Party of India (State level)||Punjab||1||0|
|Jana Sena Party||Andhra Pradesh||18||23||0|
|Communist Party of India (Marxist)||Assam||2||68||0||Left Front|
|Communist Party of India||Bihar||2||17||0|
|Revolutionary Socialist Party||West Bengal||3||0|
|All India Forward Bloc||Andhra Pradesh||3||15||0|
|Telugu Desam Party||Andhra Pradesh||25||3||Other parties|
|YSR Congress Party||Andhra Pradesh||25||22|
|Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh||Maharashtra||TBF||2||0|
|Amma Makkal Munnetra Kazhagam||Puducherry||1||39||0|
|Makkal Needhi Maiam||Puducherry||1||38||0|
|Biju Janata Dal||Odisha||21||12|
|Telangana Rashtra Samithi||Telangana||16||9|
|Social Democratic Party of India||Tamil Nadu||1||3||0|
|All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen||Maharashtra||1||3||1|
|Naam Tamilar Katchi||Puducherry||1||39||0|
|Aam Aadmi Party||Bihar||3||34||0|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||1||0|
|Pragatisheel Samajwadi Party (Lohiya)||Bihar||3||96||0|
|Jammu and Kashmir||1||0|
|Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party||Jammu and Kashmir||4||0|
|Jammu & Kashmir National Conference||Jammu and Kashmir||4||3|
|National People's Party||Arunachal Pradesh||1||10||0|
|Jannayak Janata Party||Haryana||7||0|
|Uttarakhand Kranti Dal||Uttarakhand||4||0|
|Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation||Andhra Pradesh||2||9||0|
|Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Red Star||Andhra Pradesh||1||4||0|
|Socialist Unity Centre of India (Communist)||Bihar||10||33||0|
|All India Trinamool Congress||Assam||8||72||0|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||1||0|
|Indian Gandhiyan Party||Bihar||2||66||0|
|All India Hindustan Congress Party||Andaman and Nicobar Islands||1||2||0|
|Chandigarh Ki Aawaz Party||Chandigarh||1||0|
|Hindustan Shakti Sena||Chandigarh||1||0|
|Akhil Bhartiya Apna Dal||Chandigarh||1||0|
|Rashtriya Lokswaraj Party||Chandigarh||1||0|
|Sarvjan Sewa Party||Chandigarh||1||0|
|Ambedkar National Congress||Chandigarh||1||5||0|
|Rashtriya Jankranti Party||Chandigarh||1||0|
|Bhartiya Kisan Party||Chandigarh||1||5||0|
|Samaj Adhikar Kalyan Party||Chandigarh||1||0|
|Bharat Prabhat Party||Chandigarh||1||7||0|
|Bhartiya Manavadhikaar Federal Party||Chandigarh||1||0|
|Bahujan Mukti Party||Bihar||11||18||0|
|Janral Samaj Party||Chandigarh||1||0|
|Bhartiya Rashtrawadi Party||Chandigarh||1||0|
|Bhartiya Jan Samman Party||Chandigarh||1||0|
|Republican Party of India (A)||Chandigarh||1||22||0|
|Republican Party of India||Bihar||1||0|
|Bhartiya Tribal Party||Dadra and Nagar Haveli||1||3||0|
|Navsarjan Bharat Party||Dadra and Nagar Haveli||1||0|
|Rashtriya Rashtrawadi Party||Delhi||3||4||0|
|Rashtriya Samrasta Party||Delhi||3||0|
|Ekta Samaj Party||Delhi||1||17||0|
|Peoples Party of India (Democratic)||Bihar||7||0|
|Rashtriya Jansambhavna Party||Delhi||1||10||0|
|Kanshiram Bahujan Dal||Delhi||1||0|
|Right to Recall Party||Delhi||2||3||0|
|Sanatan Sanskriti Raksha Dal||Delhi||3||0|
|Aapki Apni Party (Peoples)||Delhi||6||0|
|Mazdoor Kirayedar Vikas Party||Delhi||5||0|
|Proutist Bloc, India||Delhi||3||5||0|
|Bharat Lok Sewak Party||Delhi||3||0|
|Rashtra Nirman Party||Delhi||3||0|
|Pyramid Party of India||Delhi||5||29||0|
|Bhartiya Insan Party||Delhi||3||0|
|Uttarakhand Pragatisheel Party||Delhi||1||2||0|
|Satya Bahumat Party||Delhi||3||0|
|National Apni Party||Delhi||1||0|
|The National Road Map Party of India||Delhi||1||0|
|Jai Prakash Janata Dal||Delhi||2||7||0|
|Anjaan Aadmi Party||Delhi||1||0|
|Akhil Bharatiya Manavata Paksha||Delhi||1||0|
|Corruption Abolition Party||Delhi||1||0|
|Akhand Rashtrawadi Party||Delhi||2||0|
|Jammu & Kashmir National Panthers Party||Delhi||1||0|
|Atulya Bharat Party||Delhi||1||0|
|Sanyukt Vikas Party||Delhi||1||0|
|Sanjhi Virasat Party||Delhi||1||0|
|Bhartiya Janta Dal (Integrated)||Delhi||1||0|
|Sarvodaya Prabhat Party||Delhi||1||0|
|Bhartiya Pragatisheel Congress||Delhi||1||0|
|Socialist Janata Party||Delhi||1||0|
|Hum Bhartiya Party||Delhi||1||0|
|Voters Party International||Delhi||1||11||0|
|Akhil Bharatiya Jan Sangh||Bihar||1||2||0|
|National Youth Party||Delhi||2||0|
|Parivartan Samaj Party||Delhi||1||0|
|Jai Maha Bharath Party||Delhi||1||0|
|Jan Samman party||Delhi||1||0|
|Rashtriya Jan Adhikar Party||Delhi||1||0|
|Rashtriya Janshakti Party (Secular)||Delhi||1||0|
|Agila India Makkal Kazhagam||Puducherry||1||0|
|Anti Corruption Dynamic Party||Puducherry||1||0|
|Puducherry Development Party||Puducherry||1||0|
|Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) (Liberation)||Bihar||4||8||0|
|Republican Party of India (Kamble)||Gao||1||0|
|North East India Develop||Manipur||1||0|
|Manipur People’s Party||Manipur||1||0|
|Manipur Democratic Peoples's Front||Manipur||1||0|
|Rashtriya Janhit Sangharsh Party||Manipur||1||0|
|Naga Peoples Front||Manipur||1||0|
|North East India Development Party||Manipur||1||0|
|Mizo National Front||Mizoram||1||1|
|Peoples Representation for Identity and Status of Mizoram (PRISM) Party||Mizoram||1||0|
|United Democratic Party||Meghalaya||1||0|
|Sikkim Democratic Front||Sikkim||1||0|
|Sikkim Krantikari Morcha||Sikkim||1||1|
|Hamro Sikkim Party||Sikkim||1||0|
|Sikkim Republican Party||Sikkim||1||0|
|Sikkim United Front||Sikkim||1||0|
|All Indians Party||Sikkim||1||0|
|Indigenous People's Front of Tripura||Tripura||2||0|
|Tripura Peoples Party||Tripura||1||0|
|Ambedkarite Party of India||Tripura||1||14||0|
|Secular Democratic Congress||Karnataka||1||0|
|Republican Party of India (Karnataka)||Karnataka||3||0|
|Karnataka Jantha Paksha||Karnataka||2||0|
|Raita Bharat Party||Karnataka||1||0|
|Hindustan Janta Party||Karnataka||3||0|
|Uttama Prajaakeeya Party||Karnataka||26||0|
|Karnataka Karmikara Paksha||Karnataka||4||0|
|Indian Christian Front||Karnataka||2||0|
|Democratic Prajakranthi Party Secularist||Karnataka||1||0|
|Karnataka Pragnyavantha Janatha Party||Karnataka||1||0|
|Bharatiya Prajagala Kalyana Paksha||Karnataka||2||0|
|Gareeb Aadmi Party||Karnataka||1||0|
|Jai Vijaya Bharathi Party||Karnataka||1||0|
|Sarva Janata Party||Karnataka||3||0|
|Pragatishil Samajwadi Party (Lohia)||Bihar||4||8||0|
|Kannada Chalavali Vatal Paksha||Karnataka||1||0|
|Indian Labour Party (Ambedkar Phule)||Karnataka||3||4||0|
|Samajwadi Forward Bloc||Karnataka||1||2||0|
|Akhil Bharatiya Muslim League (Secular)||Karnataka||1||0|
|Praja Satta Party||Karnataka||1||0|
|Bahujan Maha Party||Karnataka||2||3||0|
|National Development Party||Karnataka||1||0|
|Purvanchal Janta Party (Secular)||Karnataka||1||7||0|
|Bhartiya BahujanKranti Dal||Karnataka||1||0|
|Kranti Kari Jai Hind Sena||Karnataka||1||0|
|Bharatiya Jan Kranti Dal (Democratic)||Karnataka||1||5||0|
|Karnataka Praja Party (RaithaParva)||Karnataka||2||0|
|Indian New Congress Party||Karnataka||3||0|
|Samajwadi Janata Party(Karnataka)||Karnataka||1||0|
|Ambedkar Samaj Party||Karnataka||4||0|
|India Praja Bandhu Party||Karnataka||1||6||0|
|Azad Mazdoor Kissan Party||Karnataka||1||0|
|Rashtriya Samaj Paksha||Karnataka||2||0|
|haratiya Peoples Party||Karnataka||1||0|
|Marxist Leninist Party of India (Red Flag)||Karnataka||1||0|
|Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Red Star||Karnataka||2||4||0|
|Aihra National Party||Karnataka||1||0|
|Proutist Sarva Samaj||Karnataka||1||2||0|
|Bharat Bhoomi Party||Karnataka||1||3||0|
|Jana Jagruti Party||Andhra Pradesh||8||0|
|Republican Party of India (Khobragade)||Andhra Pradesh||1||0|
|Janasena Party||Andhra Pradesh||16||0|
|Dalita Bahujana Party||Andhra Pradesh||1||0|
|Vishwa Jana Party||Andhra Pradesh||2||0|
|Radical Democrats||Andhra Pradesh||1||0|
|Navodayam Party||Andhra Pradesh||2||0|
|Mundadugu Praja Party||Andhra Pradesh||4||0|
|All Peoples Party||Andhra Pradesh||1||0|
|All India Praja Party||Andhra Pradesh||3||0|
|Hardam Manavtawadi Rashtriya Dal||Andhra Pradesh||1||0|
|Praja Shanthi Party||Andhra Pradesh||4||0|
|Navarang Congress Party||Andhra Pradesh||3||0|
|National Dalitha Dhal Party||Andhra Pradesh||1||0|
|Rajyadhikara Party||Andhra Pradesh||1||0|
|Anna YSR Congress Party||Andhra Pradesh||2||0|
|Rayalaseema Rashtra Samithi||Andhra Pradesh||1||0|
|B. C. United Front||Andhra Pradesh||1||0|
|National Nava Kranthi Party||Andhra Pradesh||1||0|
|Nava Samaj Party||Andhra Pradesh||1||0|
|Marxist Communist Party of India (United)||Andhra Pradesh||1||0|
|Rashtriya Praja Congress (Secular)||Andhra Pradesh||1||0|
|Rashtriya Krantikari Samajwadi Party||Andhra Pradesh||1||0|
|Navataram Party||Andhra Pradesh||1||0|
|Janapaalana Party (Democratic)||Andhra Pradesh||1||0|
|Andhra Rastra Praja Samithi||Andhra Pradesh||1||0|
|Samaanya Praja Party||Andhra Pradesh||1||0|
|Andhra Chaitanya Party||Andhra Pradesh||1||0|
|People's Party of Arunachal||Arunachal Pradesh||2||0|
|Autonomous State Demand Committee||Assam||1||0|
|All India United Democratic Front||Assam||3||1|
|National Republican Congress||Assam||2||0|
|National Republican Congress||Assam||1||0|
|Bharatiya Gana Parishad||Assam||4||0|
|Hindusthan Nirman Dal||Assam||5||8||0|
|Bharatiya National Janta Dal||Assam||1||0|
|Swarna Bharat Party||Assam||1||0|
|Asom Jana Morcha||Assam||4||0|
|Bodoland Peoples Front||Assam||1||0|
|United People’s Party, Liberal||Assam||2||0|
|Assam Dristi Party||Assam||1||0|
|Uttarakhand Kranti Dal (Democratic)||Uttarakhand||4||0|
|UTTARAKHAND PARIVARTAN PARTY||Uttarakhand||1||0|
|Bhartiya Sarvodaya Party||Uttarakhand||1||0|
|Pragatisheel Lok Manch||Uttarakhand||1||0|
|Sarv Vikas Party||Uttarakhand||1||0|
|Bihar Lok Nirman Dal||Bihar||7||0|
|Bhartiya Kranti Vir Party||Bihar||1||0|
|Shoshit Samaj Dal||Bihar||6||0|
|Hindustani Awam Morcha (Secular)||Bihar||3||0|
|Akhil Hind Forward Bloc (Krantikari)||Bihar||2||0|
|Swaraj Party (Loktantrik)||Bihar||2||0|
|Bhartiya Dalit Party||Bihar||3||0|
|Bharatiya Momin Front||Bihar||7||0|
|Bhartiya Lokmat Rashtrwadi Party||Bihar||2||3||0|
|Jantantrik Vikas Party||Bihar||4||0|
|Rashtriya Dal United||Bihar||1||0|
|Suheldev Bharatiya Samaj Party||Bihar||5||0|
|Mithilanchal Mukti Morcha||Bihar||1||0|
|Bharatiya Rashtriya Morcha||Bihar||1||0|
|Moolniwasi Samaj Party||Bihar||2||0|
|Public Mission Party||Bihar||2||0|
|Moulik Adhikar Party||Bihar||1||0|
|Aam Janta Party Rashtriya||Bihar||3||0|
|Janta Dal Rashtravadi||Bihar||2||0|
|Bharat Bhrashtachar Mitao Party||Bihar||1||0|
|Sathi Aur Aapka Faisala Party||Bihar||2||0|
|Bajjikanchal Vikas Party||Bihar||8||0|
|Rajnaitik Vikalp Party||Bihar||1||0|
|Rashtriya Samta Party (Secular)||Bihar||4||0|
|Bharatiya Bahujan Congress||Bihar||4||0|
|Lok Jan Vikas Morcha||Bihar||2||0|
|Rashtriya mahan Gantantra Party||Bihar||3||0|
|Bhartiya Mitra Party||Bihar||3||0|
|Samajwadi Janata Dal Democratic||Bihar||1||0|
|Aadarsh Mithila Party||Bihar||2||0|
|Aam Adhikar Morcha||Bihar||4||0|
|Rashtra Sewa Dal||Bihar||1||0|
|Asli Deshi Party||Bihar||4||0|
|Janhit Kisan Party||Bihar||1||0|
|Garib Janshakti Party||Bihar||3||0|
|Rashtravadi Janata Party||Bihar||2||0|
|Akhil Bhartiya Mithila Party||Bihar||1||0|
|Maanavvaadi Janta Party||Bihar||2||0|
|Bhartiya New Sanskar Krantikari Party||Bihar||1||0|
|Jago Hindustan Party||Bihar||2||0|
|Rashtriya Hind Sena||Bihar||5||0|
|Sankhyanupati Bhagidari Party||Bihar||2||0|
|Aap Aur Hum Party||Bihar||1||0|
|Bharat Nirman Party||Bihar||1||0|
|Yuva Krantikari Party||Bihar||4||0|
|National Jagaran Party||Bihar||1||0|
|Samagra Utthan Party||Bihar||1||0|
|Bahujan Nyay Dal||Bihar||3||0|
|Rashtriya Ulama Council||Bihar||1||0|
|Loktantrik Jan Swaraj Party||Bihar||1||0|
|Rashtrawadi Chetna Party||Bihar||1||0|
|Apna Kisan Party||Bihar||1||0|
|Bharatiya Aam Awam Party||Bihar||1||0|
|Vanchit Samaj Party||Bihar||5||0|
|Rashtriya Sarvjan Vikas Party||Bihar||1||0|
|Wazib Adhikar Party||Bihar||1||0|
|Bahujan Azad Party||Bihar||1||0|
|Kisan Party of India||Bihar||1||0|
|Bharatiya Samta Samaj Party||Bihar||1||0|
|Swatantra Samaj Party||Bihar||1||0|
|Rashtriya Sahyog Party||Bihar||1||0|
|Jai Hind Party||Bihar||1||0|
|Lok Sewa Dal||Bihar||1||0|
|Janta Raj Vikas Party||Bihar||1||0|
|Lok Chetna Dal||Bihar||2||0|
|Rashtriya Pragati Party||Bihar||2||0|
|Naga People's Front||1|
|Akhil Bharat Samagra Kranti Party||Chhattisgarh||1||0|
|Gondvana Gantantra Party||Chhattisgarh||10||0|
|Rashtriya Jansabha Party||Chhattisgarh||7||0|
|Bhartiya Sarvjan Hitey Samaj Party||Chhattisgarh||1||0|
|Adhikar Vikas Party||Chhattisgarh||1||0|
|Chhattisgarh Swabhiman Manch||Chhattisgarh||1||0|
|Bhartiya Shakti Chetna Party||Chhattisgarh||5||0|
|Sarvadharam Party (Madhya Pradesh)||Chhattisgarh||1||0|
|Rashtriya Gondvana Party||Chhattisgarh||1||0|
|Sunder Samaj Party||Chhattisgarh||1||0|
|Chhattisgarh Vikas Ganga Rashtriya Party||Chhattisgarh||1||0|
|Bhartiya Panchyat Party||Chhattisgarh||1||0|
|Kisan Mazdoor Sangharsh Party||Chhattisgarh||1||0|
|Bharatiya Bahujan Party||Chhattisgarh||1||0|
|Sarvodaya Bharat Party||Chhattisgarh||1||0|
|Shakti Sena (Bharat Desh)||Chhattisgarh||1||0|
|Republican Paksha (Khoripa)||Chhattisgarh||1||0|
|Forward Democratic Labour Party||Chhattisgarh||1||0|
|Independent politicians||Andhra Pradesh||99||0||None|
|Jammu and Kashmir||0|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||9||0|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||4||1|
|Daman and Diu||1||0|
According to the ECI, 900 million people were eligible to vote, with an increase of 84.3 million voters since the last election in 2014, making it the largest-ever election in the world. 15 million voters aged 18–19 years became eligible to vote for the first time. 468 million eligible voters were males, 432 million were females and 38325 identified themselves belonging to third gender. Total 71,735 overseas voters also enrolled.
Electronic voting machines and securityEdit
The ECI deployed a total of 1.74 million voter-verified paper audit trail (VVPAT) units and 3.96 million electronic voting machines (EVM) in 1,035,918 polling stations. Approximately 270,000 paramilitary and 2 million state police personnel provided organisational support and security at various polling booths. On 9 April 2019, the Supreme Court ordered the ECI to increase VVPAT slips vote count to five randomly selected EVMs per assembly constituency, which means ECI has to count VVPAT slips of 20,625 EVMs before it certifies the final election results.
In the first phase, 69.58 per cent of the 142 million eligible voters cast their vote to elect their representatives for 91 Lok Sabha seats. The voter turnout was 68.77 per cent in the same constituencies in the 2014 general elections. In the second phase, 156 million voters were eligible to vote for 95 Lok Sabha seats and the turnout was 69.45 per cent, compared to 69.62 per cent in 2014. For the third phase, 189 million voters were eligible to elect 116 Lok Sabha representatives. According to ECI, the turnout for this phase was 68.40 per cent, compared to 67.15 per cent in 2014. In the fourth of seven phases, 65.50 per cent of the 128 million eligible voters cast their vote to elect 72 representatives to the Indian parliament while the turnout for the same seats in the 2014 election was 63.05 per cent. The fifth phase was open to 87.5 million eligible voters, who could cast their vote in over 96,000 polling booths. In the sixth phase, 64.40 per cent of the 101 million eligible voters cast their vote in about 113,000 polling stations.
The final turnout stood at 67.11 per cent, the highest ever turnout recorded in any of the general elections till date. The percentage is 1.16 per cent higher than the 2014 elections whose turnout stood at 65.95 per cent. Over 600 million voters polled their votes in 2019 Indian General elections.
|State/UT||Total||Voter turnout by phase[a]|
|Seats||Turnout (%)||Seats||Turnout (%)||Seats||Turnout (%)||Seats||Turnout (%)||Seats||Turnout (%)||Seats||Turnout (%)||Seats||Turnout (%)||Seats||Turnout (%)|
|Jammu and Kashmir[b]||6||TBA||2||57.38||2||45.66||1⁄3||13.68||1⁄3||10.32||11⁄3||19.92||–||–||–||–|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||1||65.08||1||65.08||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||1||79.59||–||–||–||–||1||79.59||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Daman and Diu||1||71.83||–||–||–||–||1||71.83||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
- / indicate change from the 2014 elections.
- Polling in Anantnag was scheduled over three days.
- Tamil Nadu has 39 constituencies. Polling in Vellore was cancelled.
Opinion polls, exit polls and seat projectionsEdit
Various organisations have carried out opinion polling to gauge voting intentions in India. Results of such polls are displayed in this list. The date range for these opinion polls is from the previous general election, held in April and May 2014, to the present day. The ECI banned the release of exit polls from 11 April to 19 May, the last phase of the elections. The commission also banned the publication or broadcast in the media of predictions made by astrologers and tarot card readers.
|Poll type||Date published||Polling agency||Others||Majority||Ref|
|Exit polls||India Today-Axis||352 ± 13||93 ± 15||82 ± 13||80 ± 13|||
|News24-Today's Chanakya||350 ± 14||95 ± 9||97 ± 11||78 ± 14|||
|Times Now-VMR||306 ± 3||132 ± 3||104 ± 3||34 ± 3|||
|Republic-Jan Ki Baat||305||124||113||33|||
|India TV-CNX||300 ± 10||120 ± 5||122 ± 6||28 ± 10|||
|Opinion polls||8 April 2019||Times Now-VMR||279||149||115||7|||
|6 April 2019||India TV-CNX||275||126||142||3|||
|1 Feb – 4 April 2019||Jan Ki Baat||310||122||111||38|||
|Mar 2019||Times Now-VMR||283||135||125||11|||
|Mar 2019||News Nation||270||134||139||Hung|||
|Mar 2019||India TV-CNX||285||126||132||13|||
|Mar 2019||Zee 24 Taas||264||165||114||Hung|||
|Feb 2019||VDP Associates||242||148||153||Hung|||
|Jan 2019||Times Now-VMR||252||147||144||Hung|||
|Jan 2019||ABP News-CVoter||233||167||143||Hung|||
|Jan 2019||India Today-Karvy||237||166||140||Hung|||
|Jan 2019||VDP Associates||225||167||150||Hung|||
|Dec 2018||India Today||257||146||140||Hung|||
|Dec 2018||ABP News-CVoter||247||171||125||Hung|||
|Dec 2018||India TV-CNX||281||124||138||9|||
|Nov 2018||ABP News-CVoter||261||119||163||Hung|||
|Oct 2018||ABP News||276||112||155||4|||
|Aug 2018||India Today-Karvy||281||122||140||9|||
|May 2018||ABP News-CSDS||274||164||105||2|||
|Jan 2018||India Today||309||102||132||37|||
|2019 election results||23 May 2019||Election Commission of India||353||91||98||71|||
|Leader||Narendra Modi||Rahul Gandhi||M. K. Stalin||Mamata Banerjee||Y. S. Jaganmohan Reddy||Uddhav Thackeray||Nitish Kumar||Naveen Patnaik||Mayawati|
|Seats||303 (55.8%)||52 (9.6%)||23 (4.2%)||22 (4.05%)||22 (4.05%)||18 (3.3%)||16 (2.9%)||12 (2.2%)||10 (1.85%)|
303 / 543
52 / 543
23 / 543
22 / 543
22 / 543
18 / 543
16 / 543
12 / 543
10 / 543
The Bharatiya Janata Party-led NDA won the elections with the BJP itself winning a clear majority. The BJP become the single largest party in the House and surpassed expectations to win 303 seats, with its alliance partners bringing the NDA to a total of 353 seats. Reasons attributed to the victory included the personal popularity of Narendra Modi, effective voter turnout drives by the NDA, a surge in public nationalism following the Pulwama attack, the consolidation of Hindu voters in a multi-caste coalition and the successful implementation of social welfare programmes during the First Modi ministry's term.
The counting of votes was held on 23 May 2019, and was completed early the following day. Initial returns showed the BJP leading in all 303 constituencies it eventually won, and opposition leader Rahul Gandhi conceded defeat prior to the official certification of most results.
With the results, the BJP was able to gain 21 seats in the House, having won 282 in the 2014 Indian general election. It was the second time in India's independent history that voters re-elected the same party to power with a bigger majority to the Lok Sabha – India's lower house of parliament. The BJP's total vote share stood at 37.4 per cent, an increase of over 6 percentage points from 31.34 per cent in 2014. The National Democratic Alliance secured a vote share of 45 per cent, compared to 38 per cent in 2014. In contrast, the vote share of Indian National Congress remained the same at 19.5 per cent. About 1.04 percent of the voters in India chose to vote for None Of The Above (NOTA) in the 2019 elections, with Bihar leading with 2.08 percent NOTA voters.
Modi became the only Indian prime minister in history whose government was re-elected with both an increase in the total percentage of votes along with a full majority. His opponent, Rahul Gandhi, ran in two constituencies, winning from Wayanad, but losing from the Amethi constituency – the seat he, his mother (Sonia Gandhi), his father (Rajiv Gandhi), and his uncle (Sanjay Gandhi) had collectively held for decades. In addition, many candidates who were members of popular political dynasties were defeated across India in favour of the BJP or other parties' candidates.
The election had been called a referendum on Modi and the BJP's Hindu nationalistic policies and advocacy. According to The Wall Street Journal, Modi's victory "sets (sic) the stage for further economic change in one of Asia’s fastest-growing economies." Alasdair Pal and Mayank Bhardwaj, in an article published by Reuters, claimed that the result was a mandate for business-friendly policies and tougher national security positions, reinforcing "a global trend of right-wing populists sweeping to victory, from the United States to Brazil and Italy, often after adopting harsh positions on protectionism, immigration and defence."
According to a data analysis by the Mint, "Overall, the BJP’s appeal seems to transcend the divides of caste, education, and affluence, but there are some differences — with the BJP less successful in more educated constituencies" in a study of about 140 seats where Congress and Others were more successful. The BJP was favored in all income groups, states the Mint. The newspaper added, "In constituencies with high presence of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes (SCs/STs), the BJP is more popular than other parties, but in constituencies with high presence of Muslims, it is less popular."
Indian National Congress party leaders such as Rahul Gandhi and others conceded defeat and congratulated Modi and his party. Other opposition parties and political leaders such as Sharad Pawar, Mamata Banerjee and Omar Abdullah, congratulated PM Modi and BJP for their victory.
The leaders of Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burundi, Canada , China , Comoros, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia , France , Georgia, Germany , Ghana, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran, Israel , Italy , Jamaica , Japan, Kenya, Kuwait, Latvia , Lesotho , Lichtenstein , Luxembourg, Madagascar , Malaysia , Maldives , Malta , Mexico , Mongolia , Myanmar, Namibia , Nepal , Netherlands , Nicaragua , North Korea , Nigeria, New Zealand, Oman, Pakistan , Palestine , Portugal , Qatar , Russia , Rwanda , Saudi Arabia , Senegal , Seychelles , Singapore , South Africa , South Korea , Sri Lanka , St. Vincent and the Grenadines , Switzerland , Tajikistan , Thailand, Turkmenistan , Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan , Venezuela , Vietnam , Zambia , and Zimbabwe congratulated Narendra Modi and the BJP on their victory.
- Two seats are reserved for Anglo-Indians and filled through Presidential nomination, while the poll in one constituency was cancelled.
- In 9 states and union territories of India – such as Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala and Uttarakhand – more women turned out to vote than men in 2019.
- The unemployment data in India is not collected on a monthly or an annual basis, rather it is determined through a sample survey once every 5 years, with a few exceptions. The survey methodology is unlike those in major world economies, and sub-classifies unemployment into categories such as "usual status unemployment" and "current status unemployment" based on the answers given by the individuals interviewed. Its methodology and results have been questioned by various scholars. The report and the refusal of the BJP government to release it has been criticised by economist Surjit Bhalla. According to Bhalla, the survey methodology is flawed and its results absurd, because the sample survey-based report finds that India's overall population has declined since 2011–12 by 1.2 per cent (contrary to the Census data which states a 6.7 per cent increase). The report finds that India's percent urbanisation and urban workforce has declined since 2012, which is contrary to all other studies on Indian urbanisation trends, states Bhalla. According to NSSO's report's data, "the Modi government has unleashed the most inclusive growth anywhere, and at any time in human history" – which is as unbelievable as the unemployment data it reports, states Bhalla. The NSSO report suggests the inflation-adjusted employment income of casual workers has dramatically increased while those of the salaried wage-earners has fallen during the 5-years of BJP government. The NSSO has also changed the sampling methodology in the latest round, state Bhalla and Avik Sarkar, which is one of the likely sources of its flawed statistics and conclusions.
- According to Chandra: in 2009 after the persistently dynastic Samajwadi party, the larger Biju Janata Dal ranked next, followed by the Congress party. In 2004 and 2014, Congress ranked second.
- Stanley Kochanek in 1987 published about the "briefcase politics" tradition in Indian politics during the decades when the Congress party dominated Indian national politics. Similarly, Rajeev Gowda and E Sridharan in 2012 have discussed the history of campaign financing laws in India and the role of black money in Indian elections. Devesh Kapur and Milan Vaishnav discuss the rise of "briefcase" black money donations in India triggered by the 1969 campaign financing bans proposed and enacted by Indira Gandhi, and the campaign finance law reforms thereafter through 2017. They call the recent reforms as yielding "greater transparency than ever before, though limited".
- Contested the seat of Lakshadweep without pre-poll seat sharing
- "EC may announce Lok Sabha election schedule in March first week: Sources – Times of India". The Times of India.
- Staff, Scroll. "2019 General Elections: Voting to be held in 7 phases from April 11 to May 19, counting on May 23". Scroll.in. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- "Lok Sabha Election 2019 Dates Schedule LIVE, Assembly Elections Dates For Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, 2019 Election Date Time for Polling, Counting and Results". timesnownews.com. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- "Lok Sabha elections will begin on April 11 and polling will be held over seven phases through May 19, followed by counting of votes on May 23. Lok Sabha Election 2019 : Key Dates, Live News Updates, Election Calendar". english.manoramaonline.com. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
- At 67.1%, 2019 turnout's a record: Election Commission, The Times of India (20 May 2019)
- Polls Are Closed in India's Election: What Happens Next?, The New York Times, Douglas Schorzman and Kai Schultz (19 May 2019)
- Women turn out in greater numbers than in previous elections, The Economic Times, Aanchal Bansal (20 May 2019)
- "India Election Results: Modi and the B.J.P. Make History". NYT. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- "Modi thanks India for 'historic mandate'". 23 May 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
- "Lok Sabha Election 2019 - Party Alliance Details, General Elections". India Today. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
- "Narendra Modi government will not have Leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha again". Prabhash K Dutta. India Today. 24 May 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
- "Congress Fails To Get Leader Of Opposition Post In Lok Sabha, Again". Puneet Nicholas Yadav. Outlook. 24 May 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
- "Assembly polls in 4 states with Lok Sabha elections but not in J&K- Malayala Manorama". english.manoramaonline.com. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "Lok Sabha elections 2019: Congress MP favours more seats for RJD in Bihar". 4 September 2018. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
- Electoral system IPU
- Lok Sabha Election 2019 Phase 3 voting: How to vote without voter ID card, Business Today (April 23, 2019)
- "General Voters". Systematic Voters' Education and Electoral Participation. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
- Singh, Vijaita (1 September 2018). "General election will be held in 2019 as per schedule, says Rajnath Singh". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
- "Lok Sabha Elections dates announced: Polls to be held from April 11 in 7 phases, counting on May 23". The Economic Times. 11 March 2019. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "Announcement of Schedule for General Elections to Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies in Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha & Sikkim, 2019". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
- Ahmad, Mudasir (11 March 2019). "Kashmir: Why Polls in Anantnag Lok Sabha Seat Will Be Held in Three Phases". The Wire. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "Election cancelled in Vellore Lok Sabha seat after money seized from DMK leaders". The News Minute. 16 April 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
- "Lok Sabha polls in Vellore cancelled due to use of money power". The Economic Times. 16 April 2019.
- "Three-tier security at 17 counting centres in Tripura".
- "Polling in Tripura East deferred to April 23". The Hindu. Special Correspondent. 16 April 2019. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 27 May 2019.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Mamata's Opposition rally top quotes: 'One ambition — save India, save democracy'". The Indian Express. 19 January 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- T Ramavarman (27 January 2019). "Opposition united only for corruption, undermining institutions, alleges PM Modi". Times of India. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
- Election Commission endorsing Modi violations: Congress, The Telegraph (28 April 2019)
- Countering Criticism Of EC, 81 Civil Servants Write Counter-letter To The President Reposing Their Faith In The Poll Body. Read Here, Republic World (16 April 2019)
- In its attack on Modi government, the Opposition has failed to distinguish between political executive and independent institutions, The Indian Express (30 April 2019)
- SWOT analysis shows NDA well ahead of UPA, The Times of India, SA Aiyar (14 April 2019)
- Narendra Modi's Challenge In India's Upcoming Elections, The Forbes, Harry Broadman (29 March 2019)
- India to be global growth leader in 2019–20: IMF, India Today (22 January 2019); At 7.5%, 7.7% India to be top growing economy in 2020: IMF, The Hindu (21 January 2019)
- India: Report, International Monetary Fund (2019)
- 131 accountants from India just responded to the open letter from economists and social scientists challenging official GDP data, Business Insider, D Dhillon (18 March 2019)
- Mayawati again blasts both BJP, Congress, Business Standard, IANS (8 April 2019)
- Congress put India in fragile five, we put it in fastest gear even in challenging environments: Arun Jaitley, The Economic Times, Deepshikha Sikarwar and Vinay Pandey (4 April 2019)
- Demonetisation was done in national interest: PM Narendra Modi, Live Mint, Shashi Shekhar (6 April 2019)
- Corruption-free government is possible: Prime Minister Narendra Modi, The New Indian Express, GS Vasu, HK Singh and M Anand (16 April 2019)
- Nyay will be game changer, lead to creation of jobs: Ashok Gehlot Interview, The Times of India, Subodh Ghildiyal (15 April 2019)
- "'They say 'chowkidar chor hai' but look where money is found': PM Modi jabs Congress over IT raids". 9 April 2019.
- "After I-T raids on properties linked to Kamal Nath aides, Narendra Modi turns corruption into chief poll plank". Firstpost.
- Kumar, Nikhil (14 March 2019). "Unemployment a key issue as India's Narendra Modi seeks re-election". CNN. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
- Indian Elections Nearing Amid Frustration with Politics, Concerns about Misinformation, Pew Research Center, Washington DC (25 March 2019)
- A Sampling of Public Opinion in India: Optimism persists, but concerns about terrorism and Pakistan loom large, 2019 polls, Kat Devlin; Survey Results Kat Devlin and Courtney Johnson, Pew Research Center, Washington DC (25 March 2019)
- "India's unemployment rate hit four-decade high of 6.1% in 2017–18, says NSSO survey". businesstoday.in. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- Indira Hirway (2002). "Employment and Unemployment Situation in 1990s: How Good Are NSS Data?". Economic and Political Weekly. 37 (21): 2027–2036.
- A Statistical Embarrassment, Surjit Bhalla, The Indian Express (13 April 2019)
- Yoshifumi Usami; Vikas Rawal (2012). "Some Aspects of the Implementation of India's Employment Guarantee". Review of Agrarian Studies. 2 (2): 74–93.
- Unemployment in India: The real reason behind low employment numbers, Financial Express, Avik Sarkar (28 February 2019)
- "Jobs data not finalised: Government after NSSO 'Report'". The Economic Times. 1 February 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- (a) More joblessness: ILO sees India's unemployment rate rising to 3.5% in 2018, Business Standard, Somesh Jha (24 January 2019); (b) Full Report: World Employment Social Outlook Report, International Labour Organization (2019), ISBN 978-92-2-132952-7, pages 108–109, Appendix D and Southern Asia section
- "Modi Government is in Deep Denial Over India's 'Jobless Growth' Crisis". The Wire. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- "Jobs not lacking, issue is lack of data on jobs, says PM Modi". hindustantimes.com/. 2 July 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- "Modi Claims The Job Crisis Is Actually A Data Crisis". HuffPost India. 3 July 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- Most unemployment surveys are skewed, PM Narendra Modi tells House, Business Standard, Archis Mohan (8 February 2019)
- "Maharashtra: Congress goes on the attack in ads". The Indian Express. 2 April 2019.
- What kind of leadership will lead India is the biggest issue: Amit Shah, BJP President, The Economic Times, 1 April 2019
- Rawat, Virendra Singh (15 March 2019). "2019 Lok Sabha Election: BJP hopes to reap poll gains from 'PM Kisan' in UP" – via Business Standard.
- Unconditional loan waiver on-demand list of farmer outfits, The Times of India, TNN (15 March 2019)
- Explained: Why farmers are angry in India's fastest-growing farm economy, Business Standard, B Tripathi (30 November 2018)
- India: Country Report, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2018)
- Facebook Removes Hundreds of Fake Accounts Ahead of India Elections, Newley Purnell, The Wall Stree Journal, (1 April 2019)
- As India Votes, False Posts and Hate Speech Flummox Facebook, The New York Times (1 April 2019)
- "BJP tops political advertisement spend on Facebook, Google in Feb–May". The Hindu. PTI. 19 May 2019. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 22 May 2019.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "BJP, Congress share more 'junk news' on WhatsApp than BSP-SP, says Oxford study". The Indian Express. 14 May 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Vidya Narayanan; Bence Kollanyi; et al. (13 May 2019). "News and Information over Facebook and WhatsApp during the Indian Election Campaign". The Computational Propaganda Project. Retrieved 22 May 2019.; Full paper: Link
- Election Activists want India to tune out of Modi's TV Channel, The Financial Times, Amy Kazmin (4 April 2019)
- Explained: NaMo TV and the laws for DTH channels, Indian Express, Krishn Kaushik (9 April 2019)
- Prior nod must for political content on NaMo TV: Election Commission, The Economic Times, ET Bureau (12 April 2019)
- BJP Submits NaMo TV Content for Clearance After Poll Body Order: Sources, NDTV, Arvind Gunasekar (13 April 2019)
- Modi's live speeches on NaMo TV must not refer to poll going areas: EC, Business Standard, PTI (19 April 2019)
- EC stops release of Narendra Modi biopic, Deccan Herald, Anirban Bhaumik (10 April 2019)
- PM Narendra Modi biopic producers move SC against stay on release, The Economic Times, Samanwaya Rautray (13 April 2019)
- Honesty over dynasty, Vikas over vote-bank politics: PM Modi presents govt’s report card, slams Congress, India Today (20 March 2019)
- PM Modi slams Congress, says India's institutions biggest casualty of 'dynastic politics', Business Today (20 March 2019)
- India’s institutions biggest casualty of dynasty politics: PM attacks Congress, The Asian Age (20 March 2019)
- Rahul, Priyanka turned Mahatma Gandhi's fear of dynasty politics into reality: Adityanath, Business Standard, ANI (8 April 2019)
- ‘India developed because of dynasty politics’: Kumaraswamy counters BJP, The Hindustan Times (18 April 2019)
- BJP raking up ‘dynasty politics’ to divert attention from real issues: Congress, The Times of India (24 March 2019)
- Sanghera, Tisha (2019). "BJP Is No Less 'Dynastic' Than Congress, Lok Sabha Data Indicates" (29 March). BloombergQuint. BloombergQuint.
- Data shows UP, India's largest state, elected most dynasts, majority in BJP, Tish Sanghera, IndiaSpend, Business Standard (7 April 2019)
- Kanchan Chandra (2016). Democratic Dynasties: State, Party, and Family in Contemporary Indian Politics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 15–18. ISBN 978-1-316-59212-0.
- Anjali Bohlken (2016). Kanchan Chandra (ed.). Democratic Dynasties: State, Party, and Family in Contemporary Indian Politics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 240–247, 44, 114–115 (Adam Ziegfeld Chapter). ISBN 978-1-316-59212-0.
- "In an unprecedented action, EC curtails West Bengal campaigning after Kolkata violence".
- "Country has to decide what kind of 'pradhan sevak' it wants: PM Modi – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- Rahul to launch campaign from village where Indira, Rajiv, Sonia started, The Economic Times, IANS (14 February 2019)
- AAP starts Delhi poll drive with multiple rallies, Business Standard (24 March 2019)
- Inside story of why AAP-Congress talks failed | Hear it from Arvind Kejriwal, India Today (27 April 2019)
- PM Modi, Mamata to launch poll campaign in West Bengal Wednesday, The Times of India (2 April 2019)
- SP-BSP Gathbandhan: How effective is the alliance?, The Economic Times, 12 April 2019, retrieved 27 April 2019
- "At first 'Mahagathbandhan' rally, Mayawati says BJP will lose due to policy 'inspired by hatred'". DNA India. 7 April 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
- "Vote for change, beware of Congress: Mayawati, Akhilesh". Deccan Herald. 7 April 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
- "Congress releases manifesto for 2019 Lok Sabha elections, promises wealth and welfare". The Economic Times. 3 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "Congress Manifesto 2019 – We Will Deliver". Indian National Congress. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- Congress Will Deliver, Manifesto Lok Sabha Elections 2019, Indian National Congress
- BJP Manifesto 2019: How it differs from Congress manifesto, India Today, Nishtha Gupta (8 April 2019)
- "PM Modi, Amit Shah Launch BJP Manifesto Sankalp Patra". NDTV.com. 8 April 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
- "BJP Manifesto 2019". Retrieved 8 April 2019.
- BJP manifesto highlights: The 75 promises for India, The Economic Times (8 April 2019)
- DMK, AIADMK release manifesto, Deccan Herald, ETB Sivapriyan (19 March 2019)
- BJD launches manifesto with focus on farmers, youth and women, Business Standard, ANI (10 April 2019)
- Analysis: CPM manifesto attempts to sell old socialist wine in new bottle, lacks punch to woo voters, CNBC TV18 (29 March 2019)
- "CPIM Election Manifesto: 17th Lok Sabha 2019" (PDF). cpim.org. pp. 28–30. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
- Vaktania, Saurabh (2019). "NCP releases manifesto for Lok Sabha polls, promises talks with Pakistan" (25 March). India Today. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- SP manifesto promises Rs 3,000 monthly pension to poor, higher tax on rich, Business Standard, Virendra Singh Rawat (5 April 2019)
- Chandrababu Naidu releases TDP manifesto, announces Rs 5000 crore farmer fund, India Today, Ashish Pandey (6 April 2019)
- Trinamool manifesto promises GST review, probe into DeMo, The Hindu Business Line, Abhishek Law (27 March 2019)
- "AAP 2019 manifesto highlights: Upgrades for police and education, subject to full statehood". The Indian Express. 25 April 2019. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
- AAP promises 85% quota in colleges, jobs, The Hindu (26 April 2019)
- 85% college quota not possible in DU, say experts, The Hindustan Times (26 April 2019)
- "Money, money, money: The tycoon factor in India's election" (14 April 2019). Economic Times. Retrieved 22 April 2019.[permanent dead link]
- Jeanette Rodrigues, Archana Chaudhary and Hannah Dormido. "A Murky Flood of Money Pours Into the World's Largest Election" (16 March 2019). Bloomberg. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- Stanley A. Kochanek (1987). "Briefcase Politics in India: The Congress Party and the Business Elite". Asian Survey. University of California Press. 27 (12): 1278–1301. doi:10.2307/2644635. JSTOR 2644635.
- Gowda, M. V. Rajeev; Sridharan, E. (2012). "Reforming India's Party Financing and Election Expenditure Laws". Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics, and Policy. 11 (2): 226–240. doi:10.1089/elj.2011.0131.
- Devesh Kapur; Milan Vaishnav (2018). Costs of Democracy: Political Finance in India. Oxford University Press. pp. 1–17, Chapter 1. ISBN 978-0-19-909313-7.
- Indian election finance rules spark calls for greater transparency, The Financial Times (3 April 2019)
- Devesh Kapur and Milan Vaishnav (2011). "Quid Pro Quo: Builders, Politicians, and Election Finance in India". Center for Global Development Washington DC, University of Pennsylvania.
- "Was it black money? Congress questions BJP's Rs 28,000 crore poll expenditure". The New Indian Express.
- "Lok Sabha Elections 2019: Phase II has 16% candidates with criminal record, Congress tops chart" (17 April 2019). India Today. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- "A first: BJP to contest more seats than Congress – Times of India". The Times of India.
- "BJP Contests More Lok Sabha Seats Than Congress For The First Time". NDTV.com.
- Kumar Shakti Shekhar (2019). "General election 2019: Why Congress has no alliance partners in these states" (5 April). Times of India. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- "SP, BSP announce tie-up for Lok Sabha polls, to contest 38 seats each in UP – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Upbeat BJP to contest from all six LS seats in J&K". Deccan Herald. 18 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
- AizwalFebruary 22, Press Trust of India; February 22, 2019UPDATED; Ist, 2019 22:22. "BJP to contest Mizoram Lok Sabha seat". India Today. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
- "Lok Sabha polls: BJP to contest on 25 seats, Shiv Sena settles for 23 in Maharashtra". The Indian Express. 18 February 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- "BJP, AIADMK, PMK join hands in Tamil Nadu". The Economic Times. 20 February 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- Chaturvedi, Rakesh Mohan (24 December 2018). "BJP, JDU, LJP finalise 17:17:6 seat sharing formula for Bihar Lok Sabha polls". The Economic Times. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- "Akali Dal, BJP To Fight 2019 Polls From Punjab Together, Says Amit Shah". NDTV.com. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- "AIADMK – DMDK Alliance: அ.தி.மு.க கூட்டணியில் 4 தொகுதிகளில் களமிறங்கும் தே.மு.தி.க!". indianexpress.com. 10 March 2019.
- sheikh, sajid (9 March 2019). "झारखंड में भाजपा-आजसू में गठबंधन; अमित शाह और सुदेश महतो के बीच बैठक में बनी सहमति". Dainik Bhaskar (in Hindi). Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- "AIADMK seals LS poll pact with Puthiya Tamilagam, to give one seat". thenewsminute.com. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
- "அதிமுக கூட்டணியில் புதிய நீதி கட்சி.. ஒரு இடம்.. இரட்டை இலையில் போட்டி!". One India Tamil. 4 March 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
- "AIADMK-AINRC sign pact, AINRC to contest from Puducherry in alliance with AIADMK – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- "Assam: Bodoland Peoples' Front to field Pramila Rani Brahma from Kokrajhar for lone BTC seat". TNT-The NorthEast Today. 12 March 2019. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
- "NDA fancies fielding PC Thomas in Kottayam LS seat, but...... – Manorama Online". Malayala Manorama. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- "Congress, Sharad Pawar's NCP Announce Seat-Sharing Pact In Maharashtra". NDTV.com. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
- "Seat Sharing agreements of Congress in Uttar Pradesh". The Economic Times. 17 March 2019.
- Rao, Manasa (15 March 2019). "DMK-led alliance announces seat sharing: DMK retains all seats". thenewsminute.com. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- "Congress, HD Devegowda's Party Agree On 20-8 Seat Deal In Karnataka". NDTV.com. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- "Jharkhand: Congress, JMM reach agreement for Lok Sabha, assembly polls – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
- "CPI picks nominee for Aska – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
- "N K Premachandran, MP, will be the Revolutionary Socialist Party (RSP) candidate from Kollam for the upcoming Lok Sabah elections – Malayala Manorama". Manorama Online. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
- "SP, BSP announce tie-up for Lok Sabha polls, to contest 38 seats each in UP – Times of India ►". The Times of India. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "BSP Announces 9 Candidates in Madhya Pradesh for Lok Sabha Polls". News18. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- Dikshit, Sandeep (9 February 2019). "BSP calls off alliance with INLD, forges ties with Raj Kumar Saini's LSP". The Tribune. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- "Punjab Democratic Alliance announces 7 candidates for LS polls".
- "Election Tracker LIVE: BSP Ties Up With Jana Sena for Andhra Polls, Maya Says Want to See Pawan Kalyan as CM". News18. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- "CPI(M) declared 45 candidates list". 17 March 2019.
- "AAP Fields its First Transgender Candidate from Prayagraj in Uttar Pradesh". News18. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- Sinha, Shishir. "The three pillars of elections". @businessline.
- "LS Polls 2019 in Numbers: Key Voter Stats You Should Know". 10 March 2019.
- "Great Indian Elections 1951–2019: The Story of How 90 Crore Voters Make and Break History". News18.
- Singh, Kuwar; Singh, Kuwar. "15 million teenagers and 38,000 transgender people: How India's 2019 elections are different". Quartz India.
- "Lok Sabha 2019: More than 90 crore voters register to vote – Times of India". The Times of India.
- "North Bengal gets ready for epic Mamata-Modi battle — Didi's image vs Dada's charm". 6 April 2019.
- "Roads, boats and elephants".
- "What It Takes to Pull Off India's Gargantuan Election".
- "After SC order, 20,600 polling stations to have EVM-VVPAT match". outlookindia.com.
- "Zero Complaints Came Up After Lok Sabha Polls, Claims Expert Behind EVMs".
- Largest-ever deployment of security personnel in Indian elections, Press Trust of India, Orissa Post (28 April 2019)
- "Supreme Court: Count VVPAT slips of 5 booths in each assembly seat | India News – Times of India". The Times of India.
- "SC Directs ECI To Increase VVPAT Verification From One EVM To Five EVMs Per Constituency". 8 April 2019.
- "When the SC Says No for Software Audit Review of EVMs & VVPAT at Present". Moneylife NEWS & VIEWS.
- "Final Voter turnout of Phase 1 to Phase 7 of the Lok Sabha Elections 2019". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
- Lok Sabha elections: 63.5 per cent turnout in 5th phase, The Times of India (6 May 2019)
- Lok Sabha polls: 63.48% voting in sixth phase, The Times of India (12 May 2019)
- Jain, Bharti (21 May 2019). "Lok Sabha Elections 2019: At 67.1%, 2019 turnout's a record: Election Commission | India News – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
- "Election Commission bans Exit Polls". United News of India. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
- "Predicting election results by astrologers, tarot card, others violation of law: EC to media". Business Today. 9 April 2019. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
- "Lok Sabha Election 2019: Vote Counting, Stats and Election 2019 Analysis". indiatoday.in.
- Today's Chanakya (19 May 2019). "Lok Sabha 2019 Analysis". News24 India.
- "Clean Sweep for BJP, Crisis for Congress, Rise of Regional Satraps: What Exit Poll Results Mean". News18.
- "Exit Poll Results: Narendra Modi Projected To Return As PM; NDA Headed For Landslide Victory". outlookindia.com.
- VDPAssociates (19 May 2019). "Lok Sabha Exit Poll 2019 Sea Share Projection #LokSabhaElections2019 NDA-333 UPA-115 Others-94 pic.twitter.com/1JUh8MkSZJ".
- "2019 Lok Sabha elections: Exit polls indicate sweep for BJP". The Asian Age. 19 May 2019.
- NOW, TIMES (19 May 2019). "#TimesNowExitPoll BREAKING - TIMES NOW-VMR 2019 Exit Poll National (Overall) Tally: Seat Share: BJP+ (NDA): 306 Cong+ (UPA): 132 Others: 104 Vote Share: BJP+ (NDA): 41.1% Cong+ (UPA): 31.7% Others: 27.2%pic.twitter.com/Y9te9W4wwL".
- "Jan Ki Baat Exit Poll Predictions for Lok Sabha Election Result 2019 Live Update". Jagranjosh.com. 19 May 2019.
- "Exit Poll highlights: Most polls predict majority to BJP-led NDA". 22 May 2019 – via The Economic Times.
- "Lok Sabha Elections Exit Poll 2019 LIVE: Modi set to return as PM, NDA to get 286 seats- News Nation". newsnation.in. 19 May 2019.
- "Times Now-VMR Opinion Poll For Election 2019, Who Will Win Lok Sabha Polls, Times Now VMR Survey, PM Narendra Modi-led NDA likely to get 279 seats, UPA 149 - India News". timesnownews.com.
- Taneja, Nidhi (6 April 2019). "Lok Sabha Election 2019: NDA may get thin majority with 275 seats, BJD may retain Odisha, YSR Congress may win Andhra, says India TV-CNX pre-poll survey". indiatvnews.com.
- Baat, Jan Ki (4 April 2019). "The results of Jan Ki Baat Poll done in partnership with @republic and @Republic_Bharat between Feb 1 to April 2 2019 with sample of 5 lakh @pradip103 @PMOIndia @narendramodi #Elections2019 #JanKiBaat2019OpinionPoll #PradeepAnalysispic.twitter.com/Wr8cblQBdX".
- "Times Now-VMR Opinion Poll : Modi govt again with 283 seats, predicts survey". timesnownews.com.
- "Lok Sabha elections 2019 - Modi govt to retain power at Centre, NDA likely to win 270 seats: Opinion poll - News Nation". newsnation.in. 11 March 2019.
- "National Approval Ratings - NDA or UPA - Here's who would win if the 2019 Lok Sabha elections were held today". Republic World.
- Taneja, Nidhi (10 March 2019). "India TV-CNX Opinion Poll: NDA may get thin majority with 285 seats in Lok Sabha elections". indiatvnews.com.
- "BJP-led NDA will be single largest bloc but short of majority in Lok Sabha election, predicts Zee 24 Taas survey". Zee News. 9 March 2019.
- VDPAssociates (7 February 2019). "All India Seat Share Forecast if Loksabha election held now(543 Seats) #NationalTrackerPoll NDA-242 UPA-148 Others-153pic.twitter.com/ScDMXHXyCJ".
- "2019 Lok Sabha Elections Times Now-VMR Opinion Poll: NDA may fall 20 seats short of magic mark of 272". timesnownews.com.
- Bureau, ABP News (24 January 2019). "ABP News-CVoter survey Highlights: NDA, UPA won't get clear majority in LS polls, hung parliament projected". abplive.in.
- DelhiJanuary 24, India Today Web Desk New; January 25, 2019UPDATED:; Ist, 2019 13:36. "Hung Parliament if elections held today, NDA would lose 99 seats: Mood of the Nation poll". India Today.
- Suares, Coreena (6 January 2019). "VDP Associates predicts 16 Lok Sabha seats for TRS". Deccan Chronicle.
- DelhiJanuary 6, Indo-Asian News Service New; January 6, 2019UPDATED:; Ist, 2019 20:43. "If polls held now, NDA may fall short of majority by 15 seats, says survey". India Today.
- "देश का मूड: UP में महागठबंधन बना तो मोदी की राह होगी मुश्किल". abpnews.abplive.in. 25 December 2018.
- Singh, Raj (8 December 2018). "India TV-CNX Opinion Poll Highlights- PM Modi-led NDA likely to get clear majority in Parliament with 281 seats if Lok Sabha elections were held today". indiatvnews.com.
- न्यूज, एबीपी (1 November 2018). "अभी देश का मूड पीएम मोदी के साथ, यूपी में महागठबंधन नहीं बना तो एनडीए को 300 सीट: एबीपी न्यूज-सी वोटर सर्वे". abpnews.abplive.in.
- email@example.com (4 October 2018). "Audio Bulletin: BJP-led NDA will return to power if Lok Sabha elections are held today". abplive.in.
- August 18, Ajit Kumar Jha New Delhi; August 27, 2018 ISSUE DATE:; August 20, 2018UPDATED:; Ist, 2018 18:45. "A clash of coalitions". India Today.
- "Advantage BJP in Lok Sabha 2019 polls, Congress might get a boost: ABP-CSDS survey". Moneycontrol.
- World, Republic. [on://www.republicworld.com/ "Read Latest News, News Today, Breaking News, India News and Current News on Politics, Bollywood and Sports"]. Republic World.
- DelhiJanuary 25, India Today Web Desk New; January 26, 2018UPDATED:; Ist, 2018 14:32. "India Today Mood of the Nation Poll: Is Narendra Modi still India's first choice as PM?". India Today.
- "Election Commission of India". eci.gov.in. Archived from the original on 7 December 2008. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- "General Election 2019 - Election Commission of India". results.eci.gov.in. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
- Rahul Gandhi concedes defeat, congratulates PM Modi, Smriti Irani, India Today (May 23, 2019)
- India’s Narendra Modi Wins Re-Election With Strong Mandate, The Wall Street Journal (May 23, 2019)
- Narendra Modi 2.0 returns with biggest gain in vote share ever, India Today (May 23, 2019)
- Ramani, Srinivasan (23 May 2019). "Analysis: Highest-ever national vote share for the BJP". The Hindu.
- "Lok Sabha Election Results 2019: Most NOTA votes were cast in Bihar; Maharashtra recorded 4,86,902 such votes with Palghar topping the list".
- Lok Sabha Election result 2019: Fall of dynastic politics in India, Jagran Josh (May 24, 2019)
- Election Results 2019: Tsunamo wave sinks political families in 2019 elections, India Today (May 24, 2019)
- Is it game over for dynasty politics?, Deccan Chronicle (May 25, 2019)
- Indian elections: Modi on track for decisive victory, exit polls suggest, The Guardian (May 23, 2019)
- With Indian Elections Underway, The Vote Is Also A Referendum On Hindu Nationalism, NPR (April 14, 2019)
- India's Modi stuns opposition with huge election win, Alasdair Pal and Mayank Bhardwaj, Reuters (May 23, 2019)
- "Ten charts that explain the 2019 Lok Sabha verdict". Livemint.com. 24 May 2019.
- "Lok Sabha Election 2019". Oneindia.com. Retrieved 4 June 2019.
- Lok Sabha Election Result Impact: Sensex creates history, breaches 40,000 mark to set record high, Zee Business (May 23, 2019)
- DelhiMay 24, India Today Web Desk New; May 24, 2019UPDATED:; Ist, 2019 10:22. "Lok Sabha Election Results: Omar was first, Mamata second to congratulate PM Modi for historic win". India Today.
- Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and United Arab Emirates: Election results: World leaders congratulate Narendra Modi on his landslide victory, Gulf News (May 23, 2019)
- Argentina: "Mauricio Macri "@mauriciomacri"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- Argentina: "Mauricio Macri "@mauriciomacri"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- Australia, Israel, Nepal and Portugal: International leaders congratulate Prime Minister Narendra Modi on purported landslide win, TimesNow News (May 23, 2019)
- Austria: "Sebastian Kurz "@sebastiankurz"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- Bahrain: "Bahrain News Agency "@bna_en"". Twitter. 26 May 2019.
- Bhutan: "PM Bhutan "@PMBhutan"". Twitter. 23 May 2019.
- Botswana: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 29 May 2019.
- Brazil: "Jair M. Bolsonaro "@jairbolsonaro"". Twitter. 25 May 2019.
- Bulgaria: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 28 May 2019.
- Burundi: "Pierre Nkurunziza "@pnkurunziza"". Twitter. 23 May 2019.
- Canada: Mall, Rattan (23 May 2019). "Trudeau congratulates Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi on his re-election". Indo-Canadian Voice. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
- China, Japan, Pakistan, Russia: Xi, Putin and Netanyahu among first to congratulate Modi on election victory, The Economic Times (May 23, 2019)
- Comoros: "Azali Assoumani "@Azali_officiel"". Twitter. 29 May 2019.
- Cyprus: "Nicos Anastasiades "@AnastasiadesCY"". Twitter. 23 May 2019.
- Czech Republic: "Andrej Babiš "@AndrejBabis"". Twitter. 23 May 2019.
- Estonia: "Jüri Ratas "@ratasjuri"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- France: French President Macron congratulates PM Modi, Business Standard (May 23, 2019)
- Georgia: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 25 May 2019.
- Germany: "May, Merkel, Saudi Crown Prince congratulate Modi". business-standard.com. 26 May 2019. Retrieved 31 May 2019.
- Ghana: "Nana Akufo-Addo "@NAkufoAddo"". Twitter. 23 May 2019.
- Iceland: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 25 May 2019.
- Indonesia: "Joko Widodo "@jokowi"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- Iran: "Iran, EU leaders also greet PM Modi on poll win". ANI. 24 May 2019.
- Italy: "Giuseppe Conte "@GiuseppeConteIT"". Twitter. 23 May 2019.
- Jamaica: "Andrew Holness "@AndrewHolnessJM"". Twitter. 23 May 2019.
- Kenya: "Raila Odinga "@RailaOdinga"". Twitter. 23 May 2019.
- Kuwait: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- Latvia: "Krišjānis Kariņš "@krisjaniskarins"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- Lesotho: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 29 May 2019.
- Lichtenstein: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 28 May 2019.
- Luxembourg: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 25 May 2019.
- Madagascar: "Andry Rajoelina "@SE_Rajoelina"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- Malaysia: Dr M congratulates Modi on Indian election victory , Nation, The Star (May 26, 2019)
- Maldives: "Mohamed Nasheed "@MohamedNasheed"". Twitter. 23 May 2019.
- Malta: "Joseph Muscat "@JosephMuscat_JM"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- Mexico: "SRE México "@SRE_mx"". Twitter. 25 May 2019.
- Mongolia: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 27 May 2019.
- Myanmar: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- Namibia: "Hage Geingob "@hagegeingob"". Twitter. 23 May 2019.
- Netherlands: "Mark Rutte "@MinPres"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- New Zealand: "MFAT govt NZ "@MFATgovtNZ"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- Nicaragua: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- Nigeria: "Presidency Nigeria "@NGRPresident"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- North Korea: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 27 May 2019.
- Oman: "Raveesh Kumar"@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 26 May 2019.
- Palestine: "India in Palestine "@ROIRamallah"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- Qatar: "Qatar News Agency "@QNAEnglish"". Twitter. 26 May 2019.
- Rwanda: "Paul Kagame "@PaulKagame"". Twitter. 23 May 2019.
- Saudi Arabia: "SPA "@spagov"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- Senegal: "Macky Sall "@Macky_Sall"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- Seychelles: "India in Seychelles "@hci_seychelles"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- Singapore: Singapore PM congratulates Modi on poll victory, hopes for enhanced cooperation in digital space, PTI, Business Standard (May 23, 2019)
- South Africa: "Cyril Ramaphosa "@CyrilRamaphosa"". Twitter. 26 May 2019.
- South Korea: "@moonriver365". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- St. Vincent and the Grenadines: "Ralph Gonsalves "@ComradeRalph"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- Switzerland: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 28 May 2019.
- Tajikistan: "Raveesh Kumar@MEAIndia". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- Thailand: "India in Thailand "@IndiainThailand"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- Turkmenistan: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- Uganda: "Kaguta Museveni "@KagutaMuseveni"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- Ukraine: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 24 May 2019.
- United Kingdom: UK govt welcomes Modi's 'inspiring' re-election, PTI, Business Standard (May 23, 2019)
- United States: Donald J. Trump (@realDonaldTrump), Twitter (May 23, 2019)
- Uzbekistan: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 25 May 2019.
- Venezuela: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 25 May 2019.
- Vietnam: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 23 May 2019.
- Zambia: "Raveesh Kumar "@MEAIndia"". Twitter. 28 May 2019.
- Zimbabwe: "Emmerson Mnangagwa "@edmnangagwa"". Twitter. 23 May 2019.
- Media related to 2019 Indian general election at Wikimedia Commons