List of political parties in India

India has a multi-party system. The Election Commission of India (ECI) accords recognition to the national level and the state level political parties based upon objective criteria. A recognised political party enjoys privileges like a reserved party symbol,[a] free broadcast time on state-run television and radio, consultation in the setting of election dates, and giving input in setting electoral rules and regulations. Other political parties that wish to contest local, state or national elections are required to be registered by the Election Commission of India. Registered Parties are upgraded as recognised National Party or State Party by the ECI if they meet the relevant criteria after a Lok Sabha or State legislative assembly election. The Recognised Party status is reviewed periodically by the ECI.

Before the amendment in 2016 (came into force with effect from 1 January 2014), if a political party failed to fulfill the criteria in the subsequent Lok Sabha or state legislative assembly election, they lost their status as a recognised Party. In 2016, the ECI announced that such a review would take place after two consecutive elections instead of every election. Therefore, a political party shall retain the recognised Party status even if they do not meet the criteria in the next election. However, if they fail to meet the criteria in the subsequent election following the next election, they would lose their status.

As per latest publication dated 23 September 2021 from Election Commission of India, the total number of parties registered was 2858, with 8 national parties, 54 state parties and 2796 unrecognised parties.[3] All registered parties contesting elections need to choose a symbol from a list of available symbols offered by the EC. All 28 states of the country along with the union territories of Jammu and Kashmir, National Capital Territory of Delhi and Puducherry have elected governments unless President's rule is imposed under certain conditions.

National partiesEdit

A registered party is recognised as a national party only if it fulfils any one of the three conditions listed below:[4]

  • The party win 2% of seats in the Lok Sabha from at least three different states.
  • At a general election to Lok Sabha or Legislative Assembly, the party polls 6% of votes in any four or more states and in addition it wins four Lok Sabha seats.
  • The party gets recognition as a state party in four states.
8 recognised national parties[3]
Party Flag Political
position
Ideology Founded National status accorded Leader(s) Election
symbol
States
governed
Seats
Lok Sabha Rajya Sabha State
Assemblies
State
Councils
All India Trinamool Congress
  Centre-left Secularism
Progressivism
1 January 1998
(24 years ago)
 (1998-01-01)
2 September 2016
(6 years ago)
 (2016-09-02)
Mamata Banerjee
(Chairperson)
1 / 31
23 / 543
13 / 245
235 / 4,036
0 / 426
Bahujan Samaj Party   Centre-left Social equality
Social justice
Secularism
Self-respect
Human Rights
14 April 1984
(38 years ago)
 (1984-04-14)
26 January 2013
(9 years ago)
 (2013-01-26)[5]
Mayawati
(President)
0 / 31
10 / 543
1 / 245
7 / 4,036
1 / 426
Bharatiya Janata Party   Right-wing[6] Hindutva
Nationalism
Conservatism
Social conservatism
6 April 1980
(42 years ago)
 (1980-04-06)
J. P. Nadda
(President)
17 / 31
303 / 543
93 / 245
1,411 / 4,036
167 / 426
Communist Party of India   Far-left Communism 26 December 1925
(96 years ago)
 (1925-12-26)
D. Raja
(General Secretary)
1 / 31
2 / 543
2 / 245
21 / 4,036
2 / 426
Communist Party of India (Marxist)   Far-left Communism
Marxism–Leninism
7 November 1964
(57 years ago)
 (1964-11-07)
Sitaram Yechury
(General Secretary)
1 / 31
3 / 543
5 / 245
88 / 4,036
0 / 426
Indian National Congress   Centre[7] Big tent
Civic nationalism
Social liberalism
Secularism
28 December 1885
(136 years ago)
 (1885-12-28)
Sonia Gandhi
(President)
5 / 31
53 / 543
31 / 245
678 / 4,036
46 / 426
Nationalist Congress Party   Centre-left[8] Liberalism
Gandhism
10 June 1999
(23 years ago)
 (1999-06-10)
Sharad Pawar
(President)
0 / 31
5 / 543
3 / 245
59 / 4,036
11 / 426
National People's Party   Centre Regionalism
Ethnocentrism
6 January 2013
(9 years ago)
 (2013-01-06)
7 June 2019
(3 years ago)
 (2019-06-07)
Conrad Sangma
(President)
1 / 31
1 / 543
1 / 245
33 / 4,036
0 / 426

State partiesEdit

A registered party is recognised as a state party only if it fulfils any one of the five conditions listed below:[4]

  • A party should secure at least 6% of valid votes polled in an election to the state legislative assembly and win at least 2 seats in that state assembly.
  • A party should secure at least 6% of valid votes polled in an election to Lok Sabha and win at least 1 seat in Lok Sabha.
  • A party should win at least 3% of the total number of seats or a minimum of three seats in the Legislative Assembly, which ever is higher.
  • A party should win at least one seat in the Lok Sabha for every 25 seats or any fraction thereof allotted to that State.
  • Under the liberalised criteria, one more clause that it will be eligible for recognition as state party if it secures 8% or more of the total valid votes polled in the state.
54 recognised state parties[3]
Party Flag Political
position
Ideology Founded Leader(s) State(s) Election
symbol
States
governed
Seats
Lok Sabha Rajya Sabha State
Assemblies
State
Councils
State Party in 3 States
Aam Aadmi Party   Centre to
Centre-left
Economic nationalism[9]
Secularism[10]
Nationalism[11]
Patriotism[12]
Humanism[12]
2012 Arvind Kejriwal Delhi
Punjab
Goa
 
2 / 31
0 / 543
10 / 245
156 / 4,036
0 / 426
Janata Dal (Secular) Centre-left Social democracy[13]
Secularism[13]
1999 H. D. Deve Gowda Arunachal Pradesh
Karnataka
Kerala
 
0 / 31
1 / 543
1 / 245
34 / 4,036
13 / 426
Janata Dal (United)   Centre-left Socialism[14]
Secularism[14]
Integral humanism[15]
2003 Nitish Kumar Arunachal Pradesh
Bihar
Manipur
 
1 / 31
16 / 543
5 / 245
46 / 4,036
23 / 426
State Party in 2 States
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam   Centre to
centre-left
Dravidianism
Populism
Social democracy
1972 Edappadi K. Palaniswami
(General Secretary)
Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
 
0 / 31
0 / 543
4 / 245
63 / 4,036
0 / 426
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam   Centre-left Social democracy[16]
Dravidianism[citation needed]
Social justice[16]
Federalism
1949 M. K. Stalin
(President)
Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
 
1 / 31
24 / 543
10 / 245
131 / 4,036
0 / 426
Naga People's Front   Regionalism 2002 T. R. Zeliang Manipur
Nagaland
 
0 / 31
1 / 543
1 / 245
30 / 4,036
0 / 426
Rashtriya Janata Dal   Centre-left Socialism 1997 Lalu Prasad Yadav
Tejashwi Yadav
Bihar
Jharkhand
 
0 / 31
0 / 543
6 / 245
76 / 4,036
5 / 426
Revolutionary Socialist Party   Far-left Communism
Marxism–Leninism[17]
Revolutionary socialism
1940 Manoj Bhattacharya[18] Kerala
West Bengal
 
0 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Telugu Desam Party   Centre[19] Populism[20][21]
Economic liberalism[22]
1982 N. Chandrababu Naidu Andhra Pradesh
Telangana
 
0 / 31
3 / 543
1 / 245
23 / 4,036
15 / 426
State Party in 1 State
Yuvajana Sramika Rythu Congress Party Populism[20][21]Regionalism 2011 Y. S. Jagan Mohan Reddy Andhra Pradesh  
1 / 31
22 / 543
9 / 245
151 / 4,036
32 / 426
Telangana Rashtra Samithi   Centre[23] Regionalism[24][25]
Populism[26]
Conservatism[25]
Separatism
2001 K. Chandrashekar Rao Telangana  
1 / 31
9 / 543
7 / 245
103 / 4,036
28 / 426
All India Forward Bloc Left-wing Left-wing nationalism
Socialism
Anti-imperialism
Marxism[27]
1939 Debabrata Biswas West Bengal  
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen   Right-wing[28] Composite Nationalism[29]
Minority Rights

[30]
Dalits Rights[31]
Constitutionalism[32]

1958 Asaduddin Owaisi Telangana  
1 / 31
2 / 543
0 / 245
14 / 4,036
2 / 426
All India N.R. Congress   Centre Social democracy
Populism
2011 N. Rangaswamy Puducherry  
1 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
10 / 4,036
0 / 426
All India United Democratic Front   2005 Badruddin Ajmal Assam  
0 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
15 / 4,036
0 / 426
All Jharkhand Students Union   1986 Sudesh Mahto Jharkhand  
0 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
2 / 4,036
0 / 426
Asom Gana Parishad   Centre-right Regionalism
Anti-Bengali sentiment
1985 Atul Bora Assam  
0 / 31
0 / 543
1 / 245
9 / 4,036
0 / 426
Biju Janata Dal   Centre to
centre-left
Regionalism[33]
Populism[25]
Secularism[33][25]
Liberalism[25][34]
1997 Naveen Patnaik Odisha  
1 / 31
12 / 543
9 / 245
113 / 4,036
0 / 426
Bodoland People's Front   Secularism
Democratic socialism[35]
2005 Hagrama Mohilary Assam  
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
3 / 4,036
0 / 426
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation   Far-left Communism[36]
Marxism–Leninism
Maoism[36]
1974 Dipankar Bhattacharya Bihar  
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
13 / 4,036
0 / 426
Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam   Centre to
centre-left
Social welfare
Populism
Secularism
Social democracy
2005 Vijayakanth Tamil Nadu  
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Goa Forward Party   Regionalism 2016 Vijai Sardesai Goa  
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
1 / 4,036
0 / 426
Hill State People's Democratic Party   1968 Meghalaya  
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
2 / 4,036
0 / 426
Indian National Lok Dal   Centre Social liberalism
Regionalism
1996 Om Prakash Chautala Haryana  
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
1 / 4,036
0 / 426
Indian Union Muslim League   Muslim interests
Social conservatism
1948 Hyderali Shihab Thangal Kerala  
0 / 31
3 / 543
1 / 245
15 / 4,036
0 / 426
Indigenous People's Front of Tripura   Centre-right Regionalism
Ethnic nationalism
Anti-immigration
2009 Mevar Kumar Jamatia Tripura  
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
7 / 4,036
0 / 426
Jammu & Kashmir National Conference   Kashmiriyat
Kashmiri autonomy
Secularism
1932 Farooq Abdullah Jammu and Kashmir  
0 / 31
3 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Jammu and Kashmir National Panthers Party Democracy[37][38]
Anti-corruption[37][38]
Secularism[39]
Women's rights[40]
1982 Bhim Singh Jammu and Kashmir  
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party Kashmiriyat
Kashmiri autonomy[41]
Regionalism
1999 Mehbooba Mufti Jammu and Kashmir  
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Janta Congress Chhattisgarh Left-wing Social justice
Feminism
Direct democracy
Agrarianism
2016 Renu Jogi Chhattisgarh  
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
3 / 4,036
0 / 426
Jannayak Janta Party Democratic socialism 2018 Dushyant Chautala Haryana  
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
10 / 4,036
0 / 426
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha 1972 Shibu Soren
Hemant Soren
Jharkhand  
1 / 31
1 / 543
2 / 245
30 / 4,036
0 / 426
Kerala Congress (M)   Welfare[42]
Democratic socialism[43]
1979 Jose K. Mani Kerala  
0 / 31
1 / 543
1 / 245
5 / 4,036
0 / 426
Lok Janshakti Party   2000 Chirag Paswan Bihar  
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
1 / 4,036
0 / 426
Maharashtra Navnirman Sena   Far-right Hindutva[44]
Right-wing populism[45]
Regionalism[46][47]
Ultranationalism[48][47]
Marathi interests[47]
2006 Raj Thackeray Maharashtra  
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
1 / 4,036
0 / 426
Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party Centre Populism
Regionalism
1963 Deepak Dhavalikar Goa  
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
2 / 4,036
0 / 426
Mizo National Front 1961 Zoramthanga Mizoram  
1 / 31
1 / 543
1 / 245
28 / 4,036
0 / 426
Mizoram People's Conference 1975 Lalhmangaiha Sailo Mizoram  
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party   Regionalism 2017 Neiphiu Rio Nagaland  
1 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
21 / 4,036
0 / 426
Pattali Makkal Katchi   Centre Populism 1989 S. Ramadoss Puducherry  
0 / 31
0 / 543
1 / 245
5 / 4,036
0 / 426
People's Democratic Alliance 2012 B.D. Behring Manipur Crown
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
People's Democratic Front 2017 Ivanlum Marbaniang Meghalaya  
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
4 / 4,036
0 / 426
People's Party of Arunachal Regionalism 1977 Kamen Ringu Arunachal Pradesh  
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Rashtriya Lok Dal   1996 Jayant Chaudhary Uttar Pradesh  
0 / 31
0 / 543
1 / 245
8 / 4,036
0 / 426
Rashtriya Loktantrik Party   2020 Hanuman Beniwal Rajasthan  
0 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
3 / 4,036
0 / 426
Samajwadi Party   Centre-left[49]
to left[50][51]
Social democracy[52]
Democratic socialism[53]
Left-wing populism[53][54]
Social conservatism[53]
1992 Akhilesh Yadav Uttar Pradesh  
0 / 31
5 / 543
3 / 245
113 / 4,036
48 / 426
Shiromani Akali Dal   Centre-right Punjabiyat[55][56]
Conservatism[57]
Federalism[58][59]
1920 Sukhbir Singh Badal Punjab  
0 / 31
2 / 543
0 / 245
3 / 4,036
0 / 426
Shiv Sena   Right-wing
to far-right
Conservatism
Hindutva
Ultranationalism
Right-wing populism
1966 Uddhav Thackeray Maharashtra  
1 / 31
19 / 543
3 / 245
57 / 4,036
16 / 426
Sikkim Democratic Front   Centre-left
to left-wing
Democratic socialism 1993 Pawan Kumar Chamling Sikkim  
0 / 31
0 / 543
1 / 245
1 / 4,036
0 / 426
Sikkim Krantikari Morcha   Democratic socialism 2013 Prem Singh Tamang Sikkim  
1 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
19 / 4,036
0 / 426
United Democratic Party Regionalism
Populism
1997 Metbah Lyngdoh Meghalaya  
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
8 / 4,036
0 / 426
United People's Party Liberal   Centre Regionalism 2015 Urkhao Gwra Brahma Assam Tractor
0 / 31
0 / 543
1 / 245
7 / 4,036
0 / 426
Zoram Nationalist Party 1997 Lalduhawma Mizoram  
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426

Unrecognised partiesEdit

Unrecognised registered notable parties[3]
Name Founded President or general secretary Recognised in
United Goans Party 1963 Jack de Sequeira Goa
Kerala Congress 1964 P. J. Joseph Kerala
Manipur Peoples Party 1968 Sovakiran N. Manipur
Uttarakhand Kranti Dal 1979 Kashi Singh Airy Uttarakhand
Lokdal 1980 Charan Singh Uttar Pradesh
Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi 1982 Thol. Thirumavalavan Tamil Nadu
Amra Bangali 1983 Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar West Bengal
Bharatiya Minorities Suraksha Mahasangh 1983 Sundar Shaekhar Maharashtra
Kerala Congress (B) 1989 R. Balakrishna Pillai Kerala
Gondwana Ganatantra Party 1991 Hira Singh Markam Chhattisgarh
Jharkhand
Maharashtra
Kerala Congress (Jacob) 1991 Anoop Jacob Kerala
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 1992 Vaiko Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
Samata Party 1994 Uday Mandal[60] Bihar
Manipur[61]
Shiromani Akali Dal (Amritsar) 1994 Simranjit Singh Mann Punjab
Puthiya Tamilagam 1996 K. Krishnasamy Tamil Nadu
Tamil Maanila Congress 1996 G. K. Vasan Tamil Nadu
Kongunadu Makkal Katchi 2000 A. M. Raja Tamil Nadu
Ittehad-e-Millat Council 2001 Tauqeer Raza Khan Uttar Pradesh
People's Democratic Front 2001 Ajoy Biswas Tripura
Tamil Nadu Kongu Ilaingar Peravai 2001 U. Thaniyarasu Tamil Nadu
Suheldev Bhartiya Samaj Party 2002 Om Prakash Rajbhar Uttar Pradesh
Bihar
Rashtriya Samaj Paksha 2003 Mahadev Jankar Maharashtra
Kerala
Lok Satta Party 2006 Jaya Prakash Narayana Andhra Pradesh
Telangana
Gorkha Janmukti Morcha 2007 Bimal Gurung West Bengal
Peace Party of India 2008 Mohamed Ayub Uttar Pradesh
Rashtriya Ulama Council 2008 Aamir Rashadi Madni Uttar Pradesh
Manithaneya Makkal Katchi 2009 M. H. Jawahirullah Tamil Nadu
Social Democratic Party of India 2009 M. K. Faizy Karnataka
Kerala
Tamil Nadu
Naam Tamilar Katchi 2009 Senthamizhan Seeman Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
Indhiya Jananayaga Katchi 2010 T.R. Pachamuthu Tamil Nadu
Quami Ekta Dal 2010 Mukhtar Ansari Uttar Pradesh
Samajwadi Janata Dal Democratic 2010 Devendra Prasad Yadav Bihar
Uttar Pradesh
Hindu Sena 2011 Vishnu Gupta New Delhi
Socialist Party (India) 2011 Thampan Thomas
Welfare Party of India 2011 S. Q. R. Ilyas Kerala
Bahujan Mukti Party 2012 V. L. Matang Bihar
Uttar Pradesh
Indian Gandhiyan Party 2012 Aashin U S Kerala
Kongunadu Makkal Desia Katchi 2013 E. R. Eswaran Tamil Nadu
Odisha Janmorcha 2013 Pyarimohan Mohapatra Odisha
Jana Sena Party 2014 Pawan Kalyan Andhra Pradesh
Telangana
Param Digvijay Dal 2014 Adhyatmik Neta Krishna Mohan Shankar Yogi Uttar Pradesh
All India Hindustan Congress Party 2015 Buddh Prakash Sharma Gujarat
Rajasthan
Jan Adhikar Party Loktantrik[62] 2015 Pappu Yadav Bihar
Uttar Pradesh
Jan Shakti Party of India[63] 2015 Gurjeet Singh Azad Punjab
Hindustani Awam Morcha[64] 2015 Jitan Ram Manjhi Bihar
Apna Dal (Sonelal) 2016 Anupriya Patel Uttar Pradesh
Goa Suraksha Manch 2016 Subhash Velingkar Goa
NISHAD Party 2016 Sanjay Nishad Uttar Pradesh
Swaraj India 2016 Yogendra Yadav Haryana
Karnataka
Maharashtra
All India Mahila Empowerment Party 2017 Nowhera Shaik Telangana
Karnataka
Amma Makkal Munnettra Kazagam 2018 T. T. V. Dhinakaran Tamil Nadu
Jansatta Dal Loktantrik 2018 Raghuraj Pratap Singh Uttar Pradesh
Loktantrik Janata Dal 2018 Sharad Yadav Bihar
Kerala
Makkal Needhi Maiam 2018 Kamal Haasan Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
Pragatisheel Samajwadi Party (Lohiya) 2018 Shivpal Singh Yadav Uttar Pradesh
Vanchit Bahujan Aghadi 2018 Prakash Ambedkar Maharashtra
Vikassheel Insaan Party 2018 Mukesh Sahani Bihar
Lok Insaaf Party 2019 Simarjit Singh Bains Punjab
Punjab Ekta Party 2019 Sukhpal Singh Khaira Punjab
Jammu and Kashmir Apni Party 2020 Altaf Bukhari Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir Workers Party 2020 Mir Junaid Jammu and Kashmir
Plurals Party 2020 Pushpam Priya Choudhary Bihar
Raijor Dol 2020 Akhil Gogoi Assam
Rashtriya Jan Jan Party 2020 Ashutosh Kumar Bihar
Indian Secular Front 2021 Nawsad Siddique West Bengal
The Indigenous Progressive Regional Alliance 2021 Pradyot Manikya Debbarma Tripura
YSR Telangana Party 2021 Y. S. Sharmila Telangana
Revolutionary Goans Party 2022 Viresh Borkar Goa

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ If a party is recognised as a national or state party, its symbol is reserved for its exclusive use in the country or in the state.[1][2]

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ "State Party List" (PDF). Election Commission of India. 13 December 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 February 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d "List of Political Parties & Symbol MAIN Notification". Election Commission of India. 23 September 2021.
  4. ^ a b "The Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) Order, 1968". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 3 October 2022.
  5. ^ "Bsp Gets National Party Status, Janata Party Derecognised". Business Standard. 27 January 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  6. ^ "Viewpoint: Narendra Modi makes his move". BBC News. 13 June 2012. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
  7. ^ "Maharashtra: The political crisis brewing in India's richest state". BBC News. 23 June 2022. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
  8. ^ "Maharashtra: The political crisis brewing in India's richest state". BBC News. 23 June 2022. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
  9. ^ Nikore, Mitali (15 January 2014), The populist politics of the Aam Aadmi Party, London School of Economics, archived from the original on 1 December 2016, retrieved 30 November 2016
  10. ^ "AAP's vision of secularism: Big on intention, weak on substance - Politics News, Firstpost". 21 March 2014.
  11. ^ *"AAP's ideological dilemma and tryst with tricolour nationalism". 12 March 2021. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  12. ^ a b "Extreme-Patriotism, Honesty and Humanism-three pillars of AAP, claims Kejriwal". The Economic Times. 29 March 2022.
  13. ^ a b "Janata Dal (Secular) JD(S)". elections.in. Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  14. ^ a b "Lok Sabha Elections 2014: Know your party symbols!". Daily News and Analysis. 10 April 2014.
  15. ^ About Janta Dal United (JDU). "Janta Dal United (JD(U)) – Party History, Symbol, Founders, Election Results and News". Elections.in. Archived from the original on 1 March 2017. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
  16. ^ a b Kannan, Ramya (8 August 2018). "M. Karunanidhi: From health care to community living, his schemes were aimed at social equality". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  17. ^ Bidyut Chakrabarty (2014). Communism in India: Events, Processes and Ideologies. Oxford University Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-19-997489-4.
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  19. ^ "Tumultuous transition". 27 May 2017.
  20. ^ a b "Encyclopedia Britannica".
  21. ^ a b "Telugu Desam Party (TDP)". Retrieved 9 September 2021.
  22. ^ Price, Pamela; Srinivas, Dusi (August 2014). Piliavsky, Anastasia (ed.). "Patronage and autonomy in India's deepening democracy". Cambridge University Press: 217–236. doi:10.1017/CBO9781107296930.011. ISBN 9781107296930.
  23. ^ "Centrist polity of TRS".
  24. ^ Hyderabad, K. VENKATESHWARLU in (23 April 2004). "Regionalism and sub-regionalism". Frontline. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  25. ^ a b c d e "Biju Janata Dal (BJD)". elections.in.
  26. ^ "One year of Telangana a mixed bag for KCR". The Tribune. Archived from the original on 21 July 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2018. The Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS), led by Chandrasekhar Rao, took over the reins of the new state amid euphoria and high expectations. ... Blending boldness with populism, KCR has earned the reputation for being a tough task master
  27. ^ "Party constitution". India: All India Forward Bloc. 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
  28. ^ "Though BJP and AIMIM are ideologically apart they share a few similarities".
  29. ^ "Will fight back to save India's composite culture, Constitution: Asaduddin Owaisi". 26 May 2019.
  30. ^ "Minority Upliftment".
  31. ^ "AIMIM eyes minorities and Dalits in Malda".
  32. ^ "AIMIM want to confront Hindu nationalism with Indian Constitution: Owaisi". Business Standard India. 8 February 2021.
  33. ^ a b "Biju Janata Dal". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  34. ^ "Lok Sabha Elections 2014: Know your party symbols!". Daily News and Analysis. 10 April 2014. Founded in December 1997, the Biju Janata Dal or the BJD is a regional political party of India. Having split from the larger faction Janata Dal, the party stands by democracy and liberalism.
  35. ^ "IDEOLOGY & FLAG". India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  36. ^ a b "General Programme of CPI(ML)". Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) website. 6 April 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  37. ^ a b "History". JK Panthers Party. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
  38. ^ a b PTI (9 November 2010). "SC upholds freeze on delimitation in J&K till 2026". The Hindu.
  39. ^ "Headlines Today". Panther party MLAs disrupt house in Jammu and Kashmir assembly. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2015 – via youtube.com.
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  41. ^ Jammu Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party. "Self Rule". Retrieved 16 October 2020.
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Further readingEdit