National Democratic Alliance
The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is a coalition of center right to right wing political parties in India, and over the time has had some centre to left parties in it as well. At the time of its formation in 1998, it was led by the BJP and had 13 constituent parties.
|Lok Sabha leader||Narendra Modi|
|Rajya Sabha leader||Thawar Chand Gehlot|
(Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment)
|Founder||Lal Krishna Advani and
Atal Bihari Vajpayee |
(Bharatiya Janata Party)
|Political position||Centre-right to right-wing|
|No. of members||25 Parties|
|Seats in Lok Sabha|
338 / 545
|Seats in Rajya Sabha|
115 / 245
|Seats in State Legislative Assemblies|
|Number of states and union territories in government|
17 / 31
Its chairman was late Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Also representing the alliance are L. K. Advani, former Deputy Prime Minister, who is the acting chairman of the Alliance, Narendra Modi, current Prime Minister and the Leader of the House in Lok Sabha; and Thawar Chand Gehlot, Leader of the House in Rajya Sabha and Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment. The coalition ruled from 1998 to 2004. The alliance returned to power in the 2014 General Elections with a combined vote share of 38.5%. Its leader, Narendra Modi, was sworn in as Prime Minister of India on 26 May 2014. In the 2019 General Elections, the Alliance further increased its tally to 353 seats with combined vote share of 45.43%.
- 1 History
- 2 Structure
- 3 Present Members and Seats in Parliament
- 4 NDA Governments in various states
- 5 NDA's Strength in State Legislatives Asselemblies
- 6 List of Prime Ministers
- 7 List of NDA Candidates Election wise
- 8 Alliance Election wise
- 9 Past members
- 10 Year by year changes
- 11 Notes
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The NDA was formed in May 1998 as a coalition to contest the general elections. It was led by the BJP, and included several regional parties, including the Samta Party and the AIADMK, as well as Shiv Sena, the only member which shared the Hindutva ideology of the BJP. With outside support provided by the TDP, the NDA was able to muster a slim majority in the elections of 1998, and Atal Bihari Vajpayee returned as prime minister. The government collapsed within a year because the (AIADMK) withdrew its support. After the entry of a few more regional parties, the NDA proceeded to win the 1999 elections with a larger majority. Vajpayee became Prime Minister for a third time, this time for a full five-year term.
The NDA called elections in early 2004, six months ahead of schedule. Its campaign was based around the slogan of "India Shining" which attempted to depict the NDA government as responsible for a rapid economic transformation of the country. However, the NDA suffered a defeat, winning only a 186 seats in the Lok Sabha, compared to the 222 of the United Progressive Alliance led by the Congress, with Manmohan Singh succeeding Vajpayee as prime minister. Commentators have stated that the NDA's failure to reach out to the rural masses was the explanation for its defeat.
The National Democratic Alliance does not have a formal governing structure in place, such as an executive board or politburo. It has been up to the leaders of the individual parties to make decisions on issues such as sharing of seats in elections, allocation of ministries and the issues that are raised in Parliament. Given the varied ideologies among the parties, there have been many cases of disagreement and split voting among the allies. Owing to ill health, George Fernandes, who was the NDA convener until 2008, was discharged of his responsibility and replaced by Sharad Yadav, the then national president of the JD(U) political party. On 16 June 2013, the JD(U) left the coalition and Sharad Yadav resigned from the role of the NDA convener. Then the CM of Andhra Pradesh Chandrababu Naidu was made the NDA convener. On 27 July 2017 JD(U) with the help of BJP formed the government in Bihar. Later, on 19 August 2017 JD(U) formally rejoined the NDA after 4 years.
Present Members and Seats in ParliamentEdit
Currently, the parties in and supporting the NDA are:
|Party||MPs in Lok Sabha||MPs in Rajya Sabha||Base State|
|1||Bharatiya Janata Party||303||83||National Party|
|2||All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||1||11||Tamil Nadu|
|3||Janata Dal (United)||16||6||Bihar|
|4||Shiromani Akali Dal||2||3||Punjab|
|5||Lok Janshakti Party||6||1||Bihar|
|6||Republican Party of India (A)||0||1||Maharashtra|
|7||Pattali Makkal Katchi||0||1||Tamil Nadu|
|8||Asom Gana Parishad||0||1||Assam|
|9||Bodoland People's Front||0||1||Assam|
|10||Sikkim Democratic Front||0||1||Sikkim|
|11||Apna Dal (Sonelal)||2||0||Uttar Pradesh|
|12||Rashtriya Loktantrik Party||1||0||Rajasthan|
|13||Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party||1||0||Nagaland|
|14||National People's Party||1||0||Meghalaya|
|15||Mizo National Front||1||0||Mizoram|
|16||Sikkim Krantikari Morcha||1||0||Sikkim|
NDA Governments in various statesEdit
As of December 2019, the BJP holds a majority of Legislative Assembly in 11 states - Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Manipur, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. In Haryana, BJP shares power as the senior partner (Chief Minister of BJP) with Jannayak Janta Party.
In 6 other states, Bihar, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tamil Nadu (Although, BJP has not a single seat in Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly) it shares power as Junior Partner with other political parties of the NDA coalition.
The BJP has previously been the sole party in power in Delhi, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Rajasthan. It has also ruled Andhra Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab and Puducherry as part of coalition governments.
List of Current NDA GovernmentsEdit
NDA's Strength in State Legislatives AsselembliesEdit
NDA's Strength in State Legislatives AsselembliesEdit
List of Prime MinistersEdit
|1||Atal Bihari Vajpayee||1998-2004||6 years 64 days||Lucknow|
|2||Narendra Modi||2014-Incumbent||5 years, 240 days||Varanasi|
List of NDA Candidates Election wiseEdit
List of NDA Candidates for 2019Edit
List of NDA Candidates for 2014Edit
Alliance Election wiseEdit
For Lok Sabha Election 2019Edit
|Party||Alliance in states||Seats sharing||References|
|Bharatiya Janata Party||All States and UT||437
|All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||20
|Janata Dal (United)||Bihar||17
|Shiromani Akali Dal||Punjab||10
|Pattali Makkal Katchi||Tamil Nadu||7
|Lok Janshakti Party||Bihar||6
|Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||4
|Bharath Dharma Jana Sena||Kerala||4
|Asom Gana Parishad||Assam||3
|Apna Dal (Sonelal)||Uttar Pradesh||2
|All Jharkhand Students Union||Jharkhand||1
|Puthiya Tamilagam||Tamil Nadu||1
|Tamil Maanila Congress||Tamil Nadu||1
|Puthiya Needhi Katchi||Tamil Nadu||1
|All India N.R. Congress||Pudhucherry||1
|Bodoland People's Front||Assam||1
|Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party||Nagaland||1
|Kerala Congress (Thomas)||Kerala||1
|Rashtriya Loktantrik Party||Rajasthan||1
For Lok Sabha Election 2014Edit
^ BJP had fielded 427 candidates on 427 seats out of 543 but nomination of BJP candidate S. Gurumoorthy was rejected from Niligiris for failing to submit mandatory forms during his nomination.
(#) NPP, NPF and MNF are contesting in each Seats & Other 8 Members supporting NDA Candidates
For Lok Sabha Election 2009Edit
For Lok Sabha Election 2004Edit
For Lok Sabha Election 1999Edit
For Lok Sabha Election 1998Edit
|Party||Base State||Year of withdrawal||Reason for withdrawal|
|Lok Shakti||Bihar||1999||Merged with Janata Dal (United) for 1999 Elections|
|J & K National Conference||Jammu and Kashmir||2002||Blaming the BJP for its loss in the Jammu and Kashmir state elections.|
|Samta Party||Bihar||2003||Merged with Janata Dal (United) in 2003|
|Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||2004||Aligned with Congress Party during 2004 elections|
|Haryana Vikas Party||Haryana||2004||Merged with Congress|
|Indian Federal Democratic Party||Kerala||2004||Following the 2004 election, Merged with Kerala Congress|
|All India Trinamool Congress||National Party||2007||Aligned with the Congress party before the 2009 elections.|
|Indian National Lok Dal||Haryana||2009||Left due to seat sharing disagreements during assembly elections 2009.|
|Biju Janata Dal||Odisha||2009||Left the alliance just over a month before the 2009 elections.|
|Telangana Rashtra Samithi||Telangana||2009||Left the alliance post defeat in 2009 election.|
|Janata Dal (Secular)||Karnataka||2010||Left the alliance in 2010|
|Ladakh Union Territory Front||Jammu and Kashmir||2010||Merged with BJP.|
|Kamtapur Progressive Party||West Bengal||2010||Withdrew Support due to Merger with Kamtapur People's Party.|
|Uttarakhand Kranti Dal||Uttarakhand||2012||Withdrew Support before State Elections|
|Rashtriya Lok Dal||Uttar Pradesh||2012||Has allied with Congress for 2012 Uttar Pradesh legislative assembly election|
|Jharkhand Mukti Morcha||Jharkhand||2012||Withdrew from alliance in 2012|
|Janata Party||Tamil Nadu||2013||Merged with BJP|
|Haryana Janhit Congress (BL)||Haryana||2014||Withdrew from alliance before 2014 Haryana Legislative Assembly election Merged with Congress in 2016|
|Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||2014||Withdrew alliance in a view to Tamil Nadu Elections 2016|
|Kerala Congress (Nationalist) (Noble Mathew)||Kerala||2016||Merged with BJP|
|Kerala Janapaksham||Kerala||2016||Merged with BJP|
|Revolutionary Socialist Party of Kerala (Bolshevik)||Kerala||2016||Withdrew alliance in a view to 2016 Kerala Legislative Assembly election|
|Maraland Democratic Front||Mizoram||2017||Merged with BJP|
|Swabhimani Paksha||Maharashtra||2017||Broke the alliance|
|Telugu Desam Party||Andhra Pradesh||2018||Withdrawn Support from NDA on 16 March 2018 over the demand of Special Category status to Andhra Pradesh and failure to Implement the corresponding Bifurcation Act.|
|Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party||Jammu and Kashmir||2018||BJP withdrawn support from JKPDP-led government on 19 June 2018.|
|Rashtriya Lok Samata Party||Bihar||2018||Withdrawn from NDA ahead of 2019 Indian general election.|
|Gorkha Janmukti Morcha||West Bengal||2019||Withdrawn from NDA ahead of 2019 Indian general election.|
|Janadhipathya Samrakshana Samithi (Rajan Babu)||Kerala||2019||Merged with Janadhipathya Samrakshana Samithi|
|Pravasi Nivasi Party||Kerala||2019||Withdrawn from NDA ahead of 2019 Indian general election|
|Janadhipathya Rashtriya Sabha||Kerala||2019|
|Kerala Vikas Congress||Kerala||2019||One faction merged with Kerala Congress (B), one faction still in NDA.|
|Shiv Sena||Maharashtra||2019||Disagreement over power sharing after 2019 Maharashtra Legislative Assembly election|
|All Jharkhand Students Union||Jharkhand||2019||Alliance broken ahead of 2019 Jharkhand Legislative Assembly election due to seat sharing conflict|
Year by year changesEdit
- Kuldeep Bishnoi led Haryana Janhit Congress (BL) Joined NDA.
- Ramdas Athawale led Republican Party of India (A) Joined NDA.
- Ajit Singh led Rashtriya Lok Dal withdrawn from the NDA.
- Presidential election
- Vice-Presidential election
- Jaswant Singh was named as the candidate for the post of Vice-President against UPA's Hamid Ansari. Ansari won his second term in office.
- On 1 January 2014, Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhhagam leader Vaiko has announced that MDMK formally joined back to NDA.
- Vaiko also announced Modi will be the best candidate for Prime Minister.
- The two small parties viz Kongunadu Munnetra Kazhagam and Indhiya Jananayaga Katchi have also joined NDA Alliance.
- The BJP would like Two more southern parties such as Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam, Pattali Makkal Katchi to also join the alliance.
- In Maharashtra, two regional political outfits, Swabhimani Paksha and Rashtriya Samaj Paksha, joined NDA in January.
- The coalition of Five parties is termed as Mahayuti. So in Maharashtra now NDA alliance consist of 5 Parties viz BJP, Shiv Sena, Republican Party of India, Swabhimani Paksha and Rashtriya Samaj Paksha.
- On 23 February 2014, Rashtriya Lok Samata Party led by Upendra Kushwaha joined NDA and will be contesting at 3 Lok Sabha seats in Bihar.
- On 27 February 2014 Lok Janshakti Party led by Ram Vilas Paswan joined NDA It would contest at 7 Lok Sabha Seats in Bihar during 2014 Elections.
- DMDK will be fighting Lok Sabha Election through an alliance with BJP led NDA.
- Pattali Makkal Katchi led Social Democratic Alliance are the other allies of NDA in Tamil Nadu.
- Maharashtra Navnirman Sena : Its President, Raj Thackeray announced external support to NDA on 9 March 2014 which is marked as Party's formation day, supporting Narendra Modi as Prime Ministerial Candidate.
- Indian National Lok Dal : Its Gen. Sec., Sh. Ajay Singh Chautala announced external support to NDA, supporting Sh. Narendra Modi as Prime Ministerial Candidate.
- Lok Satta Party : President Shri J P Narayan announced external support to NDA, supporting Sh. Narendra Modi as Prime Ministerial Candidate
- All India NR Congress (AINRC) formally joined NDA on 13 March 2014 and will be contesting in Puducherry.
- Telugu Desam Party (TDP) rejoined NDA on 6 April, after breaking alliance in 2004 post general election defeat.
- Shiv Sena Though Shiv Sena has quit Mahayuti in Maharashtra, before Maharashtra Legislative Assembly Elections 2014, but has decided to remain with NDA at the Centre.
- All Jharkhand Students Union clinched an alliance with BJP for Jharkhand Assembly elections under which its junior partner will contest eight of the 81 seats in the state.
- Bharatiya Janata Party on 27 February 2015 clinched an alliance with People's Democratic Party for Government Formation in Jammu and Kashmir under which its CM will be from PDP.
- In the month of November, BJP alliance lost the legislative assembly election in Bihar to the Mahagathbandhan comprising JD(U), RJD and the INC.
- In January 2016, Bharatiya Janata Party clinched an alliance with Bodoland People's Front in Assam.
- In March 2016, after a meeting with AGP President Atul Bora and Former Chief minister Prafulla Kumar Mahanta, BJP formed an alliance with Asom Gana Parishad for upcoming Assam legislative assembly election 2016.
- BJP also aligned with Rabha and Tiwa Tribe outfit Rabha Jatiya Aikya Manch and Tiwa Jatiya Aikya Manch.
- In March 2016, BJP forged an alliance with Kerala-based Ezhava outfit Bharath Dharma Jana Sena Party for Kerala Elections 2016.
- Following BJP's victory in the Assam Legislative Assembly Elections 2016, the party formed an alliance of like-minded non-Congress parties in the Northeast, called the North-East Democratic Alliance, consisting of 11 regional parties of Northeast India.
- Himanta Biswa Sarma, BJP leader from Assam has been appointed Convener of the regional alliance.
- On 21 December 2016, Khandu was suspended from the party by the party president and Takam Pario was named as the next likely Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh replacing Khandu after People's Party of Arunachal suspended Khandu along with 6 other MLAs.
- In December 2016, Khandu proved majority on the floor with 33 of the People's Party of Arunachal’s 43 legislators joining the Bharatiya Janata Party as the BJP party increased its strength to 45 and it has the support of two independents. He became second Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh of Bharatiya Janata Party in Arunachal Pradesh after the 44 days lead Gegong Apang government in 2003.
- In January 2017, Bharatiya Janata Party's alliance partner Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party in Goa and Shiv Sena in Maharashtra came together to contest Goa Legislative Assembly election in 2017 against the BJP with another Sangh Pariwar group called Goa Suraksha Manch.
- The results of the 2017 Goa Assembly election gave rise to a hung assembly since no political party could achieve a complete majority of 21 in the 40 member Goa Legislative Assembly.
- The Indian National Congress emerged the largest party with 17 seats but ultimately, the Bharatiya Janata Party which emerged victorious in 13 constituencies formed the government with the support of the Goa Forward Party, Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party and independents.
- The Goa Forward Party expressed its support to the Bharatiya Janata Party on the condition that the then Union Defence Minister of India Manohar Parrikar would return to Goa as the Chief Minister of Goa.
- On 15 March 2017, N. Biren Singh was sworn as the Chief Minister by having coalition with NPP, NPF, LJP and others, the first time that BJP formed a government in Manipur, though the INC emerged as the single largest party.
- On 27 July 2017, Janata Dal (United) rejoined NDA and formed a coalition government with Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in Bihar with Nitish Kumar as the Chief Minister and Sushil Kumar Modi as the Deputy Chief Minister, and with that BJP completed its domination in Hindi belt.
- On 9 March 2018, Biplab Kumar Deb was sworn as the Chief Minister having a pre-poll alliance with IPFT, the first time that BJP formed a government in Tripura.
- Telugu Desam Party (TDP) withdrew from the NDA on 16 March 2018 due To Andhra Pradesh Special Category Status .
- Rashtriya Lok Samata Party (RLSP) withdrew from the NDA on 10 December 2018, citing a lack of progress on development in Bihar.
- In December 2018's state elections, the NDA lost elections in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Chhattisgarh to the INC. In Chhattisgarh, BJP was defeated by the INC with 3/4th majority. It was also defeated by the TRS in Telangana and BJP managed to win only 1 seat out of the 119 constituencies in Telangana
- On 7 January 2019, the AGP withdrew from the NDA and also from the Assam Government on the issue of citizenship amendment bill.
- On 21 January 2019, the GJM withdrew from the NDA and extended the support to Mamata Banerjee .
- On 19 February 2019, AIADMK and PMK rejoined NDA and BJP announced that "They will contest 5 Lok sabha seats in Tamil Nadu".
- On 19 February 2019,Pattali Makkal Katchi rejoined NDA
- BJP announced that "They will contest 5 Lok sabha seats in Tamil Nadu".
- On 10 March 2019, DMDK rejoined NDA.
- On 8 March 2019 in Sikkim, BJP joined hands with opposition party SKM
- On 12 March 2019 in Assam, BJP joined hands with old ally AGP
- On 12 March 2019 in Maharashtra, Rayat Kranti Sanghatana is a part of NDA
- On 25 March 2019 in Tamil Nadu, Puthiya Needhi Katchi is a part of Alliance
- On 4 April 2019 in Rajasthan, BJP joined hands with the RLP
- On 5 April 2019 in Uttar Pradesh, Nishad Party joined hands with NDA
- On 25 October 2019 in Haryana,
- On 11 November 2019 in Maharashtra,
- On 15 November 2019 in Jharkhand,
BJP, AJSU sever ties in Jharkhand days before Assembly elections 2019.
- On 23rd November 2019 in Maharashtra, NCP (Ajit Pawar Faction) joined NDA, Ajit Pawar took oath as Maharashtra's Deputy Chief Minister.
- On 26th November 2019 in Maharashtra, Ajit Pawar resigns as Maharashtra's Deputy Chief Minister.With immediate effect Devendra Fadnvis also resigns from the post of CM of Maharashtra.He is the 1st Cm of Maharashtra who serves only 79 hours as a CM of Maharashtra.
- On 16th January 2020 in Andhra Pradesh, Jana Sena Party joined NDA .
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- Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Assam Legislative Assembly
- Bihar Legislative Assembly
- Chhattisgarh Legislative Assembly
- Goa Legislative Assembly
- Gujarat Legislative Assembly
- Haryana Legislative Assembly
- Himachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Jharkhand Legislative Assembly
- Karnataka Legislative Assembly
- Kerala Legislature
- Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Maharashtra Legislative Assembly
- Manipur Legislative Assembly
- Meghalaya Legislative Assembly
- Mizoram Legislative Assembly
- Nagaland Legislative Assembly
- Odisha Legislative Assembly
- Punjab Legislative Assembly
- Rajasthan Legislative Assembly
- Sikkim Legislative Assembly
- Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly
- Telangana Legislative Assembly
- Tripura Legislative Assembly
- Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly
- West Bengal Legislative Assembly
- Delhi Legislative Assembly
- Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly
- Puducherry Legislative Assembly
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