National Democratic Alliance

The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is a coalition of center right to right wing political parties in India, and over the time has had some centre to left parties in it as well. At the time of its formation in 1998, it was led by the BJP and had 13 constituent parties.

National Democratic Alliance (NDA)
AbbreviationNDA
ChairpersonAmit Shah
Lok Sabha leaderNarendra Modi
(Prime Minister)
Rajya Sabha leaderThawar Chand Gehlot
(Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment)
FounderLal Krishna Advani and Atal Bihari Vajpayee
(Bharatiya Janata Party)
Founded1998
Political positionCentre-right to right-wing
No. of members25 Parties
Seats in Lok Sabha
338 / 545
Seats in Rajya Sabha
115 / 245
Seats in State Legislative Assemblies
Number of states and union territories in government
17 / 31

Its chairman was late Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Also representing the alliance are L. K. Advani, former Deputy Prime Minister, who is the acting chairman of the Alliance, Narendra Modi, current Prime Minister and the Leader of the House in Lok Sabha; and Thawar Chand Gehlot, Leader of the House in Rajya Sabha and Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment. The coalition ruled from 1998 to 2004. The alliance returned to power in the 2014 General Elections with a combined vote share of 38.5%.[1] Its leader, Narendra Modi, was sworn in as Prime Minister of India on 26 May 2014. In the 2019 General Elections, the Alliance further increased its tally to 353 seats with combined vote share of 45.43%.[2]

HistoryEdit

 
First prime minister from NDA, Atal Bihari Vajpayee
 
Prime Minister Narendra Modi

The NDA was formed in May 1998 as a coalition to contest the general elections. It was led by the BJP, and included several regional parties, including the Samta Party and the AIADMK, as well as Shiv Sena, the only member which shared the Hindutva ideology of the BJP.[3][4] With outside support provided by the TDP, the NDA was able to muster a slim majority in the elections of 1998, and Atal Bihari Vajpayee returned as prime minister.[5] The government collapsed within a year because the (AIADMK) withdrew its support. After the entry of a few more regional parties, the NDA proceeded to win the 1999 elections with a larger majority. Vajpayee became Prime Minister for a third time, this time for a full five-year term.[6]

The NDA called elections in early 2004, six months ahead of schedule. Its campaign was based around the slogan of "India Shining" which attempted to depict the NDA government as responsible for a rapid economic transformation of the country. However, the NDA suffered a defeat, winning only a 186 seats in the Lok Sabha, compared to the 222 of the United Progressive Alliance led by the Congress, with Manmohan Singh succeeding Vajpayee as prime minister. Commentators have stated that the NDA's failure to reach out to the rural masses was the explanation for its defeat.[7][8]

StructureEdit

The National Democratic Alliance does not have a formal governing structure in place, such as an executive board or politburo. It has been up to the leaders of the individual parties to make decisions on issues such as sharing of seats in elections, allocation of ministries and the issues that are raised in Parliament. Given the varied ideologies among the parties, there have been many cases of disagreement and split voting among the allies. Owing to ill health, George Fernandes, who was the NDA convener until 2008, was discharged of his responsibility and replaced by Sharad Yadav, the then national president of the JD(U) political party. On 16 June 2013, the JD(U) left the coalition and Sharad Yadav resigned from the role of the NDA convener. Then the CM of Andhra Pradesh Chandrababu Naidu was made the NDA convener.[9] On 27 July 2017 JD(U) with the help of BJP formed the government in Bihar. Later, on 19 August 2017 JD(U) formally rejoined the NDA after 4 years.[10]

Present Members and Seats in ParliamentEdit

Currently, the parties in and supporting the NDA are:

Party MPs in Lok Sabha MPs in Rajya Sabha Base State
1 Bharatiya Janata Party 303 83 National Party
2 All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 1 11 Tamil Nadu
3 Janata Dal (United) 16 6 Bihar
4 Shiromani Akali Dal 2 3 Punjab
5 Lok Janshakti Party 6 1 Bihar
6 Republican Party of India (A) 0 1 Maharashtra
7 Pattali Makkal Katchi 0 1 Tamil Nadu
8 Asom Gana Parishad 0 1 Assam
9 Bodoland People's Front 0 1 Assam
10 Sikkim Democratic Front 0 1 Sikkim
11 Apna Dal (Sonelal) 2 0 Uttar Pradesh
12 Rashtriya Loktantrik Party 1 0 Rajasthan
13 Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party 1 0 Nagaland
14 National People's Party 1 0 Meghalaya
15 Mizo National Front 1 0 Mizoram
16 Sikkim Krantikari Morcha 1 0 Sikkim
17 Independent 1 4 None
18 Nominated 2 3 None


Total 338 116 India

NDA Governments in various statesEdit

  BJP (11)
  INC (5)
  Other parties (AITC, AAP, BJD, CPI(M), TRS and YSRCP) (6)
  Lieutenant Governor's rule(1)
  No legislature (6)


As of December 2019, the BJP holds a majority of Legislative Assembly in 11 states - Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Manipur, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. In Haryana, BJP shares power as the senior partner (Chief Minister of BJP) with Jannayak Janta Party.

In 6 other states, Bihar, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tamil Nadu (Although, BJP has not a single seat in Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly) it shares power as Junior Partner with other political parties of the NDA coalition.

The BJP has previously been the sole party in power in Delhi, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Rajasthan. It has also ruled Andhra Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab and Puducherry as part of coalition governments.

The BJP has never been in power in 3 states-Kerala, Telangana (between 1999 and 2004 BJP in alliance with TDP ruled a United Andhra Pradesh) and West Bengal.

List of Current NDA GovernmentsEdit


S.No State/UT NDA Govt Since Chief Minister Party/alliance partner Seats in Assembly

Last election

Name Party Seats Since 1 2 3 Others IND
1 Gujarat 28 February 1998 Vijay Rupani BJP 103 7 August 2016 103/182 18 December 2017
2 Goa 6 March 2012 Pramod Sawant BJP 27 19 March 2019 MGP (1) 3 31/40 11 March 2017
3 Haryana 19 October 2014 Manohar Lal Khattar BJP 40 26 October 2014 JJP (10) 7 57/90 24 October 2019
4 Assam 19 May 2016 Sarbananda Sonowal BJP 61 19 May 2016 AGP (14) BPF (12) 1 88/126 19 May 2016
5 Arunachal Pradesh 16 September 2016 Pema Khandu BJP 41 16 September 2016 JD(U) (7) NPP (4) 3 55/60 23 May 2019
6 Manipur 11 March 2017 Nongthombam Biren Singh BJP 31 15 March 2017 NPP(4) NPF(4) LJP(1) 1 41/60 11 March 2017
7 Uttar Pradesh 11 March 2017 Yogi Adityanath BJP 309 19 March 2017 AD(S) (09) NP (01) 319/403 11 March 2017
8 Uttarakhand 11 March 2017 Trivendra Singh Rawat BJP 56 18 March 2017 56/70 11 March 2017
9 Bihar 27 July 2017 Nitish Kumar JD(U) 70 27 July 2017 BJP (54) LJP (2) 4 130/243 8 November 2015
10 Himachal Pradesh 18 December 2017 Jai Ram Thakur BJP 44 27 December 2017 44/68 18 December 2017
11 Meghalaya 6 March 2018 Conrad Sangma NPP 21 6 March 2018 UDP (8) PDF (4) BJP (2) HSPDP (2) 2 39/60 3 March 2018
12 Nagaland 8 March 2018 Neiphiu Rio NDPP 20 8 March 2018 BJP(13) 33/60 3 March 2018
13 Tripura 9 March 2018 Biplab Kumar Deb BJP 36 9 March 2018 IPFT(8) 44/60 3 March 2018
14 Mizoram 15 December 2018 Zoramthanga MNF 27 15 December 2018 BJP (1) 28/40 11 December 2018
15 Tamil Nadu 19 February 2019 Edappadi Palaniswami AIADMK 126 16 February 2017 125/235 19 May 2016
16 Sikkim 23 May 2019 Prem Singh Tamang SKM 19 23 May 2019 BJP (12) 31/32 23 May 2019
17 Karnataka 26 July 2019 B. S. Yediyurappa BJP 117 26 July 2019 2 119/224 15 May 2019


NDA's Strength in State Legislatives AsselembliesEdit

NDA's Strength in State Legislatives AsselembliesEdit
State/UT Assembly BJP NDA Chief Minister from Ref(s)
Andhra Pradesh 175 0 Jana Sena Party (1) YSRCP [11]
Arunachal Pradesh 60 41 Janata Dal (United) (7), National People's Party (4) BJP [12]
Assam 126 61 Asom Gana Parishad (14), Bodoland People's Front (12) BJP [13]
Bihar 243 54 Janata Dal (United) (70), Lok Janshakti Party (2) JD(U) [14]
Chhattisgarh 90 14 None INC [15]
Goa 40 27 Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party (1) BJP [16]
Gujarat 182 103 None BJP [17]
Haryana 90 40 Jannayak Janta Party (10) BJP [18]
Himachal Pradesh 68 44 None BJP [19]
Jharkhand 81 25 Jharkhand Vikas Morcha (Prajatantrik) (3),

All Jharkhand Students Union (2)

JMM [20]
Karnataka 224 117 None BJP [21]
Kerala 140 1 Kerala Janapaksham (1) Left Front [22]
Madhya Pradesh 230 108 None INC [23]
Maharashtra 288 105 Rashtriya Samaj Paksha (1), Jan Surajya Sanghtna (1), Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (1) SHS [24]
Manipur 60 31 National People's Party (4), Naga People's Front (4) BJP [25]
Meghalaya 60 2 National People's Party (21), United Democratic Party (8), People's Democratic Front (4), Hill State People's Democratic Party (2) NPP [26]
Mizoram 40 1 Mizo National Front (27) MNF [27]
Nagaland 60 12 Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party (21) NDPP [28]
Odisha 147 23 none BJD [29]
Punjab 117 2 Shiromani Akali Dal (14) INC [30]
Rajasthan 200 72 Rashtriya Loktantrik Party (3) INC [31]
Sikkim 32 12 Sikkim Krantikari Morcha (19) SKM [32]
Tamil Nadu 234 0 All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (125) AIADMK [33]
Telangana 119 1 none TRS [34]
Tripura 60 36 Indigenous People's Front of Tripura (8) BJP [35]
Uttar Pradesh 403 309 Apna Dal (Sonelal) (9),Nishad Party (1) BJP [36]
Uttarakhand 70 56 None BJP [37]
West Bengal 294 13 None AITC [38]
Delhi 70 4 None AAP [39]
Jammu and Kashmir TBD NA NA NA [40]
Puducherry 33 3 All India N.R. Congress (7), All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (4) INC [41]
Total 4120 1317 759 NDA (17) 31

List of Prime MinistersEdit

No. Prime Ministers Year Duration Constituency
1 Atal Bihari Vajpayee 1998-2004 6 years 64 days Lucknow
2 Narendra Modi 2014-Incumbent 5 years, 240 days Varanasi

List of NDA Candidates Election wiseEdit

List of NDA Candidates for 2019Edit

List of NDA Candidates for 2014Edit

Alliance Election wiseEdit

For Lok Sabha Election 2019Edit

Constituents of National Democratic Alliance (Pre-poll Alliance)
Party Alliance in states Seats sharing References
Bharatiya Janata Party All States and UT 437
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Tamil Nadu 20
Janata Dal (United) Bihar 17
Shiromani Akali Dal Punjab 10
Pattali Makkal Katchi Tamil Nadu 7
Lok Janshakti Party Bihar 6
Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam Tamil Nadu 4
Bharath Dharma Jana Sena Kerala 4
Asom Gana Parishad Assam 3
Apna Dal (Sonelal) Uttar Pradesh 2
All Jharkhand Students Union Jharkhand 1
Puthiya Tamilagam Tamil Nadu 1
Tamil Maanila Congress Tamil Nadu 1
Puthiya Needhi Katchi Tamil Nadu 1
All India N.R. Congress Pudhucherry 1
Bodoland People's Front Assam 1
Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party Nagaland 1
Kerala Congress (Thomas) Kerala 1
Rashtriya Loktantrik Party Rajasthan 1
Independent Karnataka 1

For Lok Sabha Election 2014Edit

Party Base State Seats Contested Seats Won Seat Change
Bharatiya Janata Party National Party 426 282  166
Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam Tamil Nadu 15 0 0
Pattali Makkal Katchi Tamil Nadu 8 1  1
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Tamil Nadu 7 0  1
Kongunadu Makkal Desia Katchi Tamil Nadu 1 0 0
Indhiya Jananayaga Katchi Tamil Nadu 1 0 0
New Justice Party Tamil Nadu 1 0 0
Telugu Desam Party AP, Telangana 30 16  10
Jana Sena Party AP, Telangana 0
Shiv Sena Maharashtra 20 18  7
Swabhimani Paksha Maharashtra 2 1  0
Republican Party of India (Athvale) Maharashtra 1 0 0
Rashtriya Samaj Paksha Maharashtra 1 0 0
Shiromani Akali Dal Punjab 10 4  0
Lok Janshakti Party Bihar 7 6  6
Rashtriya Lok Samata Party Bihar 3 3  3
Haryana Janhit Congress Haryana 2 0  1
Apna Dal Uttar Pradesh 2 2  2
Kerala Congress (Nationalist) Kerala 1 0 0
Revolutionary Socialist Party (Bolshevik) Kerala 1 0 0
All India N.R. Congress Puducherry 1 1  1
National People's Party (India) Meghalaya 1 1  1
Naga People's Front Nagaland 1 1  0
Mizo National Front Mizoram 1 0 0
Manipur Peoples Party Manipur 0
Gorkha Janmukti Morcha West Bengal 0
Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party Goa 0
Goa Vikas Party Goa 0
North-East Regional Political Front North East #
National Democratic Alliance – Total India 543 336  195

^ BJP had fielded 427 candidates on 427 seats out of 543 but nomination of BJP candidate S. Gurumoorthy was rejected from Niligiris for failing to submit mandatory forms during his nomination.[42][43][44][45][46][47]
(#) NPP, NPF and MNF are contesting in each Seats & Other 8 Members supporting NDA Candidates

For Lok Sabha Election 2009Edit

Prime minister candidate Parties
L. K. Advani Bharatiya Janata Party

Janata Dal (United)
Shiromani Akali Dal
Shiv Sena
Indian National Lok Dal
Rashtriya Lok Dal
Asom Gana Parishad
Nagaland People's Front
Gorkha Janmukti Morcha
Uttarakhand Kranti Dal
Kamtapur Progressive Party
Ladakh Union Territory Front

Telangana Rashtra Samithi[48]

For Lok Sabha Election 2004Edit

Prime Minister Candidate Parties
Atal Bihari Vajpayee Bharatiya Janata Party

Janata Dal (United)
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Telugu Desam Party
Biju Janata Dal
Shiromani Akali Dal
All India Trinamool Congress
Shiv Sena
Janata Party
Mizo National Front
Indian Federal Democratic Party
Manipur State Congress Party

For Lok Sabha Election 1999Edit

Prime Minister Candidate Parties
Atal Bihari Vajpayee Bharatiya Janata Party

Janata Dal (United)
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Samata Party
Biju Janata Dal
Shiromani Akali Dal
Nationalist Trinamool Congress
Shiv Sena
Pattali Makkal Katchi
Lok Shakti
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhhagam
Haryana Vikas Party
Indian National Lok Dal
Mizo National Front
Sikkim Democratic Front
Manipur State Congress Party
Telugu Desam Party (External Support)

For Lok Sabha Election 1998Edit

Prime Minister Candidate Parties
Atal Bihari Vajpayee Bharatiya Janata Party

All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Samata Party
Biju Janata Dal
Shiromani Akali Dal
Nationalist Trinamool Congress
Shiv Sena
Pattali Makkal Katchi
Lok Shakti
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhhagam
Haryana Vikas Party
Janata Party
Mizo National Front
NTR TDP(LP)

Past membersEdit

Party Base State Year of withdrawal Reason for withdrawal
Lok Shakti Bihar 1999 Merged with Janata Dal (United) for 1999 Elections
J & K National Conference Jammu and Kashmir 2002 Blaming the BJP for its loss in the Jammu and Kashmir state elections.
Samta Party Bihar 2003 Merged with Janata Dal (United) in 2003
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Tamil Nadu 2004 Aligned with Congress Party during 2004 elections
Haryana Vikas Party Haryana 2004 Merged with Congress
Indian Federal Democratic Party Kerala 2004 Following the 2004 election, Merged with Kerala Congress
All India Trinamool Congress National Party 2007 Aligned with the Congress party before the 2009 elections.
Indian National Lok Dal Haryana 2009 Left due to seat sharing disagreements during assembly elections 2009.
Biju Janata Dal Odisha 2009 Left the alliance just over a month before the 2009 elections.
Telangana Rashtra Samithi Telangana 2009 Left the alliance post defeat in 2009 election.
Janata Dal (Secular) Karnataka 2010 Left the alliance in 2010
Ladakh Union Territory Front Jammu and Kashmir 2010 Merged with BJP.
Kamtapur Progressive Party West Bengal 2010 Withdrew Support due to Merger with Kamtapur People's Party.
Uttarakhand Kranti Dal Uttarakhand 2012 Withdrew Support before State Elections
Rashtriya Lok Dal Uttar Pradesh 2012 Has allied with Congress for 2012 Uttar Pradesh legislative assembly election
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha Jharkhand 2012 Withdrew from alliance in 2012
Janata Party Tamil Nadu 2013 Merged with BJP
Haryana Janhit Congress (BL) Haryana 2014 Withdrew from alliance before 2014 Haryana Legislative Assembly election[49] Merged with Congress in 2016
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Tamil Nadu 2014 Withdrew alliance in a view to Tamil Nadu Elections 2016
Kerala Congress (Nationalist) (Noble Mathew) Kerala 2016 Merged with BJP[50]
Kerala Janapaksham Kerala 2016 Merged with BJP
Revolutionary Socialist Party of Kerala (Bolshevik) Kerala 2016 Withdrew alliance in a view to 2016 Kerala Legislative Assembly election[51]
Maraland Democratic Front Mizoram 2017 Merged with BJP[52]
Swabhimani Paksha Maharashtra 2017 Broke the alliance[53]
Telugu Desam Party Andhra Pradesh 2018 Withdrawn Support from NDA on 16 March 2018 over the demand of Special Category status to Andhra Pradesh and failure to Implement the corresponding Bifurcation Act.
Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party Jammu and Kashmir 2018 BJP withdrawn support from JKPDP-led government on 19 June 2018.
Rashtriya Lok Samata Party Bihar 2018 Withdrawn from NDA ahead of 2019 Indian general election.
Gorkha Janmukti Morcha West Bengal 2019 Withdrawn from NDA ahead of 2019 Indian general election.[54]
Janadhipathya Samrakshana Samithi (Rajan Babu) Kerala 2019 Merged with Janadhipathya Samrakshana Samithi
Pravasi Nivasi Party Kerala 2019 Withdrawn from NDA ahead of 2019 Indian general election
Janadhipathya Rashtriya Sabha Kerala 2019
Kerala Vikas Congress Kerala 2019 One faction merged with Kerala Congress (B), one faction still in NDA.
Shiv Sena Maharashtra 2019 Disagreement over power sharing after 2019 Maharashtra Legislative Assembly election
All Jharkhand Students Union Jharkhand 2019 Alliance broken ahead of 2019 Jharkhand Legislative Assembly election due to seat sharing conflict

Year by year changesEdit

2011Edit

2012Edit

Presidential election
Vice-Presidential election

2013Edit

2014Edit

  • Telugu Desam Party (TDP) rejoined NDA on 6 April, after breaking alliance in 2004 post general election defeat.[65]

2015Edit

2016Edit

2017Edit

2018Edit

  • On 9 March 2018, Biplab Kumar Deb was sworn as the Chief Minister having a pre-poll alliance with IPFT, the first time that BJP formed a government in Tripura.
  • Telugu Desam Party (TDP) withdrew from the NDA on 16 March 2018 due To Andhra Pradesh Special Category Status .[81]

2019Edit

  • On 7 January 2019, the AGP withdrew from the NDA and also from the Assam Government on the issue of citizenship amendment bill.
  • On 21 January 2019, the GJM withdrew from the NDA and extended the support to Mamata Banerjee .

JJP joined hands with NDA to forming a stable government at Haryana with BJP[88]

Shiv Sena exited from the NDA, as BJP is not wiling to agree for Sharing CM Post with Shiv Sena to form government in Maharashtra.[89]

BJP, AJSU sever ties in Jharkhand days before Assembly elections 2019.[90]

  • On 23rd November 2019 in Maharashtra, NCP (Ajit Pawar Faction) joined NDA, Ajit Pawar took oath as Maharashtra's Deputy Chief Minister.
  • On 26th November 2019 in Maharashtra, Ajit Pawar resigns as Maharashtra's Deputy Chief Minister.With immediate effect Devendra Fadnvis also resigns from the post of CM of Maharashtra.He is the 1st Cm of Maharashtra who serves only 79 hours as a CM of Maharashtra.

2020Edit

NotesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  11. ^ Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly
  12. ^ Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
  13. ^ Assam Legislative Assembly
  14. ^ Bihar Legislative Assembly
  15. ^ Chhattisgarh Legislative Assembly
  16. ^ Goa Legislative Assembly
  17. ^ Gujarat Legislative Assembly
  18. ^ Haryana Legislative Assembly
  19. ^ Himachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
  20. ^ Jharkhand Legislative Assembly
  21. ^ Karnataka Legislative Assembly
  22. ^ Kerala Legislature
  23. ^ Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly
  24. ^ Maharashtra Legislative Assembly
  25. ^ Manipur Legislative Assembly
  26. ^ Meghalaya Legislative Assembly
  27. ^ Mizoram Legislative Assembly
  28. ^ Nagaland Legislative Assembly
  29. ^ Odisha Legislative Assembly
  30. ^ Punjab Legislative Assembly
  31. ^ Rajasthan Legislative Assembly
  32. ^ Sikkim Legislative Assembly
  33. ^ Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly
  34. ^ Telangana Legislative Assembly
  35. ^ Tripura Legislative Assembly
  36. ^ Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly
  37. ^ Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly
  38. ^ West Bengal Legislative Assembly
  39. ^ Delhi Legislative Assembly
  40. ^ Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly
  41. ^ Puducherry Legislative Assembly
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