Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee (Hindustani pronunciation: [əʈəl bɪɦaːɾiː ʋaːdʒpai]; 25 December 1924 – 16 August 2018) was an Indian statesman who served three terms as the Prime Minister of India, first for a term of 13 days in 1996, then for a period of 13 months from 1998 to 1999, followed by a full term from 1999 to 2004. A member of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), he was the first Indian prime minister not of the Indian National Congress to serve a full term in office. He was also noted as a poet and a writer.
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
|10th Prime Minister of India|
19 March 1998 – 22 May 2004
|Deputy||L. K. Advani|
|Preceded by||Inder Kumar Gujral|
|Succeeded by||Manmohan Singh|
16 May 1996 – 1 June 1996
|President||Shankar Dayal Sharma|
|Preceded by||P. V. Narasimha Rao|
|Succeeded by||H. D. Deve Gowda|
|Minister of External Affairs|
26 March 1977 – 28 July 1979
|Prime Minister||Morarji Desai|
|Preceded by||Yashwantrao Chavan|
|Succeeded by||Shyam Nandan Prasad Mishra|
|Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha|
|Preceded by||Mandhata Singh|
|Succeeded by||Lalji Tandon|
|Preceded by||Mukul Banerji|
|Succeeded by||K. C. Pant|
|Preceded by||Ram Awtar Sharma|
|Succeeded by||Narain Krishna Rao Shejwalker|
|Preceded by||Subhadra Joshi|
|Succeeded by||Chandra Bhal Mani Tiwari|
|Succeeded by||Subhadra Joshi|
|Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha|
|Founder - President of Bharatiya Janata Party|
|Preceded by||Office established|
|Succeeded by||L. K. Advani|
|11th President of Akhil Bharatiya Jana Sangh|
1968 – 1972
|Preceded by||Deen Dayal Upadhyaya|
|Succeeded by||L. K. Advani|
|Born||25 December 1924|
Gwalior, Gwalior State, British India (present-day Madhya Pradesh, India)
|Died||16 August 2018 (aged 93)|
New Delhi, Delhi, India
|Political party||Bharatiya Janata Party (1980–2018)|
|Janata Party (1977–1980)|
Bharatiya Jana Sangh (1951–1977)
|Awards||Bharat Ratna (2015)|
Padma Vibhushan (1992)
He was a member of the Indian Parliament for over five decades, having been elected ten times to the Lok Sabha, the lower house, and twice to the Rajya Sabha, the upper house. He served as the Member of Parliament for Lucknow, retiring from active politics in 2009 due to health concerns. He was among the founding members of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh (BJS), of which he was president from 1968 to 1972. The BJS merged with several other parties to form the Janata Party, which won the 1977 general election. In March 1977, Vajpayee became the Minister of External Affairs in the cabinet of Prime Minister Morarji Desai. He resigned in 1979, and the Janata alliance collapsed soon after. Former members of the BJS formed the BJP in 1980, with Vajpayee its first president.
During his tenure as prime minister, India carried out the Pokhran-II nuclear tests in 1998. Vajpayee sought to improve diplomatic relations with Pakistan, travelling to Lahore by bus to meet with Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. After the 1999 Kargil War with Pakistan, he sought to restore relations through engagement with President Pervez Musharraf, inviting him to India for a summit at Agra.
The administration of Narendra Modi declared in 2014 that Vajpayee's birthday, 25 December, would be marked as Good Governance Day. In 2015, he was conferred India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, by the President of India, Pranab Mukherjee. He died on 16 August 2018 of age-related illness.
Early life and education
Vajpayee was born into a Hindu Brahmin family on 25 December 1924 in Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh. His mother and father were Krishna Devi and Krishna Bihari Vajpayee. His father was a school teacher in their home town. His grandfather, Shyam Lal Vajpayee, had migrated to Morena near Gwalior from his ancestral village of Bateshwar in the Agra district of Uttar Pradesh.
Vajpayee did his schooling at the Saraswati Shishu Mandir in Gwalior. In 1934, he was admitted to the Anglo-Vernacular Middle (AVM) School in Barnagar, Ujjain district, after his father joined as headmaster. He subsequently attended Gwalior's Victoria College (now Maharani Laxmi Bai Govt. College of Excellence) to study for a BA in Hindi, English and Sanskrit. He completed his post-graduation with an MA in Political Science from DAV College, Kanpur.
His activism started in Gwalior with Arya Kumar Sabha, the youth wing of the Arya Samaj movement, of which he became the general secretary in 1944. He also joined the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) in 1939 as a swayamsevak, or volunteer. Influenced by Babasaheb Apte, he attended the Officers Training Camp of the RSS during 1940 to 1944, becoming a pracharak (RSS terminology for a full-time worker) in 1947. He gave up studying law due to the partition riots. He was sent to Uttar Pradesh as a vistarak (a probationary pracharak) and soon began working for the newspapers of Deendayal Upadhyaya: Rashtradharma (a Hindi monthly), Panchjanya (a Hindi weekly), and the dailies Swadesh and Veer Arjun.
By 1942, at the age of 16 years, Vajpayee became an active member of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS). Although the RSS had chosen not to participate in the Quit India Movement, in August 1942, Vajpayee and his elder brother Prem were arrested for 24 days during the Quit India Movement. He was released after giving a written statement that while he was a part of the crowd, he did not participate in the militant events in Bateshwar on 27 August 1942. Throughout his life, including after he became Prime Minister, Vajpayee has labelled the allegation a false rumour.
Early political career (1947–1975)
In 1951, Vajpayee was seconded by the RSS, along with Deendayal Upadhyaya, to work for the newly formed Bharatiya Jana Sangh, a Hindu right-wing political party associated with the RSS. He was appointed as a national secretary of the party in charge of the Northern region, based in Delhi. He soon became a follower and aide of party leader Syama Prasad Mukherjee. In the 1957 Indian general election, Vajpayee contested elections to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian Parliament. He lost to Raja Mahendra Pratap in Mathura, but was elected from Balrampur. In the Lok Sabha his oratorial skills so impressed Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru that he predicted that Vajpayee would someday become the Prime Minister of India.
Vajpayee's oratorial skills won him the reputation of being the most eloquent defender of the Jana Sangh's policies. After the death of Deendayal Upadhyaya, the leadership of the Jana Sangh passed to Vajpayee. He became the national president of the Jana Sangh in 1968, running the party along with Nanaji Deshmukh, Balraj Madhok, and L. K. Advani.
Janata and the BJP (1975–1995)
Vajpayee was arrested along with several other opposition leaders during the Internal Emergency imposed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in 1975. Initially interned in Bangalore, Vajpayee appealed his imprisonment on the grounds of bad health, and was moved to a hospital in Delhi. Gandhi ended the state of emergency in 1977. A coalition of parties, including the BJS, came together to form the Janata Party, which won the 1977 general elections. Morarji Desai, the chosen leader of the alliance, became the prime minister. Vajpayee served as the Minister of External Affairs, or foreign minister, in Desai's cabinet. As foreign minister, Vajpayee became the first person in 1977 to deliver a speech to the United Nations General Assembly in Hindi.
In 1979, Desai and Vajpayee resigned, triggering the collapse of the Janata Party. The erstwhile members of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh came together to form the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in 1980, with Vajpayee as its first President.
The 1984 general elections were held in the wake of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's assassination by her Sikh bodyguards. While he had won the 1977 and the 1980 elections from New Delhi, Vajpayee shifted to his home town Gwalior for the election. Vidya Razdan was initially tipped to be the Congress (I) candidate. Instead, Madhavrao Scindia, scion of the Gwalior royal family, was brought in on the last day of filing nominations. Vajpayee lost to Scindia, managing to secure only 29% of the votes.
Under Vajpayee, the BJP moderated the Hindu-nationalist position of the Jana Sangh, emphasising its connection to the Janata Party and expressing support for Gandhian Socialism. The ideological shift did not bring it success: Indira Gandhi's assassination generated sympathy for the Congress, leading to a massive victory at the polls. The BJP won only two seats in parliament. Vajpayee offered to quit as party president following BJP's dismal performance in the election, but stayed in the post until 1986. He was elected to the Rajya Sabha in 1986 from Madhya Pradesh, and was briefly the leader of the BJP in Parliament.
In 1986, L. K. Advani took office as president of the BJP. Under him, the BJP returned to a policy of hardline Hindu nationalism. It became the political voice of the Ram Janmabhoomi Mandir Movement, which sought to build a temple dedicated to the Hindu deity Rama in Ayodhya. The temple would be built at a site believed to be the birthplace of Rama after demolishing a 16th-century mosque, called the Babri Masjid, which then stood there. The strategy paid off for the BJP; it won 86 seats in the Lok Sabha in the 1989 general election, making its support crucial to the government of V. P. Singh. In December 1992, a group of religious volunteers led by members of the BJP, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP), tore down the mosque.
He served as Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha, for various terms starting at Balrampur from 1957–1962. He served again from Balrampur from 1967–1971, then from Gwalior from 1971–1977, and then from New Delhi from 1977–1984. Finally, he served from Lucknow from 1991–2009.
Terms as Prime Minister (1996–2004)
First term: May 1996
During a BJP conference in Mumbai in November 1995, BJP President Advani declared that Vajpayee would be the party's Prime Ministerial candidate in the forthcoming elections. Vajpayee himself was reported to be unhappy with the announcement, responding by saying that the party needed to win the election first. The BJP became the single largest party in Parliament in the 1996 general election, helped by religious polarisation across the country as a result of the demolition of the Babri Masjid. Indian president Shankar Dayal Sharma invited Vajpayee to form the government. Vajpayee was sworn in as the 10th Prime Minister of India, but the BJP failed to muster a majority among members of the Lok Sabha. Vajpayee resigned after 16 days, when it became clear that he did not have enough support to form a government.
Second term: 1998–1999
After the fall of the two United Front governments between 1996 and 1998, the Lok Sabha was dissolved and fresh elections were held. The 1998 general elections again put the BJP ahead of others. A number of political parties joined the BJP to form the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), and Vajpayee was sworn in as the Prime Minister. The coalition was an uneasy one, as apart from the Shiv Sena, none of the other parties espoused the BJP's Hindu-nationalist ideology. Vajpayee has been credited for managing this coalition successfully, while facing ideological pressure from the hardline wing of the party and from the RSS. Vajpayee's government lasted 13 months until mid-1999 when the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) under J. Jayalalithaa withdrew its support. The government lost the ensuing vote of confidence motion in the Lok Sabha by a single vote on 17 April 1999. As the opposition was unable to come up with the numbers to form the new government, the Lok Sabha was again dissolved and fresh elections were held.
In May 1998, India conducted five underground nuclear tests in the Pokhran desert in Rajasthan, 24 years after its first nuclear test (Smiling Buddha) in 1974. Two weeks later, Pakistan responded with its own nuclear tests making it the newest nation with declared nuclear capability. While some nations, such as France, endorsed India's right to defensive nuclear power, others including the United States, Canada, Japan, Britain and the European Union imposed sanctions on information, resources and technology to India. In spite of intense international criticism and steady decline in foreign investment and trade, the nuclear tests were popular domestically. In effect, the international sanctions imposed failed to sway India from weaponising its nuclear capability. US sanctions against India and Pakistan were eventually lifted after just six months.
In late 1998 and early 1999, Vajpayee began a push for a full-scale diplomatic peace process with Pakistan. With the historic inauguration of the Delhi-Lahore bus service in February 1999, Vajpayee initiated a new peace process aimed towards permanently resolving the Kashmir dispute and other conflicts with Pakistan. The resultant Lahore Declaration espoused a commitment to dialogue, expanded trade relations and mutual friendship and envisaged a goal of denuclearised South Asia. This eased the tension created by the 1998 nuclear tests, not only within the two nations but also in South Asia and the rest of the world.
AIADMK's withdrawal from coalition
The AIADMK had continually threatened to withdraw from the coalition and national leaders repeatedly flew down from Delhi to Chennai to pacify the AIADMK general secretary J. Jayalalithaa. However, in May 1999, the AIADMK did pull the plug on the NDA, and the Vajpayee administration was reduced to a caretaker status pending fresh elections scheduled for October 1999.
In May 1999 some Kashmiri shepherds discovered the presence of militants and non-uniformed Pakistani soldiers (many with official identifications and Pakistan Army's custom weaponry) in the Kashmir Valley, where they had taken control of border hilltops and unmanned border posts. The incursion was centred around the town of Kargil, but also included the Batalik and Akhnoor sectors and artillery exchanges at the Siachen Glacier.
The Indian army responded with Operation Vijay, which launched on 26 May 1999. This saw the Indian military fighting thousands of militants and soldiers in the midst of heavy artillery shelling and while facing extremely cold weather, snow and treacherous terrain at the high altitude. Over 500 Indian soldiers were killed in the three-month-long Kargil War, and it is estimated around 600–4,000 Pakistani militants and soldiers died as well. India pushed back the Pakistani militants and Northern Light Infantry soldiers. Almost 70% of the territory was recaptured by India. Vajpayee sent a "secret letter" to U.S. President Bill Clinton that if Pakistani infiltrators did not withdraw from the Indian territory, "we will get them out, one way or the other" - meaning he did not rule out crossing the Line of Control (LoC), or was the use of nuclear weapons.
After Pakistan suffered heavy losses, and with both the United States and China refusing to condone the incursion or threaten India to stop its military operations, General Pervez Musharraf was recalcitrant and Nawaz Sharif asked the remaining militants to stop and withdraw to positions along the LoC. The militants were not willing to accept orders from Sharif but the NLI soldiers withdrew. The militants were killed by the Indian army or forced to withdraw in skirmishes which continued even after the announcement of withdrawal by Pakistan.
Third term: 1999–2004
The 1999 general elections were held in the aftermath of the Kargil operations. The BJP-led NDA won 303 seats out of the 543 seats in the Lok Sabha, securing a comfortable and stable majority. On 13 October 1999, Vajpayee took oath as Prime Minister of India for the third time.
A national crisis emerged in December 1999, when Indian Airlines flight IC 814 from Kathmandu to New Delhi was hijacked by five terrorists and flown to Taliban-ruled Afghanistan. The hijackers made several demands including the release of certain terrorists like Masood Azhar from prison. Under pressure, the government ultimately caved in. Jaswant Singh, the Minister of External Affairs at the time, flew with the terrorists to Afghanistan and exchanged them for the passengers.
In March 2000, Bill Clinton, the President of the United States, paid a state visit to India. This was the first state visit to India by a U.S. president in 22 years, since President Jimmy Carter's visit in 1978. President Clinton's visit was hailed as a significant milestone in relations between the two nations. Vajpayee and Clinton had wide-ranging discussions on bilateral, regional and international developments. The visit led to expansion in trade and economic ties between India and the United States. A vision document on the future course of Indo-U.S. relations was signed during the visit.
Domestically, the BJP-led government was influenced by the RSS, but owing to its dependence on coalition support, it was impossible for the BJP to push items like building the Ram Janmabhoomi temple in Ayodhya, repealing Article 370 which gave a special status to the state of Kashmir, or enacting a uniform civil code applicable to adherents of all religions. On 17 January 2000, there were reports of the RSS and some BJP hard-liners threatening to restart the Jan Sangh, the precursor to the BJP, because of their discontent over Vajpayee's rule. Former president of the Jan Sangh Balraj Madhok had written a letter to the then-RSS chief Rajendra Singh for support. The BJP was, however, accused of "saffronising" the official state education curriculum and apparatus, saffron being the colour of the RSS flag of the RSS, and a symbol of the Hindu nationalism movement. Home Minister L. K. Advani and Human Resource Development Minister Murli Manohar Joshi were indicted in the 1992 Babri Mosque demolition case for inciting a mob of activists. Vajpayee himself came under public scrutiny owing to his controversial speech one day prior to the mosque demolition.
These years were accompanied by infighting in the administration and confusion regarding the direction of government. Vajpayee's weakening health was also a subject of public interest, and he underwent a major knee-replacement surgery at the Breach Candy Hospital in Mumbai to relieve intense pressure upon his legs.
In March 2001, the Tehelka group released a sting operation video named Operation West End which showed BJP president Bangaru Laxman, senior army officers and NDA members accepting bribes from journalists posing as agents and businessmen. The Defence Minister George Fernandes was forced to resign following the Barak Missile scandal involving the botched supplies of coffins for the soldiers killed in Kargil, and the findings of an inquiry commission that the government could have prevented the Kargil invasion.
Vajpayee initiated talks with Pakistan, and invited Pakistani president Pervez Musharraf to Agra for a joint summit. President Musharraf was believed to be the principal architect of the Kargil War in India. By accepting him as the President of Pakistan, Vajpayee chose to move forward leaving behind the Kargil War. But after three days of much fanfare, which included Musharraf visiting his birthplace in Delhi, the summit failed to achieve a breakthrough as President Musharraf declined to leave aside the issue of Kashmir.
2001 attack on Parliament
On 13 December 2001, a group of masked, armed men with fake IDs stormed Parliament House in Delhi. The terrorists managed to kill several security guards, but the building was sealed off swiftly and security forces cornered and killed the men who were later proven to be Pakistan nationals. Vajpayee ordered Indian troops to mobilise for war, leading to an estimated 500,000 to 750,000 Indian soldiers positioned along the international border between India and Pakistan. Pakistan responded by mobilising its own troops along the border. A terrorist attack on an army garrison in Kashmir in May 2002 further escalated the situation. As the threat of war between two nuclear capable countries and the consequent possibility of a nuclear exchange loomed large, international diplomatic mediation focused on defusing the situation. In October 2002, both India and Pakistan announced that they would withdraw their troops from the border.
The Vajpayee administration brought in the Prevention of Terrorism Act in 2002. The act was aimed at curbing terrorist threats by strengthening powers of government authorities to investigate and act against suspects. It was passed in a joint session of the parliament, amidst concerns that the law would be misused.
Another political disaster hit his government between December 2001 and March 2002: the VHP held the Government hostage in a major standoff in Ayodhya over the Ram temple. On the 10th anniversary of the destruction of the Babri mosque, the VHP wanted to perform a shila daan, or a ceremony laying the foundation stone of the cherished temple at the disputed site. Thousands of VHP activists amassed and threatened to overrun the site and forcibly perform the ceremony. A grave threat of not only communal violence, but an outright breakdown of law and order owing to the defiance of the government by a religious organisation hung over the nation. The incident, however, ended peacefully with a symbolic handover of a stone at a different location 1 km away from the disputed site.
2002 Gujarat violence
In February 2002, a train filled with Hindu pilgrims returning to Gujarat from Ayodhya stopped in the town of Godhra. A scuffle broke out between Hindu activists and Muslim residents, and the train was set on fire, leading to the deaths of 59 people. The charred bodies of the victims were displayed in public in the city of Ahmedabad, and the Vishwa Hindu Parishad called for a statewide strike in Gujarat. These decisions stoked anti-Muslim sentiments. Blaming Muslims for the deaths, rampaging Hindu mobs killed thousands of Muslim men and women, destroying Muslim homes and places of worship. The violence raged for more than two months, and more than 1,000 people died. Gujarat was being ruled by a BJP government, with Narendra Modi as the chief minister. The state government was criticised for mishandling the situation. It was accused of doing little to stop the violence, and even being complicit in encouraging it.
Vajpayee reportedly wanted to remove Modi, but was eventually prevailed upon by party members to not act against him. He travelled to Gujarat, visiting Godhra, and Ahmedabad, the site of the most violent riots. He announced financial aid for victims, and urged an end to the violence. While he condemned the violence, he did not chastise Modi directly in public. When asked as to what would be his message to the chief minister in the event of the riots having taking place, Vajpayee responded that Modi must follow raj dharma, Hindi for ethical governance.
At the meeting of the BJP national executive in Goa in April 2002, Vajpayee's speech generated controversy for its contents which included him saying: "Wherever Muslims live, they don’t like to live in co-existence with others." The Prime Minister's Office stated that these remarks had been taken out of context. Vajpayee was accused of doing nothing to stop the violence, and later admitted mistakes in handling the events. K. R. Narayanan, then president of India, also blamed Vajpayee's government for failing to quell the violence. After the BJP's defeat in the 2004 general elections, Vajpayee admitted that not removing Modi had been a mistake.
In late 2002 and 2003 the government pushed through economic reforms. The country's GDP growth exceeded 7% every year from 2003 to 2007, following three years of sub-5% growth. Increasing foreign investment, modernisation of public and industrial infrastructure, the creation of jobs, a rising high-tech and IT industry and urban modernisation and expansion improved the nation's international image. Good crop harvests and strong industrial expansion also helped the economy.
In May 2003, he announced before the parliament that he would make one last effort to achieve peace with Pakistan. The announcement ended a period of 16 months, following the 2001 attack on the Indian parliament, during which India had severed diplomatic ties with Pakistan. Although diplomatic relations did not pick up immediately, visits were exchanged by high-level officials and the military standoff ended. The Pakistani President and Pakistani politicians, civil and religious leaders hailed this initiative as did the leaders of the United States, Europe and much of the world. In July 2003, Prime Minister Vajpayee visited China, and met with various Chinese leaders. He recognised Tibet as a part of China, which was welcomed by the Chinese leadership, and which, in the following year, recognised Sikkim as part of India. China–India relations improved greatly in the following years.
Vajpayee's government introduced many domestic economic and infrastructural reforms, including encouraging the private sector and foreign investments, reducing governmental waste, encouraging research and development and privatisation of some government owned corporations. Among Vajpayee's projects were the National Highways Development Project and Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana. In 2001, the Vajpayee government launched the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan campaign, aimed at improving the quality of education in primary and secondary schools.
2004 general election
In 2003, news reports suggested a tussle within the BJP with regard to sharing of leadership between Vajpayee and deputy prime minister LK Advani. BJP president Venkaiah Naidu had suggested that Advani must lead the party politically at the 2004 general elections, referring to Vajpayee as vikas purush, Hindi for development man, and Advani as loh purush, iron man. When Vajpayee subsequently threatened retirement, Naidu backtracked, announcing that the party would contest the elections under the twin leadership of Vajpayee and Advani.
The NDA was widely expected to retain power after the 2004 general election. It announced elections six months ahead of schedule, hoping to capitalise on economic growth, and Vajpayee's peace initiative with Pakistan. The 13th Lok Sabha was dissolved before the completion of its term. The BJP hoped to capitalise on a perceived 'feel-good factor' and BJP's recent successes in the Assembly elections in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. Under the "India Shining" campaign, it released ads proclaiming the economic growth of the nation under the government.
However, the BJP could only win 138 seats in the 543-seat parliament, with several prominent cabinet ministers being defeated. The NDA coalition won 185 seats. The Indian National Congress, led by Sonia Gandhi, emerged as the single largest party, winning 145 seats in the election. The Congress and its allies, comprising many smaller parties, formed the United Progressive Alliance, accounting for 220 seats in the parliament. Vajpayee resigned as Prime Minister. The UPA, with the outside support of communist parties, formed the next government with Manmohan Singh as the prime minister.
In December 2005, Vajpayee announced his retirement from active politics, declaring that he would not contest in the next general election. In a famous statement at the BJP's silver jubilee rally at Mumbai's Shivaji Park, Vajpayee announced that "Henceforth, Lal Krishna Advani and Pramod Mahajan will be the Ram-Lakshman [the two godly brothers much revered and worshipped by Hindus] of the BJP."
Vajpayee was referred to as the Bhishma Pitamah of Indian politics by former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh during a speech in the Rajya Sabha, a reference to the character in the Hindu epic Mahabharata who was held in respect by two warring sides.
Vajpayee was hospitalised at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi (AIIMS) for a chest infection and fever on 6 February 2009. He was put on ventilator support as his condition worsened but he eventually recuperated and was later discharged. Unable to participate in the campaign for the 2009 general election due to his poor health, he wrote a letter urging voters to back the BJP. His protege Lalji Tandon was able to retain the Lucknow seat in that election even though the NDA suffered electoral reverses all over the country. It was speculated that Vajpayee's non-partisan appeal contributed to Lalji's success in Lucknow in contrast to that BJP's poor performance elsewhere in Uttar Pradesh.
|1951||Founding-Member||Bharatiya Jana Sangh||Bharatiya Jana Sangh|
|1957-62||MP, Balrampur (Lok Sabha constituency)||2nd Lok Sabha||Bharatiya Jana Sangh||1st Term|
|1957-77||Leader||Bharatiya Jana Sangh Parliamentary Party||Bharatiya Jana Sangh|
|1962-68||MP, Uttar Pradesh, Rajya Sabha||Rajya Sabha||Bharatiya Jana Sangh||1st Term (Resigned on 25 February 1967) Elected to Lok Sabha|
|1966-67||Chairman||Committee on Government Assurances||Rajya Sabha|
|1967||MP, Balrampur (Lok Sabha constituency)||4th Lok Sabha||Bharatiya Jana Sangh||2nd Term|
|1967-70||Chairman,||Public Accounts Committee||Bharatiya Jana Sangh|
|1968-73||President||Bharatiya Jana Sangh||Bharatiya Jana Sangh|
|1971||MP, Gwalior (Lok Sabha constituency)||5th Lok Sabha||Bharatiya Jana Sangh||3rd Term|
|1977||MP, New Delhi (Lok Sabha constituency)||6th Lok Sabha (4th term)||Janata Party||(4th term)|
|1977-79||Union Cabinet Minister,||External Affairs||Janata Party|
|1977-80||Founding Member||Janata Party||Janata Party|
|1980||MP, New Delhi (Lok Sabha constituency)||7th Lok Sabha||Bharatiya Janata Party||(5th term)|
|1980-86||President,||Bharatiya Janata Party||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|1980–84, 1986 and 1993–96||Leader||Parliamentary Party||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|1986||MP, Madhya Pradesh, Rajya Sabha||Rajya Sabha||Bharatiya Janata Party||2nd Term|
|1988-89||Member,||General Purposes Committee||Rajya Sabha|
Member, Business Advisory Committee
|1990-91||Chairman,||Committee on Petitions||Rajya Sabha|
|1991||MP, Lucknow (Lok Sabha constituency)||10th Lok Sabha||Bharatiya Janata Party||(6th term)|
|1991-93||Chairman,||Public Accounts Committee||Lok Sabha|
|1993-96||Chairman,||Committee on External Affairs||Lok Sabha|
|1993-96||Leader of Opposition,||Lok Sabha||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|1996||MP, Lucknow (Lok Sabha constituency)||11th Lok Sabha||Bharatiya Janata Party||7th Term|
|16 May 1996- 31 May 1996||Prime Minister of India; and in charge of other subjects not allocated to any other Cabinet Minister||Bharatiya Janata Party||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|1996-97||Leader of Opposition,||Lok Sabha||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|1997-98||Chairman,||Committee on External Affairs||Lok Sabha|
|1998||MP, Lucknow (Lok Sabha constituency)||12th Lok Sabha||Bharatiya Janata Party||8th Term|
|1998-99||Prime Minister of India; Minister of External Affairs; and also incharge of Ministries/Departments not specifically allocated to the charge of any Minister||Bharatiya Janata Party||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|1999||MP, Lucknow (Lok Sabha constituency)||13th Lok Sabha||Bharatiya Janata Party||9th Term|
|1999||Leader,||Parliamentary Party, Lok Sabha||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|13 Oct.1999- May 2004||Prime Minister of India and also in charge of the Ministries/Departments not specifically allocated to the charge of any Minister||Bharatiya Janata Party||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|2004||MP, Lucknow (Lok Sabha constituency)||14th Lok Sabha||Bharatiya Janata Party||10th Term|
|2004||Chairman,||Parliamentary Party||Bharatiya Janata Party &|
Vajpayee remained a bachelor for his entire life. He adopted and raised Namita Bhattacharya as his own child, the daughter of longtime friend Rajkumari Kaul and her husband Professor B N Kaul. His adopted family lived with him.
Unlike purist Brahmins who shun meat and alcohol, Vajpayee was known to be fond of whisky and meat. He was a noted poet, writing in Hindi. His published works include Kaidi Kaviraj Ki Kundalian, a collection of poems written when he was imprisoned during the 1975–77 emergency, and Amar aag hai. With regard to his poetry he wrote, "My poetry is a declaration of war, not an exordium to defeat. It is not the defeated soldier's drumbeat of despair, but the fighting warrior's will to win. It is not the despirited voice of dejection but the stirring shout of victory."
Vajpayee suffered a stroke in 2009 which impaired his speech. His health had been a major source of concern; reports said he was confined to a wheelchair and failed to recognise people. He also suffered from dementia and long-term diabetes. For many years, he had not attended any public engagements and rarely ventured out of the house, except for checkups at the All India Institutes of Medical Sciences.
On 11 June 2018, Vajpayee was admitted to AIIMS in critical condition following a kidney infection. He was officially declared dead there at 5:05 pm IST on 16 August 2018 at the age of 93. Some sources claim that he had died on the previous day. On the morning of 17 August, Vajpayee's body, draped with the Indian flag, was taken to the Bharatiya Janata Party headquarters where party workers paid their tributes until 1 pm. Later that afternoon at 4 pm, Vajpayee was cremated with full state honours at Rashtriya Smriti Sthal near Raj Ghat, and his pyre was lit by his foster daughter Namita Kaul Bhattacharya. Thousands of people and many dignitaries attended his funeral procession, including Prime Minister Narendra Modi and President Ram Nath Kovind. On 19 August, his ashes were immersed in Ganga river at Haridwar by Kaul.
Reactions and tributes on his death
India reacted to Vajpayee's death with grief and thousands of tributes poured in through social media platforms. Thousands of people paid their respects during his funeral procession. A seven-day state mourning was announced by the central government throughout India. The national flag flew half-mast during this period.
- Afghanistan: Former Afghan President Hamid Karzai was among several foreign dignitaries present at former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee's funeral in New Delhi. He recalled that the departed leader was "the first to offer us civilian planes, Airbuses at the time we were starting out".
- Bangladesh: Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina expressed "deep shock" at the demise of former Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee and said it is a day of great sadness for the people of Bangladesh. Paying tribute to Vajpayee, Hasina termed him as "one of the most famous sons of India" and a highly respected person in Bangladesh.
- Bhutan: Bhutan king Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck attended the funeral ceremony in New Delhi.
- China: In a statement, the ministry of foreign affairs said the Indian leader was an "outstanding Indian statesman and had made outstanding contributions to the development of Sino-Indian relations"."China expresses its deep condolences on his death and sincere condolences to the Indian government and people and the relatives of Mr Vajpayee. Premier Li Keqiang has sent a condolence message to the leaders of India," the statement said.
- Japan: Remembering Vajpayee's visit to Japan in 2001, the Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe said, "On behalf of the Government and people of Japan, I would like to convey my sincerest condolences to the Government and people of India and the bereaved family. His Excellency Vajpayee visited Japan in 2001 as the then-Prime Minister and made significant contributions to the friendship between our two countries as a good friend of Japan. It is him who established the cornerstone of Japan-India relations today". Terming Vajpayee as an eminent leader of India, Abe added, "I pray from the bottom of my heart that his soul may rest in peace".
- Mauritius: On 17 August, the government of Mauritius announced that both Mauritian and Indian flags would fly at half mast in the honour of Vajpayee. During the World Hindi Conference in Mauritius, PM Pravind Jugnauth announced that the cyber tower towards which Vajpayee contributed to be set up in Mauritius would be henceforth named as Atal Bihari Vajpayee tower.
- Pakistan: Pakistan's interim Minister for Law and Information Syed Ali Zafar met External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj and extended Pakistan's condolence on the death of former prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Zafar was among the foreign dignitaries who attended Vajpayee's funeral in New Delhi. Former Pakistani president Pervez Musharraf mourned the demise of former prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, calling him a great man. He said that Vajpayee's demise was a great loss for both India as well as Pakistan.
- Russia: Russian President Vladimir Putin sent a message of condolences to President Ram Nath Kovind and Prime Minister Narendra Modi on the demise of Vajpayee. Putin termed the former prime minister as "outstanding statesman". "Atal Bihari Vajpayee rightly commanded great respect around the world. He will be remembered as a politician who made a major personal contribution to the friendly relations and privileged strategic partnership between our countries. The President of Russia conveyed words of sincere sympathy and support to the family of the deceased, the Government and the people of India", the message read.
- Sri Lanka: Various Sri Lanka leaders paid rich tribute to the three-time PM, hailing him as a "friend of Sri Lanka". In a tweet President Maithripala Sirisena said: "Today, we have lost a great humanist and a true friend of Sri Lanka. Former Prime Minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpayee was a visionary leader and an ardent defender of democracy. My condolences to his family and millions of his admirers around the world". Leader of Opposition R. Sampanthan said that India has lost one of its "most regarded intellectual[s] and [statesmen]". "He served the great country of India with humility and honesty, and he was much loved and respected by millions of people across the world. Former three-time Prime Minister Vajpayee is also an exceptional orator and a leader with a great sense of humour, his speeches within the Indian parliament and outside will always be remembered", he said in a statement, extending his condolences on behalf of the Tamil people of Sri Lanka.
- United States: U.S. Secretary of State Michael Pompeo said Vajpayee recognised early on that the US-India partnership would contribute to the world's economic prosperity and security and the two democracies would continue to benefit from his vision. "On behalf of the people of the United States of America, I extend my heartfelt condolences to the people of India on the recent passing of former prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee", Pompeo said in a statement yesterday. He recalled Vajpayee's address to the Congress in 2000, when he had famously characterised US-India ties as a "natural partnership of shared endeavours". "Today, our two countries and our bilateral relationship continue to benefit from Prime Minister Vajpayee vision, which helped promote expanded cooperation", Pompeo said. He said the American people stand with the people of India "as we mourn Prime Minister Vajpayee's passing".
- Recipient of the Bangladesh Liberation War Honour (2016)
Vajpayee authored several works of both prose and poetry. Some of his major publications are listed below. In addition to these, various collections were made of his speeches, articles, and slogans.
- National Integration (1961)
- New Dimensions of India's Foreign Policy (1979)
- Gathbandhan Ki Rajneeti
- Kucha Lekha, Kucha Bhashana (1996)
- Bindu-Bindu Vicara (1997)
- Decisive Days (1999)
- Sankalp-Kaal (1999)
- Vicara-Bindu (Hindi Edition, 2000)
- India's Perspectives on ASEAN and the Asia-Pacific Region (2003)
- Na Dainyam Na Palayanam
- Nayi Chunouti : Naya Avasar
- Kaidi Kaviraj Ki Kundalian
- Amar Aag Hai (1994)
- Meri Ikyavana Kavitaem (1995). Some of these poems were set to music by Jagjit Singh for his album Samvedna.
- Kya Khoya Kya Paya: Atal Bihari Vajapeyi, Vyaktitva Aur Kavitaem (1999)
- Values, Vision & Verses of Vajpayee: India's Man of Destiny (2001)
- Twenty-One Poems (2003)
- Chuni Hui Kavitayein (2012)
An English translation of a selection of some of Vajpayee's Hindi poetry was published in 2013.
- "Atal Bihari Vajpayee Biography – About family, political life, awards won, history". elections.in. Archived from the original on 24 July 2017. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- N P 2018.
- McFadden, Robert D. (16 August 2018). "Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Former Prime Minister of India, Dies at 93". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 16 August 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
- "The Sangh (RSS) is my Soul; writes Atal Bihari Vajpayee". Vishwa Samvada Kendra. 19 January 2012. Archived from the original on 18 August 2017. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "The outliers who won the PMs post". Archived from the original on 12 November 2016. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- Jaffrelot 1996, pp. 131–132.
- Chatterjee, Manini; Ramachandran, V. K. (7 February 1998). "Vajpayee and the Quit India movement". Frontline. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- "Election Commission of India" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 October 2014.
- "Explained: Battleground AMU; A Raja and his Legacy". The Indian Express. 29 November 2014. Archived from the original on 3 June 2017. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Print Release". pib.nic.in. Archived from the original on 30 January 2016. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- Guha, Ramachandra (16 August 2018). "Atal Bihari Vajpayee (1924–2018): A poet among bigots". Scroll.in. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Nag, Kingshuk (29 June 2014). "How the leadership of the Jana Sangh passed to Vajpayee". Scroll.in. Archived from the original on 25 October 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "Key milestones in Atal Bihari Vajpayee's political journey". The Times of India. 16 August 2018. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Coomi Kapoor 2016, p. 46.
- Nag, Kingshuk (16 August 2018). "Atal Behari Vajpayee: A mercurial moderate". BBC. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "AB Vajpayee: The PM who consolidated India as a nuclear power". BBC. 18 August 2018. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- De, Abhishek (16 August 2018). "Atal Bihari Vajpayee passes away: 10 defining moments of his political career". The Indian Express. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "Obituary: Morarji Desai". The Independent. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Lahiry, Sutapa (2005). "Jana Sangh and Bharatiya Janata Party : A comparative assessment of their philosophy and strategy and their proximity with the other members of the Sangh Parivar". The Indian Journal of Political Science. 66 (4): 831–850. JSTOR 41856171.
- "How Vajpayee fared in the 14 Lok Sabha elections he contested between 1957 and 2004". Mint. 17 August 2018. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Gupta, Shekhar (31 December 1984). "Gwalior to see epic election battle between Madhavrao Scindia and Atal Behari Vajpayee". India Today. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Malik, Yogendra K.; Singh, V.B. (April 1992). "Bharatiya Janata Party: An Alternative to the Congress (I)?". Asian Survey. 32 (4): 318–336. doi:10.2307/2645149. JSTOR 2645149.
- Ghosh, Abantika (11 November 2015). "BJP members' statement: Senior leader recalls 1984 loss, says Vajpayee offered to quit". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Chatterjee, Manini (1 May 1994). "The BJP: Political Mobilization for Hindutva". Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East. 14 (1): 14–23. doi:10.1215/07323867-14-1-14. ISSN 1089-201X.
- "Alphabetical List Of Former Members Of Rajya Sabha Since 1952". Rajya Sabha. Archived from the original on 9 January 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "SHRI ATAL BIHARI VAJPAYEE". bjp.org. Archived from the original on 10 July 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
- Gupta, Mohak (6 April 2017). "BJP Foundation Day: Party's rise to power from 2 MPs in 1984 to 282 in 2014". India Today. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Guha, Ramachandra (15 August 2007). "India's Internal Partition". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Peer, Basharat (6 December 2016). ""Maybe We Will Have The Temple When The Congress Is in Power": Twenty-Four Years After The Babri Masjid Demolition". The Caravan. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "Atal Bihari Vajpayee had his website as early as 1999 polls". Archived from the original on 19 August 2018. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
- "Will the 'rath yatra' bring LK Advani back in RSS good books?". dna. 11 October 2011. Archived from the original on 21 September 2017. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- Guha 2007, p. 633. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFGuha2007 (help)
- M. L. Ahuja 1998, p. 208.
- Muller 2012, p. 628.
- Chitkara & Śarmā 1997, p. 268.
- Sumantra Bose 2013, p. 79.
- "Atal Bihari Vajpayee: India's new prime minister". BBC. Archived from the original on 5 December 2016. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- Guha 2007, p. 662. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFGuha2007 (help)
- "Vajpayee's thirteen months". BBC. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- Turner 2016, p. 818.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Guha 2007, pp. 673–675. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFGuha2007 (help)
- Ajai K. Rai 2009, p. 162.
- Morrow, Daniel; Carriere, Michael (Fall 1999). "The economic impacts of the 1998 sanctions on India and Pakistan" (PDF). p. 10. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 August 2017. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "CNN – Leaders of Pakistan, India pledge to work toward peace – February 21, 1999". CNN. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Maggsi, Amjad Abbas. "Lahore Declaration February, 1999 A Major Initiative for Peace in South Asia." Pakistan Vision 14, no. 1 (2013): 183.
- Oldenburg, Philip (September 1999). "The Thirteenth Election of India's Lok Sabha". The Asia Society. Archived from the original on 4 June 2008.
- "SJIR: The Fate of Kashmir : International Law or Lawlessness?". web.stanford.edu. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Guha 2007, pp. 675–678. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFGuha2007 (help)
- Myra 2017, pp. 27–66.
- "PARLIAMENT QUESTIONS, LOK SABHA". 2 December 2008. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Rodrigo 2006.
- Reddy, B. Muralidhar (17 August 2003). "The Hindu : Over 4,000 soldiers killed in Kargil: Sharif". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 31 May 2004. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "Pak quietly names 453 men killed in Kargil war". Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 27 June 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Team, BS Web (3 December 2015). "India was ready to cross LoC, use nuclear weapons in Kargil war". Business Standard India. Archived from the original on 9 June 2017. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "The story of how Nawaz Sharif pulled back from nuclear war". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "Address to the Nation by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee" (PDF). Indianembassy.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
- "Rediff on the NeT: 70-member Vajpayee ministry sworn in". Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 June 2010. Retrieved 6 February 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "How the World Paid for the IC-814 Hijacking, 18 Years Ago". The Quint. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Symonds, Peter. "Clinton visit to the Indian subcontinent sets a new strategic orientation". Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Chaudhury, Dipanjan Roy (17 August 2018). "Atal Bihari Vajpayee went the extra mile, shaped India's foreign policy". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "The text of the Clinton-Vajpayee joint statement". Rediff. 16 September 2000. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Bengali, Shashank; M. N., Parth (16 August 2018). "Atal Bihari Vajpayee, former Indian prime minister who pursued peace with Pakistan, dies at 93". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "Atal Bihari Vajpayee passes away at 93: Bhishma Pitamaha of Indian politics, former prime minister was humanity personified – Firstpost". firstpost.com. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "Revive Jan Sangh – BJP hardlines". The Indian Express. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- Mehra, Ajay K. (19 September 2001). "The colour of education". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 22 September 2002. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Ramakrishnan, Venkitesh (25 April 2004). "The Hindu : National / Elections 2004 : This Vajpayee speech campaigns against the NDA". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- Mishra, Subhash (11 October 1999). "Spoiling the party". India Today. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Singh, Tavleen (8 January 2001). "Year of inaction". India Today. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Raghunath, From Pamela (8 June 2001). "Vajpayee's knee surgery successful". Gulf News. Archived from the original on 29 May 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "The Hindu : Operation West End". The Hindu. 20 March 2001. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Fernandes offers to quit". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 21 April 2018. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- Dugger, Celia W. (14 July 2001). "A Summit Meeting of Old Foes: India and Pakistan". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 May 2015. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Baral, J.K. (1 August 2002). "The Agra Summit". International Studies. 39 (3): 289–302. doi:10.1177/002088170203900305. ISSN 0020-8817. S2CID 154231247.
- "Parliament attack: From 5 terrorists storming in to Afzal Guru hanging, all that happened in 16 years". India Today. Archived from the original on 12 January 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- J. N. Dixit 2003.
- Times News Network (TNN) (10 February 2013). "Parliament attack had brought India, Pak on brink of another war". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "Pakistan to withdraw front-line troops". BBC News. 17 October 2002. Archived from the original on 14 July 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Coll, Steve (13 February 2006). "The Stand-off". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 24 July 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Venkatesan, V. "POTA under challenge". Frontline. Vol. 20 no. 3, 1–14 February 2003. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Singh, Jyotsna (17 September 2004). "Analysis: The problems with Pota". BBC News. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Venkatesan, V. "The POTA passage". Frontline. Vol. 19 no. 8, 13–26 April 2002. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Mody, Anjaly (14 March 2002). "Security blanket over Ayodhya as VHP is firm on shila daan". The Hindu. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Harding, Luke (15 March 2002). "Ayodhya fear: Hindus to defy ban and pray at site of ruined mosque". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "Ayodhya: India's religious flashpoint". CNN. 28 February 2002. Archived from the original on 24 January 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Mody, Anjaly (15 March 2002). "Central emissary receives 'shila'; Ayodhya breathes easy". The Hindu. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "Timeline of the Riots in Modi's Gujarat". The New York Times. 19 August 2015. Archived from the original on 26 July 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Dugger, Celia W. (27 July 2002). "Religious Riots Loom Over Indian Politics". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 August 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Dasgupta, Manas (5 April 2002). "Vajpayee's advice to Modi". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 6 January 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Sengupta, Somini (29 April 2009). "Shadows of Violence Cling to Indian Politician". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 30 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Jose, Vinod K (1 March 2012). "1 March 2012". The Caravan. Archived from the original on 22 July 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "'Modi has to go': Post-2002 Gujarat riots, Atal Bihari Vajpayee wanted then CM to step down". Firstpost. 7 January 2017. Archived from the original on 8 February 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Bearak, Barry (5 April 2002). "Angry and Ashamed, Indian Prime Minister Tours Riot-Torn State". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Vajpayee condemns Godhra carnage, Gujarat communal violence – Express India". The Indian Express. Press Trust of India. Archived from the original on 14 September 2017. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Who Started The Fire?". Outlook. 20 April 2002. Archived from the original on 18 January 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Tully, Mark. "CNN.com – Vajpayee reveals his true colors – April 18, 2002". CNN. Archived from the original on 31 December 2017. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Atal Bihari Vajpayee passes away: BJP loses its tallest leader, India a statesman politician". The Financial Express. 16 August 2018. Archived from the original on 16 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Naji, Kasra. "CNN.com – Vajpayee admits mistake over Gujarat – April 30, 2002". CNN. Archived from the original on 2 January 2018. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- Dossani 2008, p. 154.
- Yogengra, Kanwar (14 June 2004). "Not removing Modi was a mistake, says Vajpayee". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Agencies (30 June 2004). "India's economy grows 8.2% in 2003–2004". China Daily. Archived from the original on 11 June 2009. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "GDP growth (annual %): India". World Bank. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Rai, Saritha (1 April 2004). "India's Economy Soared by 10% in Last Quarter of 2003". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Waldman, Amy (2 May 2003). "India Announces Steps in Effort to End Its Conflict With Pakistan". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Jain, B.M. (24 January 2007). "India–China relations: issues and emerging trends". The Round Table. 93 (374): 253–269. doi:10.1080/00358530410001679602. ISSN 0035-8533. S2CID 154249140.
- "Vajpayee, the right man in the wrong party – 4 – New..." archive.is. 4 January 2013. Archived from the original on 4 January 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Vajpayee – the intuitive reformer". @businessline. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana: How the programme impacted Indian hinterland". The Indian Express. 25 February 2016. Archived from the original on 12 January 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "Schemes | Government of India, Ministry of Human Resource Development". mhrd.gov.in. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "Atal Bihari Vajpayee's contribution towards education sector". The Indian Express. 16 August 2018. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Vyas, Neena (25 September 2003). "Vajpayee is our leader, reiterates BJP". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 4 February 2004. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Bidwai, Praful (17 June 2003). "BJP's leadership fissures". Rediff. Archived from the original on 24 July 2008. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Arun, T. K. (16 August 2018). "Atal Bihari Vajpayee: The pregnant pause lengthens forever". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Raghavan, S (6 June 2003). "Vikas and loh". Business Line. Archived from the original on 23 May 2006. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Waldman, Amy (13 May 2004). "In Huge Upset, Gandhi's Party Wins Election in India". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Ramesh, Randeep (14 May 2004). "Shock defeat for India's Hindu nationalists". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "India Shining backfired: Advani – Debating India". india.eu.org. Archived from the original on 27 December 2005. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "BJP and the India Shining campaign | The Express Tribune". The Express Tribune. 6 April 2013. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "The voters' big surprise". The Economist. 13 May 2004. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "CNN.com – Vajpayee resigns after poll upset – May 13, 2004". CNN. Archived from the original on 16 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "Sonia: and yet so far". The Economist. 20 May 2004. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "BBC NEWS | World | South Asia | Vajpayee to retire from politics". BBC. 29 December 2005. Archived from the original on 23 November 2006. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- ""Bhishma Pitamah" should rise above party politics: PM". The Hindu. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- "Vajpayee showing signs of improvement". The Indian Express. 5 February 2009. Archived from the original on 21 April 2018. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- "Vajpayee asks Lucknow voters to ensure BJP's win". The Indian Express. 17 April 2009. Archived from the original on 2 October 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- indiainfoline.com. "Prime Ministers of India – Atal Bihari Vajpayee". indiainfoline.com. Archived from the original on 15 July 2017. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "To evade marriage, Atal Bihari Vajpayee locked himself up for 3 days". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 23 July 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Mrs Kaul, Delhi's most famous unknown other half, passes away". The Indian Express. 4 May 2014. Archived from the original on 31 January 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
- Burns, John F. (20 March 1998). "Man in the News: Atal Bihari Vajpayee; Sworn In as India's Leader, Ambiguity in His Wake". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Lakshmi, Rama; Joshi, Sopan (16 August 2018). "Atal Bihari Vajpayee, prime minister who made India a nuclear power, dies at 93". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Popham, Peter (25 May 2002). "Profile: Atal Behari Vajpayee". The Independent. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Values, Vision & Verses of Vajpayee: India's Man of Destiny page – iii
- "A peek into the life Atal Bihari Vajpayee now leads". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 23 July 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
- "Vajpayee turns 88 amid health concerns". Zee News. 23 December 2011. Archived from the original on 21 April 2018. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
- "Atal Bihari Vajpayee's Condition Stable But Will Remain in Hospital For Now, Says AIIMS". Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
- "Atal Bihari Vajpayee's condition 'stable', Manmohan Singh pays a visit". 12 June 2018. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
- "Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Former Prime Minister and BJP Stalwart, Passes Away Aged 93 at AIIMS". News18. 16 August 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
- "Atal Bihari Vajpayee, former Prime Minister, passes away at 93". The Hindu. 16 August 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
- "Sena Leader Questions Day Of Vajpayee's Death, Links It To PM's Speech". NDTV. 27 August 2018. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- "Vajpayee death announced a day late, claims PCB official". PuneMirror. 19 August 2018. Archived from the original on 28 August 2018. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
- "Atal Bihari Vajpayee cremated, daughter Namita lights funeral pyre". Business Standard India. Press Trust of India. 17 August 2018. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Atal Bihari Vajpayee's funeral live updates: Last rites of Vajpayee performed with full state honours – The Times of India". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Atal Bihari Vajpayee Funeral Highlights: Former PM Cremated, Thousands Pay Tributes". NDTV.com. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Atal Bihari Vajpayee funeral: A massive attendance, 21-gun salute and all that happened at Smriti Sthal – NewsX". NewsX. 17 August 2018. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Bureau, ABP News. "Former PM Atal Bihari Vajpayee's ashes immersed in Ganga at Haridwar". Retrieved 19 August 2018.
- "Former prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee's ashes immersed in Ganga at Haridwar". Hindustan Times. 19 August 2018. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
- "India mourns former PM AB Vajpayee". BBC News. 17 August 2018. Archived from the original on 19 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Former PM Atal Bihari Vajpayee Dies at 93 : National Mourning Declared for 7 days : Tricolor To Fly Half Mast". Headlines Today. 16 August 2018. Archived from the original on 27 August 2018. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- "Bhutan, Pakistan, Nepal, Afghanistan and Bangladesh: South Asia pays tribute to Vajpayee". Hindustan Times. 17 August 2018. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Bangladesh PM Sheikh Hasina says Vajpayee's death is a day of great sadness". The Times of India. 17 August 2018.
- "Bhutan King Among Foreign Dignitaries to Attend Vajpayee's Funeral". The Quint. 17 August 2018. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Atal Bihari Vajpayee an 'outstanding Indian statesman', says China". Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Japanese PM Shinzo Abe remembers Atal Bihari Vajpayee as 'good friend of Japan'". Hindustan Times. 17 August 2018. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Flags in Mauritius at half mast in Vajpayee's honour". The Economic Times. 17 August 2018. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Mauritian Indian flags to fly at half mast in Vajpayee's honour in Mauritius". The Week. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Staff, Newsroom (18 August 2018). "Tower in Mauritius to be named after late PM Vajpayee". Newsroom Post. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Pakistan interim Law Minister Syed Ali Zafar meets Sushma Swaraj over Vajpayee's demise". The Indian Express. 17 August 2018. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Musharraf, Vajpayee and kheer at Agra summit: Former Pak ruler remembers the Indian stalwart". Zee News. 17 August 2018. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Global leaders including Vladimir Putin condole Atal Bihari Vajpayee's death". The Economic Times. 17 August 2018.
- "Sri Lankan leaders, top bureaucrats pay tributes to Vajpayee". The Hindu. 17 August 2018. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Statement by Secretary Pompeo on Passing of Former Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee". U.S. Embassy & Consulates in India. in.usembassy.gov. 17 August 2018. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
- Sengupta, Uttam (20 August 2012). "A Measure Of The Man". Outlook. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
- "Chhattisgarh Cabinet agrees to rename Naya Raipur as Atal Nagar". The Indian Express. 21 August 2018. Retrieved 21 August 2018.
- "Chhattisgarh Govt Renames It's [sic] New Capital Naya Raipur To "Atal Nagar", Pays Tribute To Vajpayee in Unique Way". Headlines Today. Archived from the original on 21 August 2018. Retrieved 21 August 2018.
- "4 mountain peaks named after former PM Atal Bihari Vajpayee". India Today. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
- "President of India to present the Bharat Ratna to Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee on March 27th at his residence". pib.nic.in. Archived from the original on 22 March 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
- "Atal Bihari Vajpayee: Books by the former Indian Prime Minister". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 16 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Vajpayee 2000.
- Vajpayee 1977.
- Vajpayee 1961.
- Vajpayee 2004.
- Vajpayee 1996.
- Vajpayee 1997.
- Vajpayee 1999a.
- Vajpayee 1999b.
- Vajpayee 2002.
- Vajpayee 1998.
- Vajpayee 2011.
- Vajpayee 1995.
- "When Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Shah Rukh Khan and Jagjit Singh came together for a music video". The Indian Express. 16 August 2018. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Vajpayee 1999c.
- Vajpayee 2001a.
- Vajpayee 2001b.
- Vajpayee 2012.
- Vajpayee 2013.
- Smriti Kak Ramachandran (24 December 2014). "Bharat Ratna for Vajpayee, Madan Mohan Malaviya". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 25 December 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- Rahul Shrivastava (23 December 2014). "Bharat Ratna for Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Madan Mohan Malaviya Likely To be Announced Today". NDTV.com. Archived from the original on 24 December 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
- PTI; Srinivasan, Chandrashekar (3 October 2020). "PM Modi Inaugurates Strategically Important Atal Tunnel At Rohtang In Himachal". NDTV.com. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
- "Goa gets cable-stayed bridge over Mandovi river, Manohar Parrikar hails Gadkari as his hero". The Indian Express. 28 January 2019. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
- "Atal Nagar: Naya Raipur to be named as Atal Nagar in memory of Atal Bihari Vajpayee". The Economic Times. 25 October 2018. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
- Current Biography Yearbook, 61, H. W. Wilson Company, 2000
- Ahuja, M. L. (1998), Electoral Politics and General Elections in India, 1952–1998, Mittal Publications, ISBN 9788170997115
- Bose, Sumantra (2013), Transforming India, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-72819-6
- Chitkara, M. G.; Śarmā, Baṃśī Rāma (1997), Indian Republic: Issues and Perspective, APH Publishing, ISBN 9788170248361
- Dixit, J. N. (2 September 2003), Taylor & Francis Group, Routledge, doi:10.4324/9780203301104, ISBN 9781134407583
- Dossani, Rafiq (2008), India Arriving: How This Economic Powerhouse Is Redefining Global Business, AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn
- Guha, Ramachandra (2007), India after Gandhi: the history of the world's largest democracy, India: Picador, ISBN 978-0-330-39610-3
- Jaffrelot, Christophe (1996), The Hindu Nationalist Movement and Indian Politics, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, ISBN 978-1-85065-301-1
- Kapoor, Coomi (2016), The Emergency: A Personal History, Penguin UK, ISBN 9789352141197
- Muller, Tom (2012), Muller, Tom; Lansford, Tom (eds.), Political Handbook of the World 2012 (revised ed.), SAGE, ISBN 978-1-60871-995-2
- Myra, MacDonald (1 January 2017), Defeat is an orphan : how Pakistan lost the great South Asian war, London, ISBN 9781849048583, OCLC 973222892
- N P, Ullekh (2018), The Untold Vajpayee: Politician and Paradox, Random House India, ISBN 9789385990816
- Rai, Ajai K. (2009), India's Nuclear Diplomacy After Pokhran II, Pearson Education India, ISBN 9788131726686
- Rodrigo, Tavares (2006), Understanding regional peace and security, Göteborg: Göteborg University, ISBN 9789187380679, OCLC 123913212
- Roy, Ramashray; Wallace, Paul, eds. (2007), India's 2004 Elections: Grass-Roots and National Perspectives (illustrated ed.), SAGE, ISBN 978-0-7619-3516-2
- Turner, B., ed. (2016), The Statesman's Yearbook 2004: The Politics, Cultures and Economies of the World (illustrated ed.), Springer, ISBN 978-0-230-27132-6
- Vajpayee, Atal Bihari (1961), National integration
- Vajpayee, Atal Bihari (1977), Dynamics of an Open Society, Ministry of External Affairs, External Publicity Division
- Vajpayee, Atal Bihari (1995), Merī ikyāvana kavitāem̐, Śarmā, Candrikā Prasāda. (1. saṃskaraṇa ed.), Nayī Dillī: Kitāba Ghara, ISBN 978-8170162551, OCLC 34753486
- Vajpayee, Atal Bihari (1996), Kucha lekha, kucha bhāshaṇa, Śarmā, Candrikā Prasāda. (1. saṃskaraṇa ed.), Nayī Dillī: Kitāba Ghara, ISBN 978-8170163398, OCLC 36430396
- Vajpayee, Atal Bihari (1997), Bindu-bindu vicāra, Śarmā, Candrikā Prasāda. (1. saṃskaraṇa ed.), Nayī Dillī: Kitābaghara, ISBN 978-8170163862, OCLC 39733207
- Vajpayee, Atal Bihari (1998), Na dainyaṃ na palāyanam, Śarmā, Candrikā Prasāda. (1. saṃskaraṇa ed.), Nayī Dillī: Kitāba Ghara, ISBN 978-8170164241, OCLC 41002985
- Vajpayee, Atal Bihari (1999a), Decisive days, Ghaṭāṭe, Nā. Mā. (Narayana Madhava), Delhi: Shipra Publications, ISBN 978-8175410480, OCLC 43905101
- Vajpayee, Atal Bihari (1999b), Samkalpa-kāla, Ghaṭāṭe, Narayana Madhyama, Dillī: Prabhāta Prakāśana, ISBN 978-8173153006, OCLC 874550695
- Vajpayee, Atal Bihari (1999c), Kyā khoyā kyā pāyā : Aṭala Vihārī Vājapeyī, vyaktitva aura kavitāeṃ, Nandana, Kanhaiyālāla, 1933–2010. (1. saṃskaraṇa ed.), Dillī: Rājapāla eṇḍa Sanza, ISBN 978-8170283355, OCLC 43992648
- Vajpayee, Atal Bihari (2000), Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, selected speeches 2000–2002, India. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Publications Division., New Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India, ISBN 978-8123008349, OCLC 45499698
- Vajpayee, Atal Bihari (2001a), Values, vision & verses of Vajpayee : India's man of destiny, Goyal, Bhagwat S., 1939– (1st ed.), Ghaziabad: Srijan Prakashan, ISBN 978-8187996002, OCLC 4766656
- Vajpayee, Atal Bihari (2001b), Twenty-one poems, Varma, Pavan K., 1953-, New Delhi: Viking, ISBN 978-0670049172, OCLC 49619164
- Vajpayee, Atal Bihari (2002), India's Perspectives on ASEAN and the Asia-Pacific Region, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS), ISBN 9789812306111, OCLC 748241801
- Vajpayee, Atal Bihari (2004), Gaṭhabandhana kī rājanīti, Ghaṭāṭe, Nā. Mā. (Narayana Madhava) (Saṃskaraṇa 1 ed.), Naī Dillī: Prabhāta Prakāśana, ISBN 978-8173154799, OCLC 60392662
- Vajpayee, Atal Bihari (2011), Nayi Chunouti : Naya Avasar (in Hindi), KITABGHAR PRAKASHAN, ISBN 978-9383233595
- Vajpayee, Atal Bihari (2012), Chuni Hui Kavitayein, Prabhat Prakashan, ISBN 978-9350481639
- Vajpayee, Atal Bihari (2013), Selected poems, Shah, Arvind (Poet) (Ed. 1st ed.), New Delhi: Prabhat Prakashan, ISBN 9789350484326, OCLC 861540562
- Vora, Rajendra; Palshikar, Suhas, eds. (2003), Indian Democracy: Meanings and Practices, SAGE Publications India, ISBN 9789351500193
- L.K. Advani. My Country My Life. (2008). ISBN 978-81-291-1363-4.
- M.P. Kamal. Bateshwar to Prime Minister House – An Interesting Description of Different Aspects of Atalji's . (2003). ISBN 978-81-7604-600-8.
- G.N.S. Raghavan. New Era in the Indian Polity, A Study of Atal Bihari Vajpayee and the BJP. (1996). ISBN 978-81-212-0539-9.
- P. R Trivedi. Atal Bihari Vajpayee: The man India needs : the most appropriate leader for the twentyfirst century. (2000). ISBN 978-81-7696-001-4.
- Sujata K. Dass. " prem k jain ". (2004). ISBN 978-81-7835-277-0.
- Chandrika Prasad Sharma. Poet politician Atal Bihari Vajpayee: A biography. (1998). ASIN B0006FD11E.
- Sheila Vazirani. Atal Bihari Vajpayee; profile & personal views (Know thy leaders). (1967). ASIN B0006FFBV2.
- C.P. Thakur. India Under Atal Behari Vajpayee: The BJP Era. (1999). ISBN 978-81-7476-250-4
- Sita Ram Sharma. Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee: Commitment to power. (1998). ISBN 978-81-85809-24-3.
- Bhagwat S. Goyal Values, Vision & Verses of Vajpayee: India's Man of Destiny 2001 Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh. ISBN 81-87996-00-5.
- Darshan Singh. Atal Behari Vajpayee: The arch of India. (2001). ISBN 978-81-86405-25-3.
- Yogesh Atal. Mandate for political transition: Re-emergence of Vaypayee. (2000). ASIN B0006FEIHA.
- Sujata K. Das. Atal Bihari Vajpayee. (2004). ISBN 978-8178352770
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Atal Bihari Vajpayee|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Atal Bihari Vajpayee.|
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:|
Atal Bihari Vajpayee