All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

The All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (transl. All India Anna Dravidian Progressive Federation; abbr. AIADMK) is an Indian regional political party with great influence in the state of Tamil Nadu and the union territory of Puducherry. It is a Dravidian party founded by the former chief minister of Tamil Nadu M. G. Ramachandran (M.G.R.) at Madurai on 17 October 1972 as a breakaway faction from the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam after M. Karunanidhi expelled him from the party for demanding an account as the party treasurer.[7] The party is adhering to the policy of socialism and secularism based on the principles of C. N. Annadurai (Anna) collectively coined as Annaism by M.G.R.[8][9] The party has won a seven-time majority in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly and has emerged as the most successful political outfit in the state's history. It is currently the main opposition party in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly and part of the India-ruling National Democratic Alliance.[10]

All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
AbbreviationAIADMK
General SecretaryEdappadi K. Palaniswami (Interim)
Parliamentary ChairpersonM. Thambidurai
Rajya Sabha leaderM. Thambidurai
TreasurerDindigul C. Srinivasan
FounderM. G. Ramachandran
Founded17 October 1972; 50 years ago (1972-10-17)
Split fromDravida Munnetra Kazhagam
HeadquartersPuratchi Thalaivar M.G.R. Maaligai, 226, Avvai Shanmugam Salai,
Royapettah, Chennai – 600014, Tamil Nadu, India.
NewspaperNamadhu Puratchi Thalaivi Amma (Daily journal)[1]
News J (Television channel)[2]
Student wingAIADMK Student Wing
Youth wingM.G.R. Youth Wing
Women's wingAIADMK Women's Wing
Labour wingAnna Trade Union Federation
Ideology
Political positionCentre-left[5]
Colours  Green
ECI StatusState party[6]
AllianceNational Democratic Alliance
Seats in Lok Sabha
0 / 543
Seats in Rajya Sabha
4 / 245
Seats in Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly
63 / 234
Election symbol
Two Leaves
Party flag
AIADMK OfficialFlag Vector.svg
Website
www.aiadmk.com

From 9 February 1989 to 5 December 2016, the AIADMK was led by the former chief minister of Tamil Nadu J. Jayalalithaa (Amma) as general secretary of the party. She was admired as the Mother of the party by her cadre[11] and was highly popular among the Tamil populace until her death in 2016.[12] From 21 August 2017 to 23 June 2022, the party was led under the dual leadership of the former chief ministers of Tamil Nadu O. Panneerselvam and Edappadi K. Palaniswami as coordinator and joint coordinator respectively.[13][14][15]

From 11 July 2022, the AIADMK is led by the former chief minister of Tamil Nadu Edappadi K. Palaniswami (E.P.S.) as general secretary of the party.[16][17]

The headquarters of the party is called Puratchi Thalaivar M.G.R. Maaligai, which is located at Avvai Shanmugam Salai, Royapettah, Chennai. The building was donated to the party in 1986 by M.G.R.'s wife V. N. Janaki Ramachandran, former chief minister of Tamil Nadu.

Ideology and policiesEdit

The AIADMK sought to depoliticize the education policy of the government by not insisting that education be in the Tamil language. Policies of the AIADMK were targeted at the poorer segments of Tamil society—the poor, rickshaw pullers, and destitute women—and centralising the massive noon meal scheme for children.[18][19] There was ambivalence toward the reservation policy and the interests of farmers.[19]

The AIADMK posted an array of welfare schemes targeting the human development index of the state. The AIADMK has schemes listed in the election manifestos covering segments of the population, including fishermen, farmers, and schoolchildren. Until the 2000s, the parties had welfare programmes such as maternity leave, subsidies for public transportation, and educational grants. After the 2000s, the parties started competing at an increasing level for the distribution of consumer goods. The AIADMK government distributed free bicycles to class 11 and 12 students during its tenure of 2001–06. In its manifesto for the 2006 assembly elections, the DMK promised free colour televisions in competition with other parties. The competition continued during the 2011 assembly elections, when both parties announced free laptops for school students and mixers, fans, and blenders for the public.[20]

CultureEdit

  • The party remains firm in its support for the "two language policy," in opposition to center-left demands to have Hindi as the sole lingua franca language, where Tamil and English are the two main languages of Tamil Nadu.[21]
  • The party provided Rs. 1 lakh for temples of local deities in 2016.[22]

EconomyEdit

In the spring of 2019, the party lauded the economic policies of the Narendra Modi-led central government, stating that the centre had ushered in economic stability and made the country a "decisive player" in regional economics, and voiced support for the Goods and Services Tax (GST), which had been opposed by their rival the DMK.[23]

Social justiceEdit

  • In 1980, the AIADMK under M. G. Ramachandran reversed his decision on economic criteria after the AIADMK faced a close defeat in the Indian general election in Tamil Nadu. He further raised the quota for the backward classes from 31 percent to 50 percent, bringing the total reservation to 68 percent.[24]
  • In 1993, J. Jayalalithaa's AIADMK government passed the Tamil Nadu Backward Classes, Scheduled Castes, and Scheduled Tribes Bill, 1993 in the Assembly (Act 45 of 1994).[25] The bill was sent to the president for his approval. Jayalalithaa's AIADMK government led a cross-party committee of Tamil Nadu politicians to Delhi to meet with the central government. She also demanded that the Tamil Nadu government's Act be placed in the Constitution's Ninth Schedule, ensuring that it cannot be contested in any court.[26] The president's signature was received, confirming the 69 percent reservation for Tamil Nadu.[27]

State water policyEdit

  • In 2006, the AIADMK initiated a case in the Supreme Court to uphold the state's rights on the Mullaperiyar Dam issue. As a result, in May 2014, a Supreme Court verdict allowed the Tamil Nadu State to increase the storage level in the Mullaperiyar Dam to 142 feet from 136 feet and struck down the unconstitutional law enacted by the Government of Kerala in 2006 restricting the storage level to 136 feet.[28] This Supreme Court decision ensured the farmers' and people's livelihoods in the southern districts of Tamil Nadu.[29]
  • In February 2013, the Government of India notified the final award of the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT) on the directions of the Supreme Court. After 22 years of legal battle, then-Chief Minister Jayalalithaa called it a "tremendous achievement" of her government that the state had received due justice.[30] Then Jayalalithaa said that it was the happiest day of her life and the happiest day for the farmers in Tamil Nadu; she recalled her famous fast-unto-death at Marina Beach in 1993.[31][32][33]

Environment and natureEdit

  • The AIADMK was one of two parties, along with the BJP, to not voice opposition against a ban on cattle slaughter through the national Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act. However, it has sought an exemption in the Act regarding traditional bull fighting;[34] the party supports popular opinion in Tamil Nadu that traditional bull fighting, known as Jallikattu, should not be banned by the centre due to an APEX court ruling against animal cruelty.[35] During the controversy, the party called for animal-rights organisation PETA to be banned.[36]
  • In May 2018, the AIADMK government has ordered the closure of the Sterlite Copper factory in Thoothukkudi in the interest of the people, knowing that the air and water in the city are being heavily polluted by the factory, which has been at the center of violent protests by locals to protect and improve the environment.[37]
  • The AIADMK opposes the building of the Mekedatu Dam, which could reduce water flows into Tamil Nadu and negatively affect quality of life for residents and agriculture.[38]

HistoryEdit

M. G. Ramachandran era (17 October 1972 – 24 December 1987)Edit

Dr. M.G. Ramachandran
Founder of the party

The party was founded on 17 October 1972, as Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (ADMK) by M. G. Ramachandran (M.G.R.), a veteran Tamil film star and popular politician. It was set up as a breakaway faction of the DMK led by M. Karunanidhi, then chief minister of Tamil Nadu, owing to personal differences between the two.[39] M.G.R., who wanted to start a new party, then incorporated Anakaputhur Ramalingam into the party, which had registered under the name "ADMK". He then declared, "I joined the party started by an ordinary volunteer" and gave the post of Member of Legislative Council (MLC) to Ramalingam. Later, M.G.R. prefixed the All India (AI) tag to the party's name to save himself from IT raids and protect the party during the Maintenance of Internal Security Act (MISA).[40] Since its inception, the relationship between the AIADMK and DMK has been marked by mutual contempt. M.G.R. used his fan network to build the party cadre; he claims his party recruited more than a million members in the first two months. C. N. Annadurai's ideologue and movie producer turned politician R. M. Veerappan was the key architect in unifying M.G.R. fan clubs and further consolidating the party structure in the 1970s. Other key leaders, such as Nanjil K. Manoharan and S. D. Somasundaram played major roles in consolidation.[41] Pavalar M. Muthusamy was elected the first presidium chairman of the party.[42] The party's first victories were the wins of Maya Thevar in the Dindigul parliamentary bye-election in May 1973[43] and of C. Aranganayagam in the Coimbatore West assembly bye-election a year later. On 2 April 1973, the AIADMK emerged as the third-largest political party in Tamil Nadu, represented by 11 MLAs in the assembly. By January 1976, the AIADMK had emerged as the second-largest political party in Tamil Nadu, with 16 MLAs in the assembly. By supporting the National Emergency between 1975 and 1977, the AIADMK grew close to the Indian National Congress party.

The DMK-led government was dismissed by a central prosecution on corruption charges in 1976. The AIADMK swept to power in 1977, defeating the DMK in the assembly election. M.G.R. was sworn in as the 3rd chief minister of Tamil Nadu on 30 June 1977 and he remained in power until his death on 24 December 1987, winning consecutive assembly elections held in 1980 and 1984.[39] In 1979, the AIADMK became the first Dravidian and regional party to join the Union Cabinet. Sathiavani Muthu and A. Bala Pajanor were the members of parliament joined the short-lived Union Ministry led by then Prime Minister Charan Singh.[40]

The relationship between the AIADMK and the INC slowly became strained. In the 1980 Indian general election, the INC aligned with the DMK, and the alliance won 37 out of the 39 state parliamentary seats. The AIADMK won just two seats.[44] After returning to power, Indira Gandhi dismissed a number of state governments belonging to the opposition parties, including the AIADMK government in Tamil Nadu.

In the 1980 election, with the opposition DMK continuing the electoral alliance with the INC. In a massive reversal of fortunes following the Lok Sabha elections, the AIADMK won a comfortable majority in the state assembly with 129 of 234 seats. M.G.R. was sworn in as chief minister for the second time on 9 June 1980.[44]

In 1984, even with M.G.R.'s failing health and hospitalization, the party won the assembly election in alliance with the INC. Many political historians consider M.G.R.'s persona and charisma at this point in time as "infallible" and a logical continuation of his on-screen "good lad" image, strengthened by his "mythical status" in the minds of the masses. M.G.R. continued to enjoy popular support in his third tenure until his death on 24 December 1987.[45] M.G.R. continued to enjoy popular support in his third tenure until his death on 24 December 1987.[45]

Succession crisis (25 December 1987 – 6 February 1989)Edit

Following M.G.R.'s death, his wife, actress-turned-politician V. N. Janaki Ramachandran, rose to the party's leadership with the support of R. M. Veerappan and 98 MLAs. She served as the state's first female chief minister for 23 days, from 7 January 1988 until the state assembly was suspended on 30 January 1988 and President's Rule was imposed. The party began to crumble due to infighting and broke into two factions, one under Janaki Ramachandran and the other under J. Jayalalithaa, an associate of M.G.R. and another film actress-turned-politician who had starred with M.G.R. The Election Commission of India froze the "Two Leaves" symbol on 17 December 1988.[46] The 1989 assembly election saw the DMK regain power after 13 years in opposition, with M. Karunanidhi returning as the chief minister for the third time. Due to its split, AIADMK suffered heavily in the election, with the Janaki and Jayalalithaa factions winning only 2 and 27 seats, respectively.[45] Following AIADMK's rout in the election, the factions led by Jayalalithaa and Janaki merged under the former's leadership on 10 February 1989, as Janaki decided that politics was not her forte. On 11 February 1989, then Chief Election Commissioner R. V. S. Peri Sastri granted the Two Leaves symbol to the united AIADMK Party led by Jayalalithaa.[47] In the 1989 general election, the AIADMK formed an alliance with the Indian National Congress (INC) and won 37 out of 39 seats in Tamil Nadu. The DMK government was dismissed in 1991 by the central government headed by then-prime minister Chandra Shekhar, an ally of the AIADMK at that time, on charges that the constitutional machinery in the state had broken down.

J. Jayalalithaa era (9 February 1989 – 5 December 2016)Edit

Dr. J. Jayalalithaa
Former General Secretary of the party

The AIADMK allied with the Indian National Congress (INC) and swept to power in the 1991 assembly election under the leadership of J. Jayalalithaa, who became the second female and fifth chief minister of the state. Political observers have ascribed the landslide victory to the anti-incumbent wave arising out of the assassination of the former prime minister Rajiv Gandhi[45] by suspected Tamil separatists fighting for a homeland in neighbouring Sri Lanka. The ensuing government was accused of large-scale corruption, but Jayalalithaa held on to power for a full term of five years. In the 1996 assembly election, the AIADMK continued its alliance with the INC but suffered a massive rout, winning only 4 out of the 234 assembly seats, with even Jayalalithaa losing her Bargur constituency.[48][49]

During the parliamentary election in 1998,[48] the AIADMK formed an alliance with the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (MDMK). In the Atal Bihari Vajpayee-led government between 1998 and 1999,[40] the AIADMK shared power with the BJP, but withdrew support in early 1999, causing the BJP government to fall. Following this, the AIADMK once again allied with the INC.

In the 2001 assembly election, the AIADMK-led alliance, consisting of the Indian National Congress, the Tamil Maanila Congress (Moopanar) (TMC(M)), the Left Front, and the Pattali Makkal Katchi (PMK), regained power, winning 197 seats to the AIADMK's 132.[50] Due to the proceedings in a disproportionate asset case that occurred during her previous tenure, Jayalalithaa was prevented from holding office. On 21 September 2001, O. Panneerselvam, a close confidant of Jayalalithaa, was appointed as the chief minister of Tamil Nadu for the first time. Once the Supreme Court of India overturned Jayalalithaa's conviction and sentence in the case, O. Panneerselvam resigned on 2 March 2002, and Jayalalithaa was again sworn in as chief minister for the third time.[50]

Her second term was not marred by corruption scandals. She took many popular decisions, such as banning lottery tickets, restricting the liquor and sand quarrying businesses to government agencies, and banning tobacco product sales near schools and colleges. She encouraged women to join the state police force by setting up all women's police stations and commissioning 150 women into the elite level police commandos in 2003, a first in India. The women had the same training as men, which included handling weapons, detection and disposal of bombs, driving, horseback riding, and adventure sports.[51] She dispatched a special task force to the Sathyamangalam forests in October 2004 to track down notorious sandalwood smuggler Veerappan. The operation was successful, as he was killed by the task force on 18 October 2004.

However, despite the popular measures taken by the government, in the 2004 general election, the party, in alliance with the BJP again, was humiliated, winning none of the 39 Lok Sabha seats from the state. The Secular Progressive Alliance (SPA), a DMK-led alliance consisting of all the major opposition parties in the state, swept the election.

Later, in the 2006 assembly election, in spite of media speculations of a hung assembly, the AIADMK, contesting with only the support of the MDMK and a few other smaller parties, won 61 seats compared to the DMK's 96 and was pushed out of power by the DMK-led congressional alliance of the PMK and the Left Front. The AIADMK's electoral reversals continued in the 2009 general election. However, the party's performance was better than its debacle in 2004, and it managed to win nine seats.

 
Swearing-in Ceremony of the Council of Ministers headed by Jayalalithaa on 16 May 2011

Following widespread corruption, a price rise, a power cut, and allegations of nepotism against the DMK government, in the 2011 assembly election, the party, in alliance with parties like the left and actor-turned-politician Vijayakant's Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam (DMDK), swept the polls, winning 202 seats, with the AIADMK winning 150. Jayalalithaa was sworn in as chief minister for the fourth time.[50]

In the union territory of Puducherry, the AIADMK allied with N. Rangasamy's All India N.R. Congress (AINRC) and won the 2011 assembly election, which was held in parallel with the Tamil Nadu assembly election. However, it did not join the newly elected AINRC-led government.

The AIADMK's good electoral performance continued in the 2014 general election as well. It opted not to join any alliance and contested all seats in the state of Tamil Nadu and the union territory of Puducherry on its own. The party won an unprecedented 37 out of the 40 parliamentary constituencies it contested and emerged as the third largest party in the 16th Lok Sabha of the Indian Parliament. It was a massive victory that no other regional political party had ever achieved in the history of general elections.

On 29 August 2014, J. Jayalalithaa was elected as the general secretary of the party for the 7th consecutive term, making her the longest-serving general secretary of the party to date. Earlier, she was elected in the years 1988, 1989, 1993, 1998, 2003,[52] 2008,[53] and 2014.[54] During her longest tenure as general secretary, V. R. Nedunchezhiyan, K. Kalimuthu, Pulamaipithan,[55] C. Ponnaiyan,[56][57] and E. Madhusudhanan[58] served as the presidium chairmen of the party.[42]

On 27 September 2014, Jayalalithaa was convicted in the disproportionate assets case by a Special Court along with her associates V. K. Sasikala, Ilavarasi, and V. N. Sudhakaran and sentenced to four years' simple imprisonment. Jayalalithaa was also fined 100 crore, and her associates were fined 10 crore each. The case had political implications as it was the first time a ruling chief minister had to step down on account of a court sentence.[59]

Due to her resignation, O. Panneerselvam was sworn in as chief minister on 29 September 2014.[60] Jayalalithaa was denied bail by the High Court and moved the Supreme Court for bail. The Supreme Court granted bail on 17 October 2014. On 11 May 2015, the High Court of Karnataka said she was acquitted from that case and was again sworn in as chief minister for the fifth time.[50]

In the 2016 assembly election, running without allies, she swept the polls, winning 135 out of 234 seats. It was the most audacious decision made by her for the massive victory that no other political leader had ever made in the history of Tamil Nadu. On 23 May 2016, Jayalalithaa was sworn in as chief minister for the sixth time.[50]

On 22 September 2016, she was admitted to Apollo Hospital, Chennai, due to fever and dehydration. After a prolonged illness, she died on 5 December 2016, and became the third chief minister in Tamil Nadu to die in office after Anna and her mentor M.G.R.

Expansion beyond Tamil Nadu and PuducherryEdit

Under Jayalalithaa's regime, the party spread beyond Tamil Nadu and Puducherry. State units are established in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Kerala. The party also has a following in places like the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Maharashtra, the National Capital Territory of Delhi, and Telangana in India, as well as in other countries where Tamil people are present.

In Karnataka, the party had members in the state assembly from 1983 to 2004 and has influence in the Tamil-speaking areas of Bengaluru and Kolar.

In Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, and Maharashtra, the party contested some legislative assembly elections but did not win a single seat in any of the elections.

V. K. Sasikala and T. T. V. Dhinakaran era (31 December 2016 – 17 February 2017)Edit

After Jayalalithaa's death on 5 December 2016, her close aide V. K. Sasikala was selected unanimously as the Acting General Secretary of the party on 31 December 2016.[61][62] On 5 February 2017, she was selected as the leader of the legislative assembly as chief minister. O. Panneerselvam rebelled against Sasikala and reported that he had been compelled to resign as Chief Minister, bringing in a new twist to Tamil Nadu politics. Due to a conviction in the disproportionate assets case against Jayalalithaa, Sasikala was sentenced to 4 years' imprisonment in the Bengaluru Central Prison. Before that, she appointed Edappadi K. Palaniswami as legislative party leader (Chief Minister).

She also appointed her nephew and former treasurer of the party, T. T. V. Dhinakaran, as the deputy general secretary of the AIADMK party. With the support of 123 MLAs, Palaniswami became chief minister of Tamil Nadu.

On 23 March 2017, the Election Commission of India (ECI) gave separate party symbols to the two factions: O. Panneerselvam's faction, known as AIADMK (PURATCHI THALAIVI AMMA), and Edappadi K. Palaniswami's faction, known as AIADMK (AMMA).

By-polls were announced in the Dr. Radhakrishnan Nagar constituency, which was vacated due to Jayalalithaa's death. But the election commission cancelled the by-polls after evidence of large-scale bribery by the ruling AIADMK (AMMA) surfaced. On 17 April 2017, Delhi police registered a case against Dhinakaran, who was also the candidate for AIADMK (AMMA) for the by-election at Dr. Radhakrishnan Nagar, regarding an allegation of attempting to bribe the Election Commission of India for the AIADMK's election symbol. However, the Central District Tis Hazari Courts granted him bail on the grounds that the police had failed to identify the allegedly bribed public official.

T. T. V. Dhinakaran started his party work on 5 August 2017. However, the chief minister, Edappadi K. Palaniswami, had a fallout with Dhinakaran and announced that the appointment of Dinakaran as deputy general secretary was invalid. So he claims, "We are the real AIADMK, and 95% of its cadres are with us."

Expulsion of V. K. Sasikala and T. T. V. DhinakaranEdit

On 12 September 2017, the AIADMK general council, which had earlier appointed her, cancelled V. K. Sasikala's appointment as general secretary and officially expelled her from the party as a primary member.[63][64]

Earlier on 10 August 2017, T. T. V. Dhinakaran was sacked as deputy general secretary at the meeting headed by Edappadi K. Palaniswami at Puratchi Thalaivar M.G.R. Maaligai in Chennai.[65][64]

After completing her imprisonment at Bengaluru Central Prison, Sasikala filed a case in the City Civil Court IV of Chennai in February 2021, but it upheld her dismissal as the AIADMK general secretary in April 2022.[66]

O. Panneerselvam and Edappadi K. Palaniswami era (21 August 2017 – 23 June 2022)Edit

On 21 August 2017, both O. Panneerselvam and Edappadi K. Palaniswami factions of the AIADMK merged and O. Panneerselvam was sworn in as the Deputy Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu with portfolio of Finance and the coordinator of AIADMK. He also holds portfolios of Housing, Rural Housing, Housing Development, Slum Clearance Board and Accommodation Control, Town Planning, Urban Development, and Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority.[67] On 4 January 2018, O. Panneerselvam was elected Leader of the House in Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly.

On 12 September 2017, the AIADMK general council decided to cancel V. K. Sasikala's appointment as general secretary and officially expelled her from the party, though prominent members appointed to party posts by her were allowed to continue discharging their functions. Instead, the late J. Jayalalithaa was named the eternal general secretary of AIADMK.[63][64]

A day after the merger of two AIADMK factions, 19 MLAs[68] owing allegiance to ousted deputy general secretary T. T. V. Dhinakaran on 22 April 2017 submitted letters to Governor, expressing lack of confidence in Chief Minister Edappadi K. Palaniswami and withdrawing support from the government.[68] 18 out of those 19 MLAs were disqualified from office by the Speaker of Legislature upon recommendation from AIADMK Chief Whip. After a prolonged legal battle, the Speaker's orders were upheld by the High Court of Chennai and bye-elections were alongside the Parliament general elections. The election commission of India on 23 November 2017 granted the two leaves symbol to the O. Panneerselvam and Edappadi K. Palaniswami camp.

On 14 November 2017, AIADMK launched its own news channel News J, named after late AIADMK supremo J. Jayalalithaa replacing Jaya TV.[2][69] on 24 February 2018, AIADMK new mouthpiece Namadhu Amma a Tamil daily was launched marking 70th Birth anniversary of late AIADMK supremo J. Jayalalithaa.[1][70]

Despite the popular measures taken by the government, in the 2019 Lok Sabha election, the party, in alliance with the BJP again, was humiliated, winning one of the 39 Lok Sabha seats from the state. The Secular Progressive Alliance (SPA), a DMK-led alliance consisting of all the major opposition parties in the state, swept the election by winning 38 seats.

Later, in the 2021 assembly election, the AIADMK contested with the support of the same National Democratic Alliance (NDA) and a few other smaller parties, won 66 seats compared to the DMK's 133 seats and was pushed out of power by the DMK-led secular progressive alliance. After the election, the AIADMK emerged as the main party of the opposition in the assembly. On 11 May 2021, party joint coordinator Edappadi K. Palaniswami recognized as the Leader of the Opposition in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly and on 14 June 2021, party coordinator O. Panneerselvam recognized as the Deputy Leader of the Opposition in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly by M. Appavu, Speaker of the assembly.

Legal Fight for the party by V. K. Sasikala and T. T. V. DhinakaranEdit

After that V. K. Sasikala and T. T. V. Dhinakaran had appealed to the Delhi High Court, who rejected their appeal and said that O. Panneerselvam and Edappadi K. Palaniswami camp are the original AIADMK.

After that T. T. V. Dhinakaran had also appealed to the Supreme Court of India on March 15, the bench of Chief Justice of India has also rejected his appeal against the judgement made by Delhi High Court in favor of O. Panneerselvam and Edappadi K. Palaniswami camp.

Following this, the General Council passed a resolution removing V. K. Sasikala from the post of General Secretary. V. K. Sasikala and T. T. V. Dhinakaran jointly filed a suit in the High Court challenging the decision of the General Council. Since it was a civil case, the case was transferred to the City Civil Court. During the hearing on April 9, 2021, Dinakaran told the court that he would withdraw from the case as he had started a party called Amma Makkal Munnettra Kazagam. At the same time, Sasikala told the court that she wanted to continue the case. The court dismissed her plea following an interlocutory application from AIADMK Coordinator O. Panneerselvam and Joint Coordinator Edappadi K. Palaniswami.[71]

Tensions with BJPEdit

A war of words has raged publicly in June 2022 between AIADMK and BJP.[72] AIADMK organisational secretary C. Ponnaiyan in June 2022, accused the BJP-led Central government of stealing Tamil Nadu's's revenue, as well as blaming AIADMK for election losses, loss of minority community support, and "anti-Tamil" policies, particularly those affecting students.[73] He also called the alliance a "electoral adjustment," claiming that the BJP was attempting to expand at the cost of the AIADMK in Tamil Nadu and ideology is diametrically opposite to that of the AIADMK.[74][75] The event reportedly had party cadres reverberating these sentiments, albeit in a lighter tone, and agreeing that the BJP was attempting to wrest control of the state's opposition from the AIADMK.[72]

Leadership tussle between O.P.S. and E.P.S.Edit

On 14 June 2022, Citing the party's troubles in the polls, AIADMK district secretaries and other senior party members spoke out to shun the “dual leadership” system and came out publicly in favor of strong unitary leader to strengthen the organisation.

Edappadi K. Palaniswami supporters pushed for the change in the party's leadership structure by staging a political coup against AIADMK Coordinator O. Panneerselvam, who had become weak within the party. According to many sources, of the AIADMK's 75 district secretaries, hardly 10 supported him. Of the party's 66 MLAs, only five MLAs were reportedly on O. Panneerselvam side and less than 20 percent of the party's general council members behind him ahead of crucial general council meeting on 23 June 2022, which was expected to elect the single leadership to the party.[76]

On 23 June 2022, A. Tamil Magan Hussain was unanimously elected as the Presidium Chairman of the party at a general council meeting held at the Shrivaaru Venkatachalapathy Palace in Vanagaram, Chennai.[77][78] On the same day, Presidium Chairman Tamil Magan Hussain announced that the next general council meeting of the party would be held on 11 July 2022.[79][80]

On 30 June 2022, Edappadi K. Palaniswami wrote a letter to O. Panneerselvam asserting the latter ceased to be the party coordinator as the amendments made to the party's bylaw in the 2020 December executive committee meeting were not recognised in the general council meeting held on 23 June 2022.[81][82]

Edappadi K. Palaniswami era (11 July 2022 – Present)Edit

Dr. Edappadi K. Palaniswami
General Secretary of the party

On 11 July 2022, AIADMK general council meeting held at the Shrivaaru Venkatachalapathy Palace in Vanagaram following the dismissal of a petition by O. Panneerselvam in the Madras High Court.[83] The party general council abolished the dual leadership model and empowered Edappadi K. Palaniswami as the Interim General Secretary, and called for organisational elections in 4 months.[84] Before the general council meeting there was violence at the Puratchi Thalaivar M.G.R. Maaligai in Royapettah, where the supporters of Palaniswami and Panneerselvam threw stones, bottles, plastic chairs at each other and damaged several vehicles nearby.[85] Following this the Revenue Department of Tamil Nadu sealed the Puratchi Thalaivar M.G.R. Maaligai, overall 47 people were injured in the clashes.[86]

The general council meeting made 20 amendments to the AIADMK bylaws including the removal of rule 20 which had described J. Jayalalithaa as the "eternal general secretary", reviving the post of General Secretary, transferring all the powers of Coordinator and Joint coordinator to the General Secretary, and abolished the posts of Coordinator and Joint coordinator. These changes in effect ended dual leadership in the party.[87]

Expulsion of O. PanneerselvamEdit

In the general council meeting held on 11 July 2022, the general council members passed the resolution and expelled the former coordinator O. Panneerselvam,[88] the former deputy coordinator R. Vaithilingam, P. H. Manoj Pandian and J. C. D. Prabhakar from their respective posts and primary membership of the party for "anti-party" activities.[89][90]

On 11 July 2022, former chief Minister of Tamil Nadu Edappadi K. Palaniswami was unanimously elected as the Interim General Secretary of the party in the general council meeting held at the Shrivaaru Venkatachalapathy Palace in Vanagaram, Chennai.[16] Palaniswami appointed Dindigul C. Srinivasan as the treasurer of the party replacing O. Panneerselvam.[91] On 19 July 2022, Palaniswami appointed R. B. Udhayakumar as the deputy leader of the opposition in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly replacing Panneerselvam which declared in the party's legislative members meeting held on 17 July 2022.[92][93]

On 20 July 2022, The Madras High Court ordered to remove the seal of Puratchi Thalaivar M.G.R. Maaligai and handover the keys to the interim general secretary Edappadi K. Palaniswami.[94] Earlier, It was locked and sealed on 11 July 2022.[95][96] On 12 September 2022, The Supreme Court dismissed the petition of O. Panneerselvam challenging the Madras High Court's order to handover the keys to Palaniswami.[97]

Legal Fight for the party between Palaniswami and PanneerselvamEdit

The Madras High Court on 17 August 2022 ruled in favour of O. Panneerselvam and declared the AIADMK general council meeting held on 11 July 2022 which had abolished dual leadership as void ab initio. The court called for the restoration of the status quo as it existed on June 23, and has prevented the party from convening any meet of the executive council or the general council of the party without joint consent from both Palaniswami and Panneerselvam, thus effectively restoring dual leadership. The court cited procedural lapses to declare the 11 July general council meeting invalid, and found that there was no data to prove E. Palaniswami's claim that 95% of the 1.5 crore (15 million) primary party members supported unitary leadership under him.[98][99][100][101]

Edappadi K. Palaniswami appealed the single judge court order to a larger bench of judges.[102] Following the order, O. Panneerselvam appealed for party unity, which also included the splinter AMMK group.[103] Palaniswamy dismissed this appeal as a power hungry move by Panneerselvam and held him responsible for violence in the party headquarters.[104]

On 2 September 2022, a division bench of the Madras High Court upheld the decisions of the AIADMK general council meeting held on 11 June 2022 and set aside the previous court order of the single judge in the appeal case of Edappadi K. Palaniswami, thus effectively restoring unitary leadership.[105][17]

CriticismEdit

Being a popular actor, M.G.R.'s fan clubs became a source for electoral mobilization. The head of his fan club, R. M. Veerappan, became a lieutenant, and fellow actress J. Jayalalithaa was groomed as a possible heir apparent.[106] During M.G.R.'s reign, there was a near-collapse of the administrative system, and the state's rank in industrial production fell from third in the country in 1977 to thirteenth in 1987. Populist schemes that consumed two-thirds of the state's budget resulted in long-term economic costs. M.G.R. was running a centralised administration, which took a severe toll on the state administration during his extended period of illness.[107]

Personality cultEdit

J. Jayalalithaa was also accused of creating a personality cult, with fans and party activists calling her "Amma" (meaning "mother" in Tamil). Her face adorned food canteens, pharmacies, salt packets, laptop computers, baby care kits, bottled water, medicine shops, and cement bags. Following her imprisonment on 27 September 2014, her supporters held protests and wept openly. Her replacement, the party's former chief minister, O. Panneerselvam, also wept during his inauguration, with colleagues saying they were in mourning.[108] Due to the centralised leadership of Jayalalithaa, the state of Tamil Nadu experienced policy paralysis, with most legislators and party cadres protesting against her convictions with hunger fasts and road and rail blockades.[109][110] The entire Cabinet would fall into line and bow in front of the helicopter in which it was flying. Members of the party, at all levels, never found it difficult to prostrate before her in full view of the public.[111] Even after her death, the AIADMK leaders continued to prostrate themselves before her tomb in the M.G.R. and Jayalalithaa Memorial Complex.[112][113]

Debt crisisEdit

The overall debt burden of Tamil Nadu is expected to reach more than 5 lakh crore by March 31, 2022, during the AIADMK government.[114] In 2011, the state debt as a percentage of GSDP increased by about 5% during J. Jayalalithaa and the AIADMK's tenure. It was 16.92% in 2011–12. It was 21.83% as of April 2021, during the Edappadi K. Palaniswami government.[115] The opposition criticised the financial mismanagement by the AIADMK, which left 62 thousand per person in the state. The opposition criticised the fact that the entire debt of the state government in the 2006–11 DMK regime was only 44 thousand crore, but the AIADMK regime has a debt of 3.55 lakh crore.[116] The overall debt the AIADMK government left behind as of 31 March 2021, is estimated to be 4,85,502.54 crore, and as of 31 March 2022, it is estimated to be 5,70,189.29 crore.[117]

Electoral performanceEdit

Indian general electionsEdit

Vote share in Lok Sabha elections
2019
1.28%
2014
3.27%
2009
1.67%
2004
2.19%
1999
1.93%
1998
1.83%
1996
0.64%
1991
1.62%
1989
1.50%
1984
1.69%
1980
2.36%
1977
2.90%
Lok Sabha Elections
Year Party leader Seats contested Seats won Change in seats Percentage of votes Vote swing Popular vote Result
1977 M. G. Ramachandran 21
18 / 542
  18 2.90%   54,80,378 Government
1980 24
2 / 542
  16 2.36%   0.54% 46,74,064 Opposition
1984 12
12 / 533
  10 1.69%   0.67 39,68,967 Government
1989 J. Jayalalithaa 11
11 / 545
  1 1.50%   0.19 45,18,649 Opposition
1991 11
11 / 545
  1.62%   0.12 44,70,542 Government
1996 10
0 / 545
  11 0.64%   0.98 21,30,286 Lost
1998 23
18 / 545
  18 1.83%   1.19% 67,31,550 Government
1999 29
10 / 545
  8 1.93%   0.10 70,46,953 Opposition
2004 33
0 / 543
  10 2.19%   0.26 85,47,014 Lost
2009 23
9 / 543
  9 1.67%   0.52 69,53,591 Others
2014 40
37 / 543
  28 3.27%   1.60% 1,81,11,579
2019 O. Panneerselvam and Edappadi K. Palaniswami 21
1 / 543
  36 1.28%   1.99% 78,30,146 Government

State legislative assembly electionsEdit

Vote share in Tamil Nadu Assembly elections
2021
33.29%
2016
40.77%
2011
38.40%
2006
32.64%
2001
31.44%
1996
21.47%
1991
44.39%
1989
21.77%
1984
37.03%
1980
38.75%
1977
30.36%
Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly Elections[118]
Year Party leader Seats contested Seats won Change in seats Percentage of votes Vote swing Popular vote Result
1977 M. G. Ramachandran 200
130 / 234
  130 30.36%   51,94,876 Government
1980 177
129 / 234
  1 38.75%   8.39% 73,03,010
1984 155
132 / 234
  3 37.03%   1.72% 80,30,809
1989 J. Jayalalithaa 202
29 / 234
  103 21.77%   15.26% 52,47,317 Opposition
1991 168
164 / 234
  135 44.39%   22.62% 1,09,40,966 Government
1996 168
4 / 234
  160 21.47%   22.92% 58,31,383 Others
2001 141
132 / 234
  128 31.44%   9.97% 88,15,387 Government
2006 188
61 / 234
  71 32.64%   1.20% 1,07,68,559 Opposition
2011 165
150 / 234
  89 38.40%   5.76% 1,41,50,289 Government
2016 234
136 / 234
  14 41.06%   2.66% 1,76,17,060
2021 O. Panneerselvam and Edappadi K. Palaniswami 191
66 / 234
  70 33.29%   7.48% 1,53,91,055 Opposition
Vote share in Puducherry Assembly elections
2021
4.14%
2016
16.82%
2011
13.75%
2006
16.04%
2001
12.56%
1996
12.53%
1991
17.34%
1990
18.17%
1985
15.75%
1980
18.60%
1977
30.96%
1974
27.83%
Puducherry Legislative Assembly Elections[119]
Year Party leader Seats contested Seats won Change in seats Percentage of votes Vote swing Popular vote Result
1974 M. G. Ramachandran 21
12 / 30
  12 27.83%   60,812 Government
1977 27
14 / 30
  2 30.96%   3.13% 69,873
1980 18
0 / 30
  14 18.60%   12.36% 45,623 Lost
1985 10
6 / 30
  6 15.75%   2.85% 47,521 Opposition
1990 J. Jayalalithaa 13
3 / 30
  3 18.17%   2.42% 76,337
1991 10
6 / 30
  3 17.34%   0.83% 67,792 Government
1996 10
3 / 30
  3 12.53%   4.81% 57,678 Opposition
2001 20
3 / 30
  12.56%   0.03% 59,926 Government
2006 18
3 / 30
  16.04%   3.48% 90,699 Others
2011 10
5 / 30
  2 13.75%   2.29% 95,960 Government
2016 30
4 / 30
  1 16.82%   3.07% 1,34,597 Opposition
2021 O. Panneerselvam and Edappadi K. Palaniswami 5
0 / 30
  4 4.14%   12.68% 34,623 Lost
Vote share in Karnataka Assembly elections
2018
0.01%
2013
0.03%
2008
0.03%
2004
0.07%
1999
0.18%
1994
0.24%
1989
0.18%
1983
0.13%
1978
0.18%
Karnataka Legislative Assembly Elections[120]
Year Party leader Seats contested Seats won Change in seats Percentage of votes Vote swing Popular vote Result
1978 M. G. Ramachandran 7   0.18%   22,310 Lost
1983 1   1 0.13%   0.05% 16,234 Government
1989 J. Jayalalithaa 1   0.18%   0.05% 32,928
1994 4   0.24%   0.06% 50,696 Opposition
1999 13   0.18%   0.06% 39,865 Government
2004 2   1 0.07%   0.11% 16,737 Lost
2008 7   0.03%   0.04% 9,088
2013 5   0.03%   10,280
2018 O. Panneerselvam and Edappadi K. Palaniswami 3   0.01%   0.02% 2,072
Vote share in Kerala Assembly elections
2021
0.05%
2016
0.17%
2011
0.01%
2006
0.12%
1980
0.00%
1977
0.02%
Kerala Legislative Assembly Elections[121]
Year Party leader Seats contested Seats won Change in seats Percentage of votes Vote swing Popular vote Result
1977 M. G. Ramachandran 2   0.02%   2,114 Lost
1980 1   0.00%   0.02% 224
2006 J. Jayalalithaa 29   0.12%   0.12% 19,078
2011 4   0.01%   0.11% 2,448
2016 7   0.17%   0.16% 33,440
2021 O. Panneerselvam and Edappadi K. Palaniswami 1   0.05%   0.12% 10,376
Vote share in Andhra Pradesh Assembly elections
1999
0.02%
1994
0.05%
1978
0.19%
Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly Elections[122]
Year Party leader Seats contested Seats won Change in seats Percentage of votes Vote swing Popular vote Result
1978 M. G. Ramachandran 9   0.19%   38,691 Lost
1994 J. Jayalalithaa 2   0.05%   0.14% 14,251
1999 5   0.02%   0.03% 7,281
Vote share in Maharashtra Assembly elections
2009
0.01%
Maharashtra Legislative Assembly Elections[123]
Year Party leader Seats contested Seats won Change in seats Percentage of votes Vote swing Popular vote Result
1999 J. Jayalalithaa 3   0.01%   3,711 Lost
2009 2   0.01%   2,587

Current office bearers and prominent membersEdit

Member Position in Government Party Position
Edappadi K. Palaniswami Interim General Secretary
K. P. Munusamy Deputy General Secretary
Natham R. Viswanathan Deputy General Secretary
A. Tamil Magan Hussain
  • Former Chairperson of Tamil Nadu Waqf Board
Presidium Chairman
Dindigul C. Srinivasan Treasurer
S. P. Velumani Puratchi Thalaivar M.G.R. Maaligai Secretary
M. Thambidurai Rajya Sabha Leader and Propaganda Secretary
R. B. Udhayakumar Puratchi Thalaivi Amma Federation Secretary
S. Ravi Ranipet District Secretary
Kadambur C. Raju Thoothukkudi North District Secretary
K. P. Anbalagan Dharmapuri District Secretary
Agri S.S. Krishnamoorthy Agriculture Wing Secretary
C. Ponnaiyan
  • Former Minister for Finance of Tamil Nadu
All World M.G.R. Forum Secretary
Pollachi V. Jayaraman Election Wing Secretary
B. Valarmathi
  • Former Minister for Social Welfare and Nutritious Noon Meal Programme of Tamil Nadu
Women's Wing Secretary
A. Justin Selvaraj   Minority Welfare Wing Secretary
Thadi Ma. Rasu   Anna Trade Union Federation President
P. Venugopal Medical Wing Secretary
V. S. Sethuraman   Advocate Wing President
Vaigaichelvan
  • Former Minister for School Education of Tamil Nadu
Literature Wing Secretary
R. Kamalakannan   Anna Trade Union Federation Secretary
K. Sankaradas   Non-organizational Driver Wing Secretary
S. R. Vijayakumar Student Wing Secretary
N. R. Sivapathi
  • Former Minister for Animal Husbandry of Tamil Nadu
M.G.R. Youth Wing Secretary
V. P. B. Paramasivam Youth Brigade Secretary
Singai G. Ramachandran   IT Wing Secretary
State Unit Secretaries
A. Anbalagan Puducherry (East) Unit Secretary
S. D. Kumar   Karnataka Unit Secretary
G. Shobakumar   Kerala Unit Secretary

List of party leadersEdit

PresidentEdit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term in Office
Assumed Office Left Office Time in Office
1   M. G. Ramachandran
(1917–1987)
17 October 1972 24 December 1987 15 years, 68 days

General SecretariesEdit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term in Office
Assumed Office Left Office Time in Office
1   M. G. Ramachandran
(1917–1987)
17 October 1972 22 June 1978 6 years, 316 days
17 October 1986 24 December 1987
2   V. R. Nedunchezhiyan
(1920–2000)
23 June 1978 10 June 1980 3 years, 33 days
25 December 1987 8 February 1989
3   P. U. Shanmugam
(1924–2007)
11 June 1980 13 March 1985 4 years, 275 days
4   S. Raghavanandam
(1917–1999)
14 March 1985 16 October 1986 1 year, 216 days
5   J. Jayalalithaa
(1948–2016)
9 February 1989 5 December 2016 27 years, 300 days
Acting   V. K. Sasikala
(1954–)
31 December 2016 17 February 2017 48 days
Interim   Edappadi K. Palaniswami
(1954–)
11 July 2022 Incumbent 143 days

CoordinatorsEdit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term in Office
Assumed Office Left Office Time in Office
1   Coordinator
O. Panneerselvam
(1951–)
21 August 2017 23 June 2022 4 years, 306 days
  Joint Coordinator
Edappadi K. Palaniswami
(1954–)

Legislative leadersEdit

List of union cabinet ministersEdit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Portfolio Term in Office Constituency
(House)
Prime Minister
Assumed Office Left Office Time in Office
1   Sathiavani Muthu
(1923–1999)
Minister of Social Welfare 19 August 1979 23 December 1979 126 days Tamil Nadu
(Rajya Sabha)
Charan Singh
2   A. Bala Pajanor
(1935–2013)
Minister of Petroleum, Chemicals and Fertilizers Puducherry
(Lok Sabha)
3   R. Muthiah
(1945–2022)
Minister of Surface Transport 19 March 1998 8 April 1998 20 days Periyakulam
(Lok Sabha)
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
4   M. Thambidurai
(1947–)
Minister of Law, Justice and Company Affairs 19 March 1998 8 April 1999 1 year, 20 days Karur
(Lok Sabha)
Minister of Surface Transport 8 April 1998 1 year

List of chief ministersEdit

Chief Ministers of Tamil NaduEdit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term in Office Assembly
(Election)
Constituency Ministry
Assumed Office Left Office Time in Office
1   M. G. Ramachandran
(1917–1987)
30 June 1977 17 February 1980 10 years, 65 days 6th
(1977 election)
Aruppukottai Ramachandran I
9 June 1980 9 February 1985 7th
(1980 election)
Madurai West Ramachandran II
10 February 1985 24 December 1987 8th
(1984 election)
Andipatti Ramachandran III
Acting   V. R. Nedunchezhiyan
(1920–2000)
24 December 1987 7 January 1988 14 days Athoor Nedunchezhiyan II
2   V. N. Janaki Ramachandran
(1924–1996)
7 January 1988 30 January 1988 23 days Did not contest Janaki
3   J. Jayalalithaa
(1948–2016)
24 June 1991 12 May 1996 14 years, 124 days 10th
(1991 election)
Bargur Jayalalithaa I
14 May 2001 21 September 2001 12th
(2001 election)
Did not contest Jayalalithaa II
2 March 2002 12 May 2006 Andipatti Jayalalithaa III
16 May 2011 27 September 2014 14th
(2011 election)
Srirangam Jayalalithaa IV
23 May 2015 22 May 2016 Dr. Radhakrishnan Nagar Jayalalithaa V
23 May 2016 5 December 2016 15th
(2016 election)
Jayalalithaa VI
4   O. Panneerselvam
(1951–)
21 September 2001 2 March 2002 1 year, 106 days 12th
(2001 election)
Periyakulam Panneerselvam I
28 September 2014 23 May 2015 14th
(2011 election)
Bodinayakanur Panneerselvam II
5 December 2016 15 February 2017 15th
(2016 election)
Panneerselvam III
5   Edappadi K. Palaniswami
(1954–)
16 February 2017 6 May 2021 4 years, 79 days Edappadi Palaniswami

Chief Minister of PuducherryEdit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term in Office Assembly
(Election)
Constituency Ministry
Assumed Office Left Office Time in Office
1   S. Ramassamy
(1939–2017)
6 March 1974 28 March 1974 1 year, 155 days 4th
(1974 election)
Karaikal South Ramassamy I
2 July 1977 12 November 1978 5th
(1977 election)
Ramassamy II

List of deputy chief ministersEdit

Deputy Chief Minister of Tamil NaduEdit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term in Office Assembly
(Election)
Constituency Chief Minister
Assumed Office Left Office Time in Office
1   O. Panneerselvam
(1951–)
21 August 2017 6 May 2021 3 years, 258 days 15th
(2016 election)
Bodinayakanur Edappadi K. Palaniswami

List of deputy speaker of the Lok SabhaEdit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term in Office Lok Sabha
(Election)
Constituency Speaker
Assumed Office Left Office Time in Office
1   M. Thambidurai
(1947–)
22 January 1985 27 November 1989 9 years, 229 days 8th
(1984 election)
Dharmapuri Balram Jakhar
13 August 2014 25 May 2019 16th
(2014 election)
Karur Sumitra Mahajan

List of union ministers of stateEdit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Portfolio Term in Office Constituency
(House)
Cabinet Minister Prime Minister
Assumed Office Left Office Time in Office
1   R. K. Kumar
(1942–1999)
Minister of State for Parliamentary Affairs 19 March 1998 22 May 1998 64 days Tamil Nadu
(Rajya Sabha)
Madan Lal Khurana Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Minister of State for Finance 20 March 1998 63 days Yashwant Sinha
2   Kadambur M. R. Janarthanan
(1929–2020)
Minister of State for Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions 20 March 1998 8 April 1999 1 year, 19 days Tirunelveli
(Lok Sabha)
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Minister of State for Finance 22 May 1998 321 days Yashwant Sinha

List of speakersEdit

Speakers of the Tamil Nadu Legislative AssemblyEdit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term in Office Assembly
(Election)
Constituency
Assumed Office Left Office Time in Office
1   Munu Adhi
(1926–2005)
6 July 1977 18 June 1980 2 years, 348 days 6th
(1977 election)
Tambaram
2   K. Rajaram
(1926–2008)
21 June 1980 24 February 1985 4 years, 248 days 7th
(1980 election)
Panamarathupatti
3   P. H. Pandian
(1945–2020)
27 February 1985 5 February 1989 3 years, 344 days 8th
(1984 election)
Cheranmadevi
4   R. Muthiah
(1945–2022)
3 July 1991 21 May 1996 4 years, 323 days 10th
(1991 election)
Sedapatti
5   K. Kalimuthu
(1942–2006)
24 May 2001 1 February 2006 4 years, 253 days 12th
(2001 election)
Thirumangalam
6   D. Jayakumar
(1960–)
27 May 2011 29 September 2012 1 year, 125 days 14th
(2011 election)
Royapuram
7   P. Dhanapal
(1951–)
10 October 2012 24 May 2016 8 years, 196 days Rasipuram
3 June 2016 3 May 2021 15th
(2016 election)
Avanashi

Speakers of the Puducherry Legislative AssemblyEdit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term in Office Assembly
(Election)
Constituency
Assumed Office Left Office Time in Office
1   S. Pakkiam
(unknown–unknown)
26 March 1974 28 March 1974 2 days 4th
(1974 election)
Bussy

List of leaders of the oppositionEdit

Leaders of the Opposition in the Tamil Nadu Legislative AssemblyEdit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term in Office Assembly
(Election)
Constituency
Assumed Office Left Office Time in Office
1   J. Jayalalithaa
(1948–2016)
9 February 1989 1 December 1989 5 years, 280 days 9th
(1989 election)
Bodinayakanur
29 May 2006 14 May 2011 13th
(2006 election)
Andipatti
2   S. R. Eradha
(1934–2020)
1 December 1989 19 January 1991 1 year, 49 days 9th
(1989 election)
Madurai East
3   O. Panneerselvam
(1951–)
19 May 2006 28 May 2006 9 days 13th
(2006 election)
Periyakulam
4   Edappadi K. Palaniswami
(1954–)
11 May 2021 Incumbent 1 year, 204 days 16th
(2021 election)
Edappadi

Leaders of the Opposition in the Puducherry Legislative AssemblyEdit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term in Office Assembly
(Election)
Constituency
Assumed Office Left Office Time in Office
1   P. K. Loganathan
(1938–2013)
16 March 1985 4 March 1990 4 years, 353 days 7th
(1985 election)
Oupalam
2   V. M. C. V. Ganapathy
(1960–)
4 July 1991 13 May 1996 4 years, 314 days 9th
(1991 election)
Neravy T. R. Pattinam

List of deputy leaders of the oppositionEdit

Deputy leaders of the Opposition in the Tamil Nadu Legislative AssemblyEdit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term in Office Assembly
(Election)
Constituency Leader of the Opposition
Assumed Office Left Office Time in Office
1   Su. Thirunavukkarasar
(1949–)
9 February 1989 19 January 1991 1 year, 344 days 9th
(1989 election)
Aranthangi J. Jayalalithaa

S. R. Eradha

2   K. A. Sengottaiyan
(1948–)
19 May 2006 28 May 2006 9 days 13th
(2006 election)
Gobichettipalayam O. Panneerselvam
3   O. Panneerselvam
(1951–)
29 May 2006 14 May 2011 6 years, 12 days Periyakulam J. Jayalalithaa
14 June 2021 11 July 2022 16th
(2021 election)
Bodinayakanur Edappadi K. Palaniswami
4   R. B. Udhayakumar
(1973–)
19 July 2022 Incumbent 135 days Thirumangalam

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "AIADMK mouthpiece to be launched on February 24". thehindu. 22 February 2018. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
  2. ^ a b "AIADMK Launches Its Own News Channel Named After Jayalalithaa". outlookindia. 13 September 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  3. ^ Price, P. (1996). Revolution and Rank in Tamil Nationalism. The Journal of Asian Studies, 55(2), 359-383. doi:10.2307/2943363
  4. ^ Pamela Price (1999) Relating to leadership in the Tamil nationalist movement: C.N. Annadurai in person‐centred propaganda, South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, 22:2, 149-174, doi:10.1080/00856409908723369
  5. ^ Ogden, Chris (20 June 2019). A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in India. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-253915-1. All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (Tamil: 'All India Anna Dravidian Progress Federation') A political party. It was established in 1972...
  6. ^ "List of Political Parties and Election Symbols main Notification Dated 18.01.2013" (PDF). India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  7. ^ R Kannan (7 August 2018). "Karunanidhi and M.G.R.: A checkered friendship, and a lesson in civility and empathy". The News Minute.
  8. ^ "When Annaism sought de-mon". The New Indian Express. 15 August 2017.
  9. ^ "Jayalalithaa changed face of Dravidian politics". Deccan Chronicle. 6 December 2016.
  10. ^ "Tamil Nadu pact sealed, brings AIADMK back to NDA fold". Hindustan Times. 19 February 2019. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  11. ^ Narasimhan, T. E. (11 May 2015). "Extended 'Mothers' Day' for AIADMK cadre as 'Amma' Jayalalithaa walks free". Business Standard India. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
  12. ^ "Jayalalitha: The 'goddess' of Tamil Nadu politics". BBC News. 5 December 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  13. ^ "EPS vs OPS in Tamil Nadu: What's all this AIADMK fuss about?". timesofindia. 23 June 2022.
  14. ^ "Dual power structure not in force, OPS ceases to be coordinator, says AIADMK". economictimes. 24 June 2022.
  15. ^ "OPS, EPS elected unopposed as AIADMK coordinator and joint coordinator". The Times of India. 6 December 2021.
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