Kerala Legislative Assembly

The Kerala Legislative Assembly, popularly known as the Niyamasabha (lit. 'Law Council'), is the State Assembly of Kerala, one of the 28 States in India. The Assembly is formed by 140 elected representatives, and one member nominated by the Governor from the Anglo-Indian community.[1] Each elected member represents one of the 140 constituencies within the borders of Kerala and is referred to as Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA).

Kerala Legislative Assembly

Kerala Niyamasabha
14th Legislative Assembly of Kerala
Term limits
5 years
Deputy Speaker
Leader of the House
(Chief Minister)
Leader of the Opposition
India Kerala Niyamasabha 2016.svg
Political groups
Government (86)

LDF (86)

UDF (40)

NDA (1)

  •      BJP (1)

Independent (11)

Vacant (2)

  •      Vacant(2)
First past the post
Last election
16 May 2016
Next election
May 2021
Meeting place
Niyamasabha Mandiram, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala


The evolution of Kerala Legislative Assembly begins with the formation of a Legislative Council in the princely state of Travancore in 1888. This was the first Native Legislature in the Indian subcontinent, outside British India. The Legislative Council of Travancore had undergone many changes by years. In the meantime, people's participation in the Assembly was widely sought. All those efforts led to the formation of one more representative body, namely the Sri Moolam Popular Assembly of Travancore. This Assembly of the representatives of the landholders and merchants, aimed at giving the people an opportunity of bringing to the notice of Government their requirements, wishes or grievances on the one hand, and on the other, to make the policy and measures of Government better known to the people so that all possible grounds of misconception may be removed. That was on 1 October 1904.

Though the popular assembly contained representatives of tax-payers, it finally became a people's representatives body. Political awareness and people agitations were aggressive and the authorities were forced to include peoples representatives into the popular assembly. On 1 May 1905, a regulation was issued to grant to the people the privilege of electing members to the Assembly. Of the 100 members, 77 were to be elected and 23 nominated, for a tenure of 1 year. The right to vote was given to persons who paid on their account an annual land revenue of not less than Rs. 50 or whose net income was not less than Rs. 2000 and to graduates of a recognized University, with not less than 10 years standing and having their residence in the taluk. The membership of the popular assembly increased year by year and finally in 1921 elected representatives gained the majority. By that time the house had 50 members of which 28 were elected and the rest nominated.

The princely state of Cochin also formed a Legislative Council (1925), with 30 elected and 15 nominated representatives. Malabar District of Madras Province under the British rule, had representatives in Madras Legislative Assembly from the 1920s.

After India's independence responsible governments were formed in Travancore and Cochin. In 1949 the merger of Travancore and Cochin as Travancore-Cochin, formed the first Legislative Assembly, the Travancore-Cochin Legislative Assembly composed of 178 members of the Legislative bodies of Travancore and Cochin. The Malabar region had representatives in the Madras Legislative Assembly.

Assembly after the formation of Kerala StateEdit

The Kerala Legislative Assembly in Thiruvananthapuram

In 1956, the State of Kerala was formed on linguistic basis, merging Travancore, Cochin, and Malabar regions, and the Kasaragod Taluk of South Canara. The first assembly election in Kerala state was held in February–March 1957. The first Kerala Legislative Assembly was formed on 5 April 1957. The Assembly had 127 members including a nominated member.

The current delimitation committee of 2010 reaffirmed the total number of seats at 140.

Current assemblyEdit

The current Legislative Assembly is the 14th Assembly since the formation of Kerala. The Speaker of the Assembly is P. Sreeramakrishnan. The leader of the Assembly is Pinarayi Vijayan from CPI(M) and the Leader of the Opposition is Ramesh Chennithala from the INC. At the same time, the deputy leader of opposition is M. K. Muneer of IUML.

Niyamasabha ComplexEdit

The State Assembly is known as Niyamasabha and is housed in New Legislature Complex. This 5 storied complex is one of the largest complexes in India. The Central Hall is described as most elegant and majestic hall with ornamental Teakwood-Rosewood panelling. The older Assembly was located within State Secretariat complex which was reconverted into Legislature museum, after commissioning new complex in 1998 May 22 (K. R. Narayanan)

Political parties or coalitionsEdit

No. Front/Alliance Seats
1 LDF 86
2 UDF 40
3 NDA 1
4 Others 11
5 Vacant 2


The entrance to Kerala Legislature with statute of Mahatma Gandhi
The Illuminated Niyamasabha Complex at night
Kerala State Legislative Assembly or the Niyamasabha at night


 CPI (M)    CPI    JD(S)    NCP    Cong(S)    KC(B)    RSP(L)    INL    Independent    INC    IUML    KC(M)    KC(J)    BJP  

Sl. No Constituency Member Party Alliance
Kasaragod district
1 Manjeshwaram M. C. Kamaruddin IUML   UDF ‹See Tfd›
2 Kasaragod N. A. Nellikkunnu IUML   UDF ‹See Tfd›
3 Udma K. Kunhiraman CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
4 Kanhangad E. Chandrasekharan CPI   LDF ‹See Tfd›
5 Thrikaripur M. Rajagopalan CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
Kannur district
6 Payyanur C. Krishnan CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
7 Kalliasseri T. V. Rajesh CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
8 Taliparamba James Mathew CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
9 Irikkur K. C. Joseph INC   UDF ‹See Tfd›
10 Azhikode K. M. Shaji IUML   UDF ‹See Tfd›
11 Kannur Kadannappalli Ramachandran Con (S)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
12 Dharmadom Pinarayi Vijayan CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
13 Thalassery A. N. Shamseer CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
14 Kuthuparamba K. K. Shailaja CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
15 Mattanur E. P. Jayarajan CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
16 Peravoor Sunny Joseph INC   UDF ‹See Tfd›
Wayanad district
17 Mananthavady O. R. Kelu CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
18 Sulthan Bathery I. C. Balakrishnan INC   UDF ‹See Tfd›
19 Kalpetta C. K. Saseendran CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
Kozhikode district
20 Vatakara C. K. Nanu JD(S)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
21 Kuttiady Parakkal Abdulla IUML   UDF ‹See Tfd›
22 Nadapuram E. K. Vijayan CPI   LDF ‹See Tfd›
23 Koyilandy K. Dasan CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
24 Perambra T. P. Ramakrishnan CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
25 Balussery Purushan Kadalundy CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
26 Elathur A. K. Saseendran NCP   LDF ‹See Tfd›
27 Kozhikode North A. Pradeepkumar CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
28 Kozhikode South M. K. Muneer IUML   UDF ‹See Tfd›
29 Beypore V. K. C. Mammed Koya CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
30 Kunnamangalam P. T. A. Rahim INL   LDF ‹See Tfd›
31 Koduvally Karat Razak LDF Ind.   LDF ‹See Tfd›
32 Thiruvambady George M. Thomas CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
Malappuram district
33 Kondotty T. V. Ibrahim IUML   UDF ‹See Tfd›
34 Eranad P. K. Basheer IUML   UDF ‹See Tfd›
35 Nilambur P. V. Anvar LDF Ind.   LDF ‹See Tfd›
36 Wandoor A. P. Anil Kumar INC   UDF ‹See Tfd›
37 Manjeri M. Ummer IUML   UDF ‹See Tfd›
38 Perinthalmanna Manjalamkuzhi Ali IUML   UDF ‹See Tfd›
39 Mankada T. A. Ahmed Kabir IUML   UDF ‹See Tfd›
40 Malappuram P. Ubaidulla IUML   UDF ‹See Tfd›
41 Vengara K. N. A. Khader IUML   UDF ‹See Tfd›
42 Vallikkunnu P. Abdul Hameed IUML   UDF ‹See Tfd›
43 Tirurangadi P. K. Abdu Rabb IUML   UDF ‹See Tfd›
44 Tanur V. Abdurahiman LDF Ind.   LDF ‹See Tfd›
45 Tirur C. Mammutty IUML   UDF ‹See Tfd›
46 Kottakkal K. K. Abid Hussain Thangal IUML   UDF ‹See Tfd›
47 Thavanur K.T. Jaleel LDF Ind.   LDF ‹See Tfd›
48 Ponnani P. Sreeramakrishnan CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
Palakkad district
49 Thrithala V. T. Balram INC   UDF ‹See Tfd›
50 Pattambi Muhammed Muhsin CPI   LDF ‹See Tfd›
51 Shornur P. K. Sasi CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
52 Ottapalam P. Unni CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
53 Kongad K. V. Vijayadas CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
54 Mannarkkad N. Samsudheen IUML   UDF ‹See Tfd›
55 Malampuzha V. S. Achuthanandan CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
56 Palakkad Shafi Parambil INC   UDF ‹See Tfd›
57 Tarur A. K. Balan CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
58 Chittur K. Krishnankutty JD(S)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
59 Nenmara K. Babu CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
60 Alathur K. D. Prasenan CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
Thrissur district
61 Chelakkara U. R. Pradeep CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
62 Kunnamkulam A. C. Moideen CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
63 Guruvayur K. V. Abdul Khader CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
64 Manalur Murali Perunelli CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
65 Wadakkanchery Anil Akkara INC   UDF ‹See Tfd›
66 Ollur K. Rajan CPI   LDF ‹See Tfd›
67 Thrissur V. S. Sunil Kumar CPI   LDF ‹See Tfd›
68 Nattika Geetha Gopi CPI   LDF ‹See Tfd›
69 Kaipamangalam E. T. Tyson CPI   LDF ‹See Tfd›
70 Irinjalakuda K. U. Arunan CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
71 Puthukkad C. Raveendranath CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
72 Chalakudy B. D. Devassy CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
73 Kodungallur V. R. Sunil Kumar CPI   LDF ‹See Tfd›
Ernakulam district
74 Perumbavoor Eldhose Kunnappilly INC   UDF ‹See Tfd›
75 Angamaly Roji M. John INC   UDF ‹See Tfd›
76 Aluva Anwar Sadath INC   UDF ‹See Tfd›
77 Kalamassery V. K. Ebrahimkunju IUML   UDF ‹See Tfd›
78 Paravur V. D. Satheesan INC   UDF ‹See Tfd›
79 Vypin S. Sharma CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
80 Kochi K. J. Maxi CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
81 Thrippunithura M. Swaraj CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
82 Ernakulam T. J. Vinod INC   UDF ‹See Tfd›
83 Thrikkakara P. T. Thomas INC   UDF ‹See Tfd›
84 Kunnathunad (SC) V.P. Sajeendran INC   UDF ‹See Tfd›
85 Piravom Anoop Jacob KC (J)   UDF ‹See Tfd›
86 Muvattupuzha Eldo Abraham CPI   LDF ‹See Tfd›
87 Kothamangalam Antony John CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
Idukki district
88 Devikulam S. Rajendran CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
89 Udumbanchola M. M. Mani CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
90 Thodupuzha P. J. Joseph KC(M)   UDF ‹See Tfd›
91 Idukki Roshy Augustine KC(M)   UDF ‹See Tfd›
92 Peerumade E. S. Bijimol CPI   LDF ‹See Tfd›
Kottayam district
93 Pala Mani C. Kappan NCP   LDF ‹See Tfd›
94 Kaduthuruthy Monce Joseph KC(M)   UDF ‹See Tfd›
95 Vaikom C. K. Asha CPI   LDF ‹See Tfd›
96 Ettumanoor K. Suresh Kurup CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
97 Kottayam Thiruvanchoor Radhakrishnan INC   UDF ‹See Tfd›
98 Puthuppally Oommen Chandy INC   UDF ‹See Tfd›
99 Changanassery C. F. Thomas KC(M)   UDF ‹See Tfd›
100 Kanjirappally N. Jayaraj KC(M)   UDF ‹See Tfd›
101 Poonjar P. C. George KJ(S)   NDA ‹See Tfd›
Alappuzha district
102 Aroor Shanimol Usman INC   UDF ‹See Tfd›
103 Cherthala P. Thilothaman CPI   LDF ‹See Tfd›
104 Alappuzha T. M. Thomas Isaac CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
105 Ambalappuzha G. Sudhakaran CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
106 Kuttanad Vacant
107 Haripad Ramesh Chennithala INC   UDF ‹See Tfd›
108 Kayamkulam Prathiba Hari CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
109 Mavelikara R. Rajesh CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
110 Chengannur Saji Cherian CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
Pathanamthitta district
111 Thiruvalla Mathew T. Thomas JD(S)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
112 Ranni Raju Abraham CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
113 Aranmula Veena George CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
114 Konni K. U. Jenish Kumar CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
115 Adoor Chittayam Gopakumar CPI   LDF ‹See Tfd›
Kollam district
116 Karunagapally R. Ramachandran CPI   LDF ‹See Tfd›
117 Chavara Vacant
118 Kunnathur Kovoor Kunjumon RSP (L)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
119 Kottarakkara P. Aisha Potty CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
120 Pathanapuram K. B. Ganesh Kumar KC(B)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
121 Punalur K. Raju CPI   LDF ‹See Tfd›
122 Chadayamangalam Mullakara Ratnakaran CPI   LDF ‹See Tfd›
123 Kundara J. Mercykutty Amma CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
124 Kollam M. Mukesh CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
125 Eravipuram M. Noushad CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
126 Chathannoor G.S. Jayalal CPI   LDF ‹See Tfd›
Thiruvananthapuram district
127 Varkala V. Joy CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
128 Attingal B. Satyan CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
129 Chirayinkeezhu V. Sasi CPI   LDF ‹See Tfd›
130 Nedumangad C. Divakaran CPI   LDF ‹See Tfd›
131 Vamanapuram D. K. Murali CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
132 Kazhakkoottam Kadakampally Surendran CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
133 Vattiyoorkavu V. K. Prasanth CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
134 Thiruvananthapuram V. S. Sivakumar INC   UDF ‹See Tfd›
135 Nemom O. Rajagopal BJP   NDA ‹See Tfd›
136 Aruvikkara K. S. Sabarinathan INC   UDF ‹See Tfd›
137 Parassala C. K. Hareendran CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
138 Kattakkada I. B. Sathish CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
139 Kovalam M. Vincent INC   UDF ‹See Tfd›
140 Neyyattinkara K. A. Ansalan CPI(M)   LDF ‹See Tfd›
141 Nominated[2] John Fernandez


Speakers of the Kerala Legislative Assembly[4]Edit

Sl. No. Name Period
1 R. Sankaranarayanan Thampi 27 April 1957 – 31 July 1959
2 K.M. Seethi Sahib 12 March 1960 – 17 April 1961
A. Nafeesath Beevi


18 April 1961 – 8 June 1961
3 C.H. Mohammed Koya 9 June 1961 – 10 November 1961
4 Alexander Parambithara 13 December 1961 - 10 September 1964
5 D. Damodaran Potti 15 March 1967 – 21 October 1970
6 K. Moideenkutty Haji 22 October 1970 – 8 May 1975
R. S. Unni


9 May 1975 – 16 February 1976
7 T. S. John 17 February 1976 – 25 March 1977
8 Chakkeeri Ahmedkutty 28 March 1977 – 14 February 1980
9 A.P. Kurian 15 February 1980 – 1 February 1982
10 A.C. Jose 3 February 1982 – 23 June 1982
11 Vakkom B. Purushothaman 24 June 1982 – 28 December 1984
K. M. Hamza Kunju


29 December 1984 – 7 March 1985
12 V. M. Sudheeran 8 March 1985 – 27 March 1987
13 Varkala Radhakrishnan 30 March 1987 – 28 June 1991
14 P. P. Thankachan 1 July 1991 – 3 May 1995
K. Narayana Kurup


4 May 1995 – 26 June 1995
15 Therambil Ramakrishnan 27 June 1995 – 28 May 1996
16 M. Vijayakumar 30 May 1996 – 4 June 2001
17 Vakkom Purushothaman 6 June 2001 -  4 September 2004
N. Sundaran Nadar


5 September 2004 – 16 September 2004
18 Therambil Ramakrishnan 16 September 2004 – 24 May 2006
19 K.Radhakrishnan 25 May 2006 – 31 May 2011
20 G. Karthikeyan 2 June 2011 – 7 March 2015
21 N. Sakthan 12 March 2015 – 1 June 2016
22 P. Sreeramakrishnan 3 June 2016- present


The Assembly consists of 140 Members known as Members of Legislative Assembly- MLA representing each constituency.

The qualifications needed to become an MLA are almost similar to the eligibility criteria for an MP. Besides being a citizen of India, the individual should not be less than 25 years of age. On a more fundamental note, a person, who is not a voter from any constituency of the state, is not eligible to become an MLA.

It's to be noted that an MLA is elected by the people of a particular constituency, and the MLA represents those electorates in the Legislative Assembly. MLAs enjoy the same position in the state as MPs on a national level.

Responsibilities of LegislatorsEdit

The principal responsibility of an MLA is to represent the people's grievances and aspirations and take them up with the state government. An MLA has the power to utilise several legislative tools including 'calling attention motion' to raise issues concerning his/her constituency. It's also expected of the MLA to raise the issues with the relevant government agency and minister. As a legislator, his cardinal role will be to make optimum use of the Local Area Development (LAD) fund in a bid to develop his constituency.

Appointment of SpeakerEdit

The Speaker is the primary official of the Assembly. The Assembly elects the Speaker from among its own members. While the Speaker still represents his constituency, he remains an impartial chair of the Assembly and refrains from debating.

When a new assembly is formed, the political party/alliance which is invited by the Governor to form a government, nominates one among them as Pro-term Speaker. The Pro-Term speaker swears in front of Governor and opens the new assembly's first session.

He oversees swearing-in ceremony of all legislators at the assembly hall and then becomes the returning officer for the Speaker Election.

The Leader of the House, Chief Minister presents a motion for speaker election and nominates one among his party/alliance for Speaker position.

The Leader of Opposition supports the motion and nominates one among them as speaker position. The Pro-term speaker then asks whether anyone else wish to contest for speaker post. If any application received, it shall also be enlisted for election.

Based on motion, the pro-term speaker will order for an election and Legislative secretary will arrange an election at the floor of the assembly. The election will be closed affair with each member casting a secret vote on a ballot paper. The results will be counted by Legislative Secretary in front of representatives from both Ruling and Opposition parties.

Accordingly, the pro-term speaker announces the new speaker and both leaders of assembly escort the new speaker to Speaker Dias to take charge of the post.

A similar election is conducted to appoint Deputy Speaker who shall take the office in absence of the speaker.


The speaker is assisted by Legislative Secretariat. The head of Secretariat is Legislative Secretary. The Legislative secretary is the Executive chief of the Assembly and reports only to Speaker and house directly.

The Legislative secretary is supported by 2 Additional Secretaries, Joint Secretaries and Assistant Secretaries. There are under-secretaries for each committee topic and officers in charge.

The Chief Curator manages the entire house activities including housekeeping, maintenance and safety measures. The Chief Editor manages an editorial team to draft questions raised by public and legislators as well as manages answers notes, legislative records, executive orders and archival matters. The Chief Librarian manages the Central Library and Legislative Research cell of Niyamasabha.


From days of Monarchy Kerala Police were not allowed inside Niyamasabha as a matter of enforcing legislative independence. The Niyamasabha has its own security force called Watch and Ward, distinguished by its white uniforms who reports to Assembly Privileges committee and Speaker directly. Its headed by Chief Warden who is in the rank of Superintendent of Police.

The Watch and ward control the security of entire Assembly area as well as nearby Legislative Hostel.


Statutory CommitteeEdit

The Niyamasabha consists of following committees which are statutory in nature and cannot be disbanded, though the members do change.

1. Business Advisory Committee (BAC)

The BAC is the primary committee to decide the agendas to be listed in each session of the assembly. As a convention, the opposition leader will be the head of the committee with leaders of each parliamentary party subjected to a maximum of 8 members. Speaker of the house is a permanent invitee to this committee.

2. Committee on Environment

3. Committee on Estimates

4. Committee on Government Assurances

5. Committee on Local Fund Accounts

6. Committee on Official Language

7. Committee on Papers Laid on the Table

8. Committee on Petitions

9. Committee on Private Members' Bills and Resolutions

10. Committee on Privileges and Ethics

11. Committee on Public Accounts

12. Committee on Public Undertakings

13. Committee on Subordinate Legislation

14. Committee on the Welfare of Backward Class Communities

15. Committee on the Welfare of Fishermen and Allied Workers

16. Committee on the Welfare of Non-resident Keralites

17. Committee on the Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes

18. Committee on the Welfare of Senior Citizens

19. Committee on the Welfare of Women, Children and Physically Handicapped

20. Committee on the Welfare of Youth and Youth Affairs

21. House Committee

22. Library Advisory Committee

23. Rules Committee

Subject CommitteeEdit

Apart from the statutory committee, the assembly has a subject committee for each Department of Government. Though they are not statutory in nature, its established by the house on regular basis to monitor and control executive decisions of each department when a specific bill intended to make into a legislation comes before assembly. Normally when a bill is presented and amendments or disputes arise, the bills are sent to a subject committee specifically formed such departmental activity.

As per Kerala Legislature Rules, the following committees are regularly established in the house.

1. Subject Committee - I:- Departments of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Fisheries

2. Subject Committee - II:- Land Revenue, Land usage, wetland protection, Endowments and Devaswom

3. Subject Committee - III:- Water Resources, Irrigation projects and Dam safety

4. Subject Committee - IV:- Industry and Minerals

5. Subject Committee - V:- Public Works, Transport & Communications

6. Subject Committee - VI:- Education

7. Subject Committee - VII:- Power, Labor and Labor Welfare

8. Subject Committee - VIII:- Economic Affairs

9. Subject Committee - IX:- Local Administration, Rural Development and Housing

10. Subject Committee - X:- Forest, Environment and Tourism

11. Subject Committee - XI:- Food, Civil Supplies and Co-operation

12. Subject Committee - XII:- Health and Family Welfare

13. Subject Committee - XIII:- Social Service

14. Subject Committee - XIV:- Home and Security Affairs

Ad-Hoc CommitteeEdit

Time-to-time, the assembly can form an ad-hoc committee for business as laid by a motion passed by the house.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Kerala Government". Retrieved 12 September 2020.
  2. ^ "John Fernandez to be Anglo-Indian nominee in Assembly". Mathrubhumi. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
  3. ^ "Members - Kerala Legislature". Retrieved 12 September 2020.
  4. ^ "General Info - Kerala Legislature". Retrieved 24 March 2020.

External linksEdit