1957 Kerala Legislative Assembly election

The Kerala Legislative Assembly election of 1957 was the first assembly election in the Indian state of Kerala. The Communist Party of India won the election with 60 seats. The election led to the formation of first democratically elected communist government in India[1] and second in the world after San Marino.[2]

1957 Kerala Legislative Assembly election

28 February – 11 March 1957 1960 →

All 126 seats in the Kerala Legislative Assembly
64 seats needed for a majority
Turnout65.49%
  First party Second party Third party
  E. M. S. Namboodiripad.jpg P. T. Chacko.gif
Leader E. M. S. Namboodiripad P. T. Chacko Pattom Thanu Pillai
Party CPI INC PSP
Leader's seat Nileshwaram Vazhoor Trivandrum I
Seats won 60 43 9
Popular vote 20,59,547 22,09,251 6,28,261
Percentage 35.28% 37.85% 10.76%

Chief Minister before election

Position established

Chief Minister

E. M. S. Namboodiripad
Communist Party of India

State ReorganizationEdit

On 1 November 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, Kerala was formed by the merger of Travancore-Cochin state with the Malabar district (including Fort Cochin and the Laccadive Islands) of Madras State, Kasaragod taluk of the South Canara district and the Amindive Islands. The southern part of Travancore-Cochin, the five taluks of Agastheeswaram, Thovala, Kalkulam, Vilavahcode, and Shencotta, were transferred from Travancore-Cochin to the Madras State.[3] After the reorganization, the assembly constituencies increased from 106 with 117 seats in 1954 to 114 with 126 seats in 1957.

BackgroundEdit

Following the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the Malabar District of Madras state merged with Travancore-Cochin to form the new state of Kerala on 1 November 1956. The merger helped the Communist Party of India to increase their base in the region.[4] The ruling Indian National Congress lost the prominence due to the factionalism within the party.[citation needed] Furthermore, communalism and struggles against feudalism played a major role.[4][5]

ElectionEdit

The Election Commission of India conducted elections to the newly created state between 28 February – 11 March 1957.[6] The elections were held to the 126 seats (114 constituencies) including 12 two member constituencies of which 11 and one reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes respectively, in which 406 candidates were contested. The voter turnout was 65.49%.[7]

ResultsEdit

The result of the elections listed below:

e • d Summary of results of the 1957 Kerala Legislative Assembly election [8]
Political party Flag Seats
Contested
Won % of
Seats
Votes Vote % Vote % in
contested seats
Indian National Congress 124 43 34.13 2,209,251 37.85 38.1
Communist Party of India   101 60 47.62 2,059,547 35.28 40.57
Praja Socialist Party 65 9 7.14 628,261 10.76 17.48
Revolutionary Socialist Party 28 0 188,553 3.23 11.12
Independent 86 14 11.11 751,965 12.88 N/A
Total seats 126 Voters 89,13,247 Turnout 58,37,577 (65.49 %)

In the election, five women candidates were elected out of nine candidates.[7][9]

By ConstituencyEdit

A. C. NO. Assembly Constituency Name Category Winner Candidates Name Gender Party Vote Runner-up Candidates Name Gender Party Vote
1 Parassala GEN Kunjukrishnan Nadar M. M INC 16742 Krishna Pillai K M PSP 8338
2 Neyyattinkara GEN Janardhanan Nair O. M CPI 18812 Krishna Pillai N. K. M PSP 16558
3 Vilappil GEN Sreedhar G. Ponnara M PSP 18221 Surendranath K. V. M CPI 14278
4 Nemom GEN Sadasivan A. M CPI 15998 Viswambharan P. M PSP 14159
5 Trivandrum I GEN Eapan E. P. M PSP 15466 Krishnan Nair K. M IND 13418
6 Trivandrum I I GEN Thanu Pillai A. M PSP 21816 Anirudhan K. M CPI 17082
7 Ullur GEN Sreedharan V. M CPI 16904 Alikunju Sastri M. M PSP 14182
8 Arianad GEN Balakrishna Pillai R. M CPI 16728 Kesavan Nair R. M INC 6987
9 Nedumangad GEN Neelakandaru Pandarathil N. M CPI 20553 Somasekharan Nair K M PSP 7888
10 Attingal GEN Prakasam R. M CPI 24328 Gopala Pillai M PSP 11151
11 Varkala (SC) Abdul Majeed T. A. M CPI 41683 Sivadasan K. M CPI 31454
12 Eravipuram GEN Raveendran M CPI 19122 Kunju Sankara Pillai V. M PSP 8762
13 Quilon GEN A. A. Rahim M INC 20367 Divakaran T. K M RSP 12571
14 Thrikkadavur (SC) Karunakaran K. M CPI 33782 T. Krishnan M INC 32596
15 Karunagappally GEN Kunjukrishnan P. M INC 13709 P. K. Kunju M PSP 13063
16 Krishnapuram GEN Karthikeyan G. M CPI 23963 Sekhara Panicker K. M INC 14493
17 Kayamkulam GEN Aysha Bai K. O. F CPI 27067 Sarojini F INC 13138
18 Karthigapally GEN Sugathan R. M CPI 20978 Velu Pillai G. M INC 14887
19 Haripad GEN Ramakrishna Pillai V. M IND 20184 K. Balagangadharan M INC 15812
20 Mavelikara GEN Kunjachan P. K. M CPI 44630 K. C. George M CPI 39617
21 Kunnathur (SC) Madhavan Pillai P. R. M CPI 41569 Govindan R. M CPI 37321
22 Kottarakkara (SC) Chandrasekharan Nair E. M CPI 23298 Ramachandran Nair K. M INC 14307
23 Chadayamangalam GEN Bhargavan K. M CPI 19375 Abdul Majeed M. M PSP 9143
24 Pathanapuram GEN Rajagopalan Nair M CPI 24499 Kuttan Pillai K. M INC 14440
25 Punalur GEN Gopalan P. M CPI 20455 Kunjuraman Assan K. M INC 16366
26 Ranni GEN Idicula M INC 23308 Thomas Mathew M IND 20722
27 Pathanamthitta GEN Bhaskara Pillai P. M CPI 29001 Chacko (Geevarghese) N. G. M INC 21353
28 Aranmula GEN Gopinathan Pillai K. M INC 18895 Vasudevan N. C. M CPI 18630
29 Kallooppara GEN M. M. Mathai M INC 17874 N. T. George M CPI 10843
30 Thiruvalla GEN G. Padmanabhan Thampi M CPI 22978 Kuruvila Thomas T. M INC 20347
31 Chengannur GEN Sankaranarayanan Thampi R. M CPI 19538 Saraswathi Amma K. F INC 13546
32 Alleppey GEN Thomas T. V. M CPI 26542 Nafeesa Beevi A. F INC 22278
33 Mararikulam GEN Sadasivan C. G. M CPI 28153 Joseph Mathen M INC 18350
34 Sherthala GEN K. R. Gouri F CPI 26088 A. Subramonian Pillai M INC 22756
35 Aroor GEN P. S. Karthikeyan M INC 23956 Avira Tharakan M IND 22296
36 Thakazhi GEN Thomas John M INC 21940 Varghese Vaidlian T. K. M CPI 16480
37 Changanacherry GEN Kalyanakrishnan Nair M. M CPI 22539 Raghavan Pillai P. M INC 19693
38 Vazhoor GEN Chacko P. T. M INC 20102 Raghava Kurup N. M CPI 20022
39 Kanjirappally GEN Thomas K. T. M INC 14896 Joseph M PSP 12893
40 Puthuppally GEN P. C. Cherian M INC 20396 George E. M. M CPI 19000
41 Kottayam GEN Bhaskaran Nair P. M CPI 23021 Govindhan Nair M. P. M INC 20750
42 Ettumanoor GEN Joseph George M INC 21423 Gopala Pillai C. S. M CPI 19930
43 Meenachil GEN Joseph P. M. M INC 20126 Thomas Mathai M IND 13462
44 Vaikom GEN K. R. Narayanan M INC 25818 C. K. Viswanathan M CPI 25164
45 Kaduthuruthy GEN M. C. Abraham M INC 22365 Kurian Kurian M IND 13552
46 Ramamangalam GEN Poulose E. P M INC 20086 Parameswaran Nair M CPI 13588
47 Muvattupuzha GEN K. M. George M INC 16820 Kuruvilla Mattai (Mathew) M CPI 14993
48 Devicolam (SC) Rosamma Punnose F CPI 33809 Ganapathy N. M INC 31887
Bye Polls in 1958 R. Punnose M COM 55819 B. Nair M INC 48730
49 Thodupuzha GEN Mathew C. A. M INC 22149 Narayanan Nair K M CPI 11680
50 Karikode GEN Kusuman Joseph F INC 14669 Augustine Ouseph M IND 12084
51 Poonjar GEN Thomman T. A. M INC 21279 Chacko Vallikkappan (Jocob) M CPI 9045
52 Puliyannur GEN K. M. Joseph Chazhicatt M PSP 18605 Chandy M INC 17915
53 Palluruthy GEN Alexander Parambithar M INC 23666 Gangadharan P. M CPI 19848
54 Mattancherry GEN Viswanathan K. K. M INC 19106 Aboo T. M M CPI 13046
55 Narakkal GEN K. C. Abraham M INC 24253 K. K. Ramakrishnan M CPI 22321
56 Ernakulam GEN Jacob A. L. M INC 23857 V. Ramankutty Menon M CPI 18172
57 Kanayannur GEN Ramakrishnan T. K. M CPI 21292 Joseph A. V. M INC 17506
58 Alwaye GEN T. O. Bava M INC 23707 Varkey M. C. M IND 21142
59 Perumbavoor GEN Govinda Pillai P. M CPI 21679 K. A. Damodara Menon M INC 20780
60 Kothakulangara GEN Anthony M. A. M INC 24133 A. P. Kurian M CPI 15246
61 Parur GEN Sivan Pillai N. M CPI 19997 K. I. Mathew M INC 17909
62 Vadakkekara GEN Balan K. A. M CPI 23385 Vijayan K. R. M INC 17844
63 Cranganore GEN E. Gopalakrishna Menon M CPI 20385 Kunju Moideen A. K. M INC 18894
64 Chalakkudy (SC) P. K. Chathan M CPI 43454 C. J. Jenardhanan M PSP 42997
65 Irinjalakuda GEN Achutha Menon C. M CPI 24140 K. T. Achuthan M INC 21480
66 Manalur GEN Mundassery Joseph M CPI 23350 Sukumaran M INC 21355
67 Trichur GEN A. R. Menon M IND 23531 Karunakaran K. M INC 21045
68 Ollur GEN Paranchu R. M INC 15994 Raghavan V. M CPI 15915
69 Kunnamkulam GEN Krishnan T. K. M CPI 21161 Velayudhan K. I. M INC 18788
70 Wadakkanchery (SC) Ayyappan C. C. M CPI 33161 Kochukuttan K M INC 28895
71 Nattika GEN Achuthan K. S. M INC 23594 Gopalakrishnan P. K. M CPI 22039
72 Guruvayoor GEN Koru Kooliyat M IND 16722 Abubaker M. V. M INC 14087
73 Andathodu GEN Govindan Kutty Menon K. M CPI 14229 Karunakara Menon K. G. M INC 12495
74 Ponnani (SC) Kunhambu Kallayan M INC 22784 Kunhan Eliyath Tharayil M CPI 20535
75 Kuzhalmannam GEN John Kuduvakkotte M IND 19437 Kesava Menon T.P. M INC 14689
76 Alathur GEN Krishnan R. M CPI 19203 Vaitheeswara Iyer P. S. M INC 13317
77 Chittur (SC) Balachandra Menon P. M CPI 23995 Eacharan K. M INC 22062
78 Elapully GEN Ramankutty A. K. M CPI 16768 Sankaran C. C. M INC 11560
79 Palghat GEN Raghava Menon R. M INC 14873 Kunhiraman M. P. M CPI 14248
80 Parli GEN Narayanakutty C. K. M CPI 21627 Gopalakrishnan Nair K. M INC 13996
81 Mannarghat GEN Krishna Menon K. M CPI 13375 Kochunny Nair K. C. M INC 9665
82 Perinthalmanna GEN Govindan Nambiar M CPI 13248 Pookoya Thangal Haji P. V. M IND 9398
83 Ottapalam GEN Kunhunni Nayar M CPI 16157 Sundara Iyer N. M INC 15248
84 Pattambi GEN Gopalan Erasseri Patinharethil M CPI 17447 Padamanabha Menon K. P. M INC 9793
85 Mankada GEN Mohammad Kodur Valia Peedikakkal M IND 11854 Mohammad Malavattath M INC 8338
86 Tirur GEN Moideenkutty Hajee K. M IND 15404 Alikutty P. P. M INC 13231
87 Tanur GEN Muhammed Koya C. H. M IND 16787 Assanar Kutty T. M INC 11520
88 Kuttippuram GEN Ahamedkutty C. M IND 15495 Moideenkutty P. K. M INC 10424
89 Thirurangady GEN Ayukkadarkutty Nahak M IND 17622 Kunhalikutty Haji A. M INC 16670
90 Malappuram GEN Hassan Gani K. M IND 17214 Saidalavi P. M INC 12243
91 Manjeri (SC) Ummer Koya P. P. M INC 30860 Chadayan M. M IND 29101
92 Kondotty GEN Ahammad Kurikkal M. P. M. M IND 18981 Abubakar Kolakadan M INC 11866
93 Kozhikode I GEN Sarada Krishnan M INC 17388 Manjunatha Rao H. M CPI 16079
94 Kozhikode I I GEN Kumaran P. M INC 18586 E. Janardhanan M IND 11211
95 Chevayur GEN Balagopalan A. M INC 20683 Raghavan Nair M CPI 17319
96 Kunnamangalam GEN Leela Damodara Menon F INC 13598 Chathunni Ottayil K. M CPI 11814
97 Koduvally GEN Gopalankutty Nair M. M INC 19377 Muhammedkutty C. M IND 15950
98 Balusseri GEN Narayana Kurup M. M PSP 15789 Raghavan Nair E. M INC 11536
99 Quilandy GEN Kunhiraman Nambiar M PSP 19668 Achuthan Nair P. M INC 16622
100 Perambra GEN Kumaran Madathil M CPI 17838 Madhavan Nair T K. M INC 15827
101 Badagara GEN Kelu Mandoti Kuniyil M CPI 17123 Krishnan M PSP 15448
102 Nadapuram GEN Kanaran C. H. M CPI 18533 Kunhammad Haji V. K. M INC 15177
103 Wynad (SC) Kunjikrishnan Nair N. K. M INC 31993 Madura M INC 29296
104 Kuthuparamba GEN Ramunny Kurup M PSP 21540 Madhavan P. K. M CPI 14858
105 Mattannur GEN Balaram N. E. M CPI 23540 Kunhiraman Nair M INC 13089
106 Tellicherry GEN Krishna Iyer V. R. M IND 27318 Kunhiraman P. M INC 15234
107 Cannanore I GEN Kannan Chaliyoth M CPI 17464 Gopalan Othayoth M INC 17413
108 Cannanore II GEN Gopalan K. P. M CPI 21493 Madhavan Pamban M INC 18776
109 Madayi GEN Gopalan Nambiar K. P. R. M CPI 24390 T. Narayanan Nambiar M INC 12169
110 Rikkur GEN Narayanan Nambiar T. C. M CPI 24518 Narayanan Nambissan M INC 11052
111 Nileswar (SC) Kallalan M CPI 44754 Namboodiripad E. M. S. M CPI 38090
112 Hosdrug GEN Chandraskharan K. M PSP 14150 Madhavan K. M CPI 11209
113 Kasaragod GEN Kunhikrishan Nair Cheripady M INC 10290 Narayanan Nambiar M PSP 10096
114 Manjeshwar GEN M. Umesh Rao M IND Uncontested

[10]

Government formationEdit

Communist Party of India formed the government with the support of five independents.[11] On 5 April 1957, E. M. S. Namboodiripad became the chief minister of Kerala and first non–Congress chief minister of the country (PSP ruled Travencore Cochin state before). But the government was dismissed in 1959 by the central government following the Liberation Struggle.[12]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ James Manor (1994). Nehru to the Nineties: The Changing Office of Prime Minister in India. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 210. ISBN 978-1-85065-180-2.
  2. ^ Thomas Johnson Nossiter (1 January 1982). Communism in Kerala: A Study in Political Adaptation. University of California Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-520-04667-2.
  3. ^ "Reorganisation of States, 1955" (PDF). The Economic Weekly. 15 October 1955. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  4. ^ a b P Radhakrishnan. Peasant Struggles, Land Reforms and Social Change: Malabar 1836–1982. Radhakrishnan. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-906083-16-8.
  5. ^ Communal Road to a Secular Kerala. Concept Publishing Company. 1 January 1989. p. 145. ISBN 978-81-7022-282-8.
  6. ^ "History of Kerala Legislature". kerala.gov.in. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  7. ^ a b "Key highlights of General election, 1957 to the legislative assembly of Kerala" (pdf). Election Commission of India. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  8. ^ "Statistical Report on General Election, 1957 : To the Legislative Assembly of Kerala". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  9. ^ "Only 7 women make it to Kerala state Assembly". Economic Times. 16 May 2011. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
  10. ^ "Kerala Assembly Election Results in 1957". www.elections.in. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  11. ^ Thomas Johnson Nossiter (1 January 1982). Communism in Kerala: A Study in Political Adaptation. University of California Press. pp. 122–123. ISBN 978-0-520-04667-2.
  12. ^ "Fresh light on 'Liberation Struggle'". The Hindu. 12 February 2008. Retrieved 9 April 2014.