List of chief ministers of Kerala

The Chief Minister of Kerala is the chief executive of the Indian state of Kerala. In accordance with the Constitution of India, the governor is a state's de jure head, but de facto executive authority rests with the chief minister. Following elections to the Kerala Legislative Assembly, the state's governor usually invites the party (or coalition) with a majority of seats to form the government. The governor appoints the chief minister, whose council of ministers are collectively responsible to the assembly. Given that he has the confidence of the assembly, the chief minister's term is for five years and is subject to no term limits.[1]

Chief Minister of Kerala
Emblem of Kerala state Vector.svg
Pinarayi..Vijayan.jpg
Incumbent
Pinarayi Vijayan

since 25 May 2016
StyleThe Honourable
StatusHead of Government
Member ofKerala Legislature (Assembly
Cabinet)
ResidenceCliff House, Thiruvananthapuram
SeatKerala Niyamasabha
AppointerGovernor of Kerala
Term length5 years
PrecursorPrime Minister of Travancore
Prime Minister of Cochin
Chief Ministers of Travancore-Cochin
Inaugural holderE. M. S. Namboodiripad (1957–1959)
Formation5 April 1957; 63 years ago (1957-04-05)
WebsiteCMO Kerala
Photograph of Cliff House, a two-storey bungalow with a garden in the foreground
A 15,000 sq. ft building on 4.5 acres of land, Cliff House in Thiruvananthapuram is the official residence of the Chief Minister of Kerala.

The origins of Kerala lie in the princely states of Travancore and Cochin. Following India's independence from the British Raj in 1947, these states' monarchs instituted a measure of representative government, headed by a Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers. On 1 July 1949 Travancore and Cochin were merged to form Travancore-Cochin state. On 1 November 1956, the States Reorganisation Act redrew India's map along linguistic lines, and the present-day state of Kerala was born, consisting solely of Malayalam-speaking districts. Since then, 12 people have served as the Chief Minister of Kerala. The first was E. M. S. Namboodiripad of the Communist Party of India, whose tenure was cut short by the imposition of President's rule. Kerala has come under President's rule for four years over seven terms, the last of them in 1982. Since then the office has alternated between leaders of the Indian National Congress and of the Communist Party of India (Marxist). The latter party's Pinarayi Vijayan is the incumbent chief minister; his Left Democratic Front government has been in office since 25 May 2016.

Colour key for partiesEdit

PrecursorsEdit

Prime Ministers of TravancoreEdit

No.[a] Name Portrait Term[2][3]
(tenure length)
Assembly
(election)
Party
From To Days in office
1 Pattom Thanu Pillai 24 March 1948 17 October 1948 210 days Representative Body (1948–49) Indian National Congress
2 Paravoor T. K. Narayana Pillai 22 October 1948 1 July 1949 253 days

Prime Ministers of CochinEdit

No.[a] Name Portrait Term[2]
(tenure length)
Assembly
(election)
Party
From To Days in office
1 Panampilly Govinda Menon 14 August 1947 22 October 1947 51 days Sixth Council (1945–48) None
2 T. K. Nair 27 October 1947 20 September 1948 334 days
3 E. Ikkanda Warrier   20 September 1948 30 June 1949 283 days Legislative Assembly (1948–49)

Chief Ministers of Travancore-CochinEdit

After India's independence in 1947, Travancore and Cochin were merged to form Travancore-Cochin on 1 July 1949. On 1 January 1950, Travancore-Cochin was recognised as a state.

No.[a] Name Portrait Term[2]
(tenure length)
Assembly
(election)
Party[b]
From To Days in office
1 Paravoor T. K. Narayana Pillai 1 July 1949 1 March 1951 1 year, 243 days First Assembly (1949–51) Indian National Congress
2 C. Kesavan   3 March 1951 12 March 1952 1 year, 11 days
3 A. J. John 12 March 1952 16 March 1954 2 years, 4 days Second Assembly (1952–53)
(1951 election)
4 Pattom Thanu Pillai 16 March 1954 10 February 1955 331 days Third Assembly (1954–56)
(1954 election)
Praja Socialist Party
5 Panampilly Govinda Menon 10 February 1955 23 March 1956 1 year, 42 days Indian National Congress
Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
  23 March 1956 31 October 1956 222 days Dissolved N/A

Chief Ministers of KeralaEdit

The Government of India's 1 November 1956 States Reorganisation Act inaugurated the new Kerala state, incorporating Malabar District, Travancore-Cochin (excluding 4 southern taluks which were merged with Tamil Nadu), and the Kasaragod taluk of South Kanara district. A new Legislative Assembly was also created, for which elections were held in 1957.

No.[a] Name[5]
Ministry
Portrait Constituency Term[6][7]
(tenure length)
Assembly[8]
(election)
Party[b]
(alliance)
From To Days in office
Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
  N/A 1 November 1956 5 April 1957 155 days Dissolved N/A
1 E. M. S. Namboodiripad
1st EMS ministry
  Nileshwaram 5 April 1957 31 July 1959 2 years, 117 days First Assembly (1957–59)
(1957 election)
Communist Party of India
Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
  N/A 31 July 1959 22 February 1960 206 days Dissolved N/A
2 Pattom A. Thanu Pillai
Thanupillai ministry
  Trivandrum II 22 February 1960 26 September 1962 2 years, 216 days Second Assembly (1960–64)
(1960 election)
Praja Socialist Party
3 R. Sankar
Sankar ministry
  Cannanore I 26 September 1962 10 September 1964 1 year, 350 days Indian National Congress
Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
  N/A 10 September 1964 25 March 1965 2 years, 177 days Dissolved N/A
25 March 1965 6 March 1967 2 years, 177 days Dissolved
(1965 election)[d]
(1) E. M. S. Namboodiripad
2nd EMS ministry
  Pattambi 6 March 1967 1 November 1969 2 years, 240 days;
(total 4 years, 357 days)
Third Assembly (1967–70)
(1967 election)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Saptakakshi Munnani)
4 C. Achutha Menon
1st Achutha Menon ministry
  Kottarakkara 1 November 1969 1 August 1970 273 days Communist Party of India
Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
  N/A 4 August 1970 3 October 1970 60 days Dissolved N/A
(4) C. Achutha Menon
2nd Achutha Menon ministry
  Kodakara 4 October 1970 25 March 1977 6 years, 172 days;
(total 7 years, 80 days)
Fourth Assembly (1970–77)
(1970 election)
Communist Party of India
(United Front)
5 K. Karunakaran
1st Karunakaran ministry
  Mala 25 March 1977 25 April 1977 31 days Fifth Assembly (1977–79)
(1977 election)
Indian National Congress
(United Front)
6 A. K. Antony
1st Antony ministry
  Kazhakkuttom 27 April 1977 27 October 1978 1 year, 183 days
7 P. K. Vasudevan Nair
PKV ministry
  Alleppey 29 October 1978 7 October 1979 343 days Communist Party of India
(United Front)
8 C. H. Mohammed Koya
Koya ministry
  Malappuram 12 October 1979 1 December 1979 50 days Indian Union Muslim League
(United Front)
Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
  N/A 5 December 1979 25 January 1980 51 days Dissolved N/A
9 E. K. Nayanar
1st Nayanar ministry
  Malampuzha 25 January 1980 20 October 1981 1 year, 268 days Sixth Assembly (1980–82)
(1980 election)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Left Democratic Front)
Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
  N/A 21 October 1981 28 December 1981 68 days N/A
(5) K. Karunakaran
2nd Karunakaran ministry
  Mala 28 December 1981 17 March 1982 79 days Indian National Congress (I)
(United Democratic Front)
Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
  N/A 17 March 1982 23 May 1982 67 days;
(total 4 years, 54 days)
Dissolved N/A
(5) K. Karunakaran
3rd Karunakaran ministry
  Mala 24 May 1982 25 March 1987 4 years, 305 days Seventh Assembly (1982–87)
(1982 election)
Indian National Congress
(United Democratic Front)
(9) E. K. Nayanar
2nd Nayanar ministry
  Trikaripur 26 March 1987 17 June 1991 4 years, 83 days Eighth Assembly (1987–91)
(1987 election)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Left Democratic Front)
(5) K. Karunakaran
4th Karunakaran ministry
  Mala 24 June 1991 16 March 1995 3 years, 265 days;
(total 8 years, 315 days)
Ninth Assembly (1991–96)
(1991 election)
Indian National Congress
(United Democratic Front)
(6) A. K. Antony
2nd Antony ministry
  Thirurangadi 22 March 1995 9 May 1996 1 year, 48 days
(9) E. K. Nayanar
3rd Nayanar ministry
  Thalassery 20 May 1996 13 May 2001 5 years, 24 days;
(total 11 years, 10 days)
Tenth Assembly (1996–2001)
(1996 election)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Left Democratic Front)
(6) A. K. Antony
3rd Antony ministry
  Cherthala 17 May 2001 29 August 2004 3 years, 75 days;
(total 5 years, 306 days)
Eleventh Assembly (2001–06)
(2001 election)
Indian National Congress
(United Democratic Front)
10 Oommen Chandy
1st Chandy ministry
  Puthuppally 31 August 2004 12 May 2006 1 year, 254 days
11 V. S. Achuthanandan
Achuthanandan ministry
  Malampuzha 18 May 2006 14 May 2011 4 years, 361 days Twelfth Assembly (2006–11)
(2006 election)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Left Democratic Front)
(10) Oommen Chandy
2nd Chandy ministry
  Puthuppally 18 May 2011 20 May 2016 5 years, 2 days;
(total 6 years, 256 days)
Thirteenth Assembly (2011–16)
(2011 election)
Indian National Congress
(United Democratic Front)
12 Pinarayi Vijayan
Vijayan ministry
  Dharmadam 25 May 2016 Incumbent 4 years, 245 days Fourteenth Assembly (2016–21)
(2016 election)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Left Democratic Front)

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d A parenthetical number indicates that the incumbent has previously held office.
  2. ^ a b This column only names the chief minister's party. The state government he headed may have been a complex coalition of several parties and independents; these are not listed here.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h When President's rule is in force in a state, its council of ministers stands dissolved. The office of chief minister thus lies vacant. At times, the legislative assembly also stands dissolved.[4]
  4. ^ As the 1965 election did not deliver a clear mandate in favour of any party or coalition, no assembly was convened, and President's rule was re-imposed.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Durga Das Basu. Introduction to the Constitution of India. 1960. 20th Edition, 2011 Reprint. pp. 241, 245. LexisNexis Butterworths Wadhwa Nagpur. ISBN 978-81-8038-559-9. Note: although the text talks about Indian state governments in general, it applies for the specific case of Kerala as well.
  2. ^ a b c Responsible Governments (1947–56). Kerala Legislature. Retrieved on 22 April 2014.
  3. ^ History of Kerala Legislature. Government of Kerala. Archived on 6 October 2014.
  4. ^ Amberish K. Diwanji. "A dummy's guide to President's rule". Rediff.com. 15 March 2005.
  5. ^ Chief Ministers, Ministers and Leaders of Opposition in Kerala. Secretariat of the Kerala Legislature. Retrieved on 28 August 2018.
  6. ^ Chief Ministers of Kerala since 1957. Kerala Legislature. Retrieved on 22 April 2014.
  7. ^ President's rule in Kerala. Kerala Legislature. Retrieved on 22 April 2014.
  8. ^ Duration of Each Assembly. Kerala Legislature. Retrieved on 22 April 2014.

External linksEdit