This article is about the city. For the district, see Thiruvananthapuram district. For the urban agglomeration area of Thiruvananthapuram, see Thiruvananthapuram metropolitan area.
01KovalamBeach&Kerala.jpg Thiruvananthapuram Infosys Building.JPG
Technopark Phase III Buildings February 2014.jpg Niyamasabha.jpg
Trivandrum Pattam skykline.jpg Kallar river.jpg
Clockwise from top right: Kovalam Beach, Infosys Kazhakoottam, Technopark, Niyamasabha Mandiram, Trivandrum East skyline facing the Western Ghats, Kallar
Official seal of Thiruvananthapuram
Nickname(s): The Evergreen City of India
Thiruvananthapuram is located in Kerala
Thiruvananthapuram is located in India
Coordinates: 08°29′15″N 76°57′9″E / 8.48750°N 76.95250°E / 8.48750; 76.95250Coordinates: 08°29′15″N 76°57′9″E / 8.48750°N 76.95250°E / 8.48750; 76.95250
Country  India
State Kerala
District Thiruvananthapuram
Founded by Marthanda Varma
 • Body Thiruvananthapuram Corporation
 • Mayor V K Prasanth
 • Deputy Mayor Rakhi Ravikumar
 • Police Commissioner G Sparjan Kumar IPS[2]
 • Member of Parliament Shashi Tharoor
 • City 214.86 km2 (82.96 sq mi)
 • Urban 250 km2 (100 sq mi)
 • Metro 2,192 km2 (846 sq mi)
Area rank 57
Elevation 10 m (30 ft)
Population (2011)
 • City 957,730[1]
 • Rank 14
 • Density 4,454/km2 (11,540/sq mi)
 • Urban 957,730
 • Metro 1,647,121
Demonym(s) Keralite, Malayali
 • Official Language Malayalam, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Postal Index Number 695 XXX
Area code(s) 0471
Vehicle registration KL-01, KL-16, KL-19, KL-20, KL-21, KL- 22
HDI Very High
Climate Am/Aw (Köppen)

Thiruvananthapuram (Thiruvaṉantapuram, IPA: [t̪iruʋənən̪t̪əpurəm]), formerly known as Trivandrum, is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Kerala. It is located on the west coast of India near the extreme south of the mainland. It is officially the first metro city in Kerala. Referred to by Mahatma Gandhi as the "Evergreen city of India",[3][4] it is classified as a Tier-II city by the Government of India.[citation needed]

Thiruvananthapuram was a trading post for spices, sandalwood and ivory. The city was ruled by the Ays and was captured by the rulers of Venad in the 10th century. In 1729, Marthanda Varma founded the princely state of Thiruvithamkoor and made Thiruvananthapuram the capital in 1745. It remained as a princely state ruled by Travancore under the loose governance of the British before joining the Indian Union in 1948.[citation needed]

With nearly 80% of the state's software exports, Thiruvananthapuram is a major IT hub with the Technopark and the Technocity. It is an academic and research focal point in the country with an array of premier institutions like Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, National Institute For Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Centre for Development Studies, Kerala Technical University, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Regional Cancer Centre and the National Centre for Earth Science Studies.[citation needed]

India's first and only magic academy, Magic Academy Research Centre run by Merlin award-winning magician Gopinath Muthukad is situated in Thiruvananthapuram. The city is home to animation companies like Toonz India Ltd and Tata Elxsi Ltd. The Kinfra Film and Video Park is one of the most advanced film and animation production facilities in India. Trivandrum is also home to the legendary Chitranjali Film Studio, one of the first film studios in Malayalam Cinema.The International Film Festival of Kerala (IFFK), which is held every year in the city on December is Asia’s largest film festival in terms of viewer participation.[citation needed]

Being India's largest city in the deep south, it is strategically prominent and has the Southern Air Command headquarters of the Indian Air Force, the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station and the upcoming Vizhinjam International Deepwater Motherport.[citation needed]

Thiruvananthapuram is a major tourist centre, known for the Padmanabhaswamy Temple, the famous beaches of Kovalam and Varkala, the backwaters of Poovar and Anchuthengu and its Western Ghats tracts of Ponmudi and the Agastyamala.[citation needed]

It is consistently ranked among the best cities to live in Kerala as well as India.[5][6][7] Thiruvananthapuram is also the best governed city in India from the past two years [8]



The city gets its name from the Malayalam word thiru-anantha-puram IPA: [t̪iruʋənən̪t̪əpurəm], meaning "The City of Lord Ananta",[9] referring to the deity of the Sri Padmanabhaswamy Temple located in the city. Thiruvananthapuram is also known in literature and popular reference as Ananthapuri derived from the Sanskrit word Syanandurapuri, meaning "The City of Bliss" in Carnatic kirtanas composed by Swathi Thirunal, erstwhile Maharaja of Travancore.[10] The city was officially referred to as Trivandrum until 1991, when the government decided to reinstate the city's original name Thiruvananthapuram.[citation needed]


See also: Travancore
Painting by Raja Ravi Varma depicting Richard Grenville being greeted by Visakham Thirunal, with Ayilyam Thirunal of Travancore at Thiruvananthapuram in early 1880s.

Thiruvananthapuram is an ancient region with trading traditions dating back to 1000 BCE.[11] The city was a trading post for spices, sandalwood and ivory.[12] The early rulers of the city were the Ays and after their fall in the 10th century, the city was captured by the rulers of Venad.[13]

In 1729, Marthanda Varma founded the princely state of Thiruvithamkoor and Thiruvananthapuram was made the capital in 1745 after shifting the capital from Padmanabhapuram in Tamil Nadu.[14] In the mid-19th century, the city was under the reign of Swathi Thirunal and Ayilyam Thirunal. An observatory was established in 1837 with the Oriental Research Institute & Manuscripts Library and the University College established in 1873. Several colleges were established by Moolam Thirunal (1885–1924).[13] Sree Moolam Assembly, established in 1904, was the first democratically elected legislative council in any Indian state.[15] Though the city was never under direct control of the British Empire, it featured in the Indian independence movement with a meeting of the Indian National Congress presided by Pattabhi Sitaramaiah held here in 1938.[citation needed]

After Indian Independence in 1947, Travancore chose to join the Indian union and the first ministry headed by Pattom Thanu Pillai was installed in office on 24 March 1948. In 1949, Thiruvananthapuram became the capital of Travancore-Cochin, the state formed by the integration of Travancore with the Kingdom of Cochin.[16] The king of Travancore, Chitra Thirunal Bala Rama Varma, became the Rajpramukh of the Travancore-Cochin Union from 1 July 1949 until 31 October 1956. When the state of Kerala was formed on 1 November 1956, Thiruvananthapuram became its capital.[17]


Religion in Thiruvananthapuram
Religion Percentage

The city has a population of 752,490 according to the 2011 census,[18] and 1,687,406 in the Urban Agglomeration.[19] The sex ratio is 1,032 females for every 1,000 males.[18] In October 2010, the number of wards was increased from 86 to 100 post expansion of city limits by adding Sreekaryam, Vattiyoorkavu, Kudappanakunnu, Vizhinjam and Kazhakuttam panchayats.[20][21]

Hindus comprise 68.5% of the population, Christians about 16.7% and Muslims form 13.7%.[22] The major languages spoken are Malayalam and English. In Palayam in the city centre, there is a mosque , a temple and a Christian church next to each other as neighbours, establishing the communal harmony of Keralites. The city is home to a prominent minority of Tamil speakers, owing to their migration from the adjoining district of Kanyakumari. The city also has a few Tulu, Konkani, Dhivehi, Hindi, Telugu, and Urdu speakers. As per 2001 census, the population below the poverty line in the city was 11,667 —although the BPL Survey lists it as 120,367— with majority living in slums and coastal fishing areas.[23]


The city has historically been a cultural hub in South India due to the active interest of the rulers of erstwhile Travancore in the development of arts, architecture and liberal customs. As a testimony to this, renowned artists like Maharaja Swathi Thirunal, Irayimman Thampi and Raja Ravi Varma hail from the city.[citation needed]

Napier Museum
Evening View from Ponmudi Hills

Apart from the famous Padmanabhaswamy Temple, the city's architecture is championed by the Thiruvananthapuram Museum and Thiruvananthapuram Zoo, one of the oldest zoo's in India. Other architecture landmarks include Attukal temple, Beemapally Mosque, Connemara Market, Kowdiar Palace and the Palayam CSI Church. Thiruvananthapuram was the main centre of Laurie Baker's architecture.[citation needed]

The city hosts the Guinness Record holding Attukal Pongala drawing 5+ million women devotees across India and abroad. Beemapally Uroos, Vettukaad Church Festival, Padmanabhaswamy Temple Aaraattu are the other prominent religious festivals in the city attracting huge numbers of followers across the country.[citation needed]

IFFK 2011

The International Film Festival of Kerala (IFFK), which is held every year on December is one of the most anticipated events for movie buffs in India and is also Asia’s largest film festival in terms of viewer participation.[24] Another big draw to the culturally rich city is the 75-day annual Soorya Festival, one of the longest running cultural festival in the world and reflects the sound of music, dance and traditional art forms of India. Other major cultural extravaganzas in Trivandrum include the Swathi Sangeethotsavam, Nishagandhi Festival and the Kovalam Literary festival. Trivandrum city holds the maximum number of theatres in Kerala. There are 19 A-Class theatres, with areisplex sl cinema audi -1 with a seating capacity more than 1300 being the largest silver screen and the only theatre in South India to have double 4K projection facility . All the halls are within a radius of 2 km which makes the city an ideal place to hold Film Festivals.[citation needed]

Trivandrum offers the best scope for international multicultural activity mix with Germany's Goethe Zentrum, France's Alliance Francaise and Russia's Gorky Bhavan centres in the city hosting a wide range of programmes and events throughout the year.[citation needed]

The general cuisine of the people is Keralite cuisine, which is generally characterised by an abundance of coconut and spices. Other South Indian cuisines, as well as Chinese and North Indian cuisines are popular. Arabian, Thai and branded fast food joints are also patronised.[citation needed]


One of Kerala's Biggest Medical exhibition Held at Trivandrum Medical College.

Thiruvananthapuram is a major educational hub. There are about 15 engineering colleges, three medical colleges, three Ayurveda colleges, two homoeopathy colleges, six other medicine related colleges, an agricultural college, two management institutions, and two law colleges in the city and its suburbs.[25] Major institutions include the University of Kerala, Trivandrum Medical College, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram, Loyola School, Thiruvananthapuram, A P J Abdul Kalam Technological University, Indira Gandhi National Open University, College of Engineering, Government Engineering College, Sree Chitra Thirunal College of Engineering, College of Architecture Trivandrum, Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, [[Centre for Development Studies],] and Centre for Development of Imaging Technology are research institutions located in the city.[citation needed]


Trivandrum is a major IT Hub in India.

The economy of the city is mainly based on the tertiary sector. Thiruvananthapuram was listed as one of the top 10 cites in India on Vibrancy and Consumption Index by a study conducted by global financial services firm Morgan Stanley.[26] The city is a major exporter of software with over 250 companies employing more than 40,000 professionals.[27][28]

It contributes nearly 80% of the state's software exports.[29][30][31] Tourism also contributes to the economy of Thiruvananthapuram.[32][33][34] There are around 20 government owned and 60 privately owned medium and large-scale industrial units in Thiruvananthapuram. There are also about 30,000 small scale industrial units employing around 115,000 people. Traditional industries include handloom and coir.[35]


The state legislative assembly and Secretariat are located in Thiruvananthapuram. The city also serves as the headquarters of the Thiruvananthapuram district. The Thiruvananthapuram municipality was established in 1920 and was declared as a Corporation on 30 October 1940, during the rule of Chitra Thirunal Bala Rama Varma.[36] The city is administered by the Thiruvananthapuram Corporation which headed by a mayor and is responsible for the overall supervision and control of the administrative functions. The city elects its member of Parliament for the Thiruvananthapuram Lok Sabha constituency. It contributes five members to the legislative assembly from Kazhakuttam, Vattiyoorkavu, Thiruvananthapuram Kovalam and Nemom.[37]



Electricity services are provided by Kerala State Electricity Board (KSEB).[38] Peppara and Aruvikkara dams are the main sources of water for the city and a new project plan for improving the water supply with Japanese aid was launched in 2011.[38] The sewage is disposed at the Muttathara Sewage Treatment Plant, which handles 32 million liters per day. The city area is divided into seven blocks for the execution of the sewage system, two commissioned in the 1990s and two after 2000. The sewerage was pumped to a stilling chamber at the Sewerage Treatment Plant (STP) at Valiyathura and is disposed through sewage farms.[39]

Geography and climateEdit

Thiruvananthapuram is built on seven hills and is located at 8°30′N 76°54′E / 8.5°N 76.9°E / 8.5; 76.9 on the west coast, near the southern tip of mainland India.[40] The city is bounded by Laccadive Sea to its west and the Western Ghats to its east. The city covers an area of 214.86 km2 (82.96 sq mi) and the average elevation is 16 ft (4.9 m) above sea level.[41][42] The Geological Survey of India has classified Thiruvananthapuram as a moderately earthquake-prone urban centre and categorised it in the Seismic III Zone.[43] Karamana and Killi rivers, Vellayani and Akkulam lakes are the main water bodies in the city.[44]

The city has a climate that borders between a tropical savanna climate and a tropical monsoon climate. The humidity is high and is the highest during the monsoon season.[45] Thiruvananthapuram gets majority of the rain from the south-west monsoons and gets its first showers in early June. It also gets rain from the receding north-east monsoons in October. The lowest temperature in the city core recorded during winter was 16.4 °C on, and the highest temperature recorded in summer is 38.0 °C.[46]

Climate data for Thiruvananthapuram City (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.5
Average high °C (°F) 32.0
Average low °C (°F) 22.1
Record low °C (°F) 16.4
Average precipitation mm (inches) 15.9
Average precipitation days 1.0 1.7 2.3 6.5 9.7 16.6 13.4 10.3 8.7 11.7 9.2 4.2 95.4
Average relative humidity (%) 69 70 72 77 79 85 84 83 82 83 82 74 78
Mean monthly sunshine hours 262.8 242.3 250.7 214.0 197.3 133.5 149.7 166.6 173.4 170.8 166.3 216.6 2,344
Source #1: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[46][47]
Source #2: NOAA (sun and humidity, 1971–1990)[48]


Daily newspapers are available in Malayalam, English and Tamil. The major Malayalam newspapers available are Mathrubhumi, Malayala Manorama, Kerala Kaumudi, Deshabhimani, Madhyamam, Janmabhumi, Chandrika, Thejas, Siraj, Deepika and Rashtra Deepika. The English newspapers with editions from Thiruvananthapuram are The New Indian Express, The Hindu, The Deccan Chronicle and The Times of India.[citation needed]

Most of the media houses in Kerala are based out of Thiruvananthapuram. The government-owned Doordarshan began broadcasting in 1981. Asianet, the first private channel in Malayalam, began its telecasts in 1993. The other channels based in the city include Amrita TV, Kairali TV, Kairali We, Mathrubhumi News, Kaumudy TV, JaiHind TV, Asianet News, Asianet Movies, Asianet Plus and People TV.[citation needed]


Trivandrum International Stadium

Trivandrum was the main venue of the National Games 2015. The city caters to a variety of sports with facilities as listed below:[49]

Badminton at TOSS Academy
Paragliding at Varkala
Centre Sports
The Sports Hub,Trivandrum Greenfield Stadium Sports Hub
Jimmy George Sports Hub Sports Hub
LNCPE Karyavattom Sports Hub
Chandrasekharan Nair Stadium Athletics
University Stadium Athletics
Kerala Police Academy Shooting
Vattiyoorkavu Shooting Range Shooting
Ramanathan Krishnan Tennis Complex Tennis
Pirappancode Aquatics Complex Aquatics
Shankumugham Beach Beach Handball
CSN Squash Court Squash
Sreepadam Stadium Kho Kho, Kabadi
LNCPE Velodrome and Indoor Stadium Cycling, Wushu
St.Xaviers Cricket Ground, Thumba Cricket
Agricultural College Indoor Stadium Sports Hub, Taekwondo, Netball
TOSS Academy[50] Shuttle Badminton

Trivandrum also has a 9-hole golf course named the Trivandrum Golf Club. The Kerala Cricket Association is headquartered in the city.[citation needed]

For Adventure sports,

  • Varkala is known for paragliding and surfing.
  • Kovalam hosts one of India's oldest surfing enclaves and also one of the first exclusive surf shops in India. It also has a scuba diving enclave.[citation needed]

Several companies offer hiking, trekking, and camping in the Western Ghats region of the city. Jimmy George Sports hub includes Astra, the first altitude-simulated training facility in South India, which enables high altitude acclimatization.[51]


Thiruvananthapuram International Airport.

The NH 66 and NH 544 (old NH 47) connects the city with Salem and Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu. The Main Central Road is an arterial road in the city and is designated as State Highway 1.[citation needed]

There are five railway stations in the city namely, the Thiruvananthapuram Central , Thiruvananthapuram Pettah, Kochuveli, Kazhakuttom and Nemom.[52]

Thiruvananthapuram Central is the major railway station serving the city. It falls under the Southern Railway zone of the Indian Railways and is the headquarter of the Thiruvananthapuram Railway Division.[citation needed]

Thiruvananthapuram is served by the Thiruvananthapuram International Airport. The airport is just 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi) from the city centre.[53] Being one of the gateways to the state, it has direct connectivity to all the major cities in India as well as Middle East, Malaysia, Singapore, Maldives and Sri Lanka and the one of the only three Indian airports having direct flight connections with the United States. United Airlines and Air India I operate two daily direct flights to Newark (EWR) and I San Francisco (SFO). It also has the headquarters of the Southern Air Command (SAC) of the Indian Air Force.[54]


The Royal Entry Door of Kanakakunnu Palace Darbar Hall, Trivandrum
Harverting lotus leafs

Thiruvananthapuram is a major tourist hub in South India. Kovalam and Varkala are popular beach towns located near the city. The Padmanabhaswamy Temple circled by the East Fort is believed to be among the richest and grandest temples in the world.[55] Other places of interest include Shanghumukham, Azhimala Beach, Agasthyamala rain forests, Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary,Kallar[disambiguation needed], Braemore, Ponmudi hills, Poovar and Anchuthengu backwaters, Varkala Cliffs and Kappil, Edava lakes. The city is also known for its unique style of architecture involving Kerala Architecture with British and Dravidian influences in Napier museum, Zoo which is one of the oldest in Asia , Kuthiramalika and Kilimanoor Palaces. Although there are a number of museums, Kerala Science and Technology Museum includes the Priyadarsini Planetarium with the biggest projection screen in south India.[citation needed]

Notable peopleEdit

Sister citiesEdit

Trivandrum has Galveston as its sister city, as designated by Sister Cities International:[56]

Diplomatic missionsEdit

Trivandrum at present has consulates of the following countries [57]


See alsoEdit


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  2. ^ "Sparjan Kumar is new commissioner". Times of India. 24 January 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2016. 
  3. ^ "Thiruvananthapuram India". Destination 360. Retrieved 18 June 2010. 
  4. ^ "Evergreencity of India". 
  5. ^ "Thiruvananthapuram best Kerala city to live in: Times survey". The Times of India. Retrieved 5 August 2016. 
  6. ^ "India's Best Cities: Winners and Why they made it". India Today. 22 February 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  7. ^ "Chennai bags top honour at India Today best city awards". Daily Mail. 22 February 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  8. ^
  9. ^ "About Thiruvananthapuram". Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 29 October 2010. 
  10. ^ "Swati manuscripts found". The Hindu. Retrieved 3 August 2016. 
  11. ^ Henry, James (1977). The Jews in India and the Far East. Greenwood Press Reprint. ISBN 978-0837-126-15-9. 
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  13. ^ a b "History of Thiruvananthapuram". Government of Kerala. Retrieved 23 May 2006. 
  14. ^ "District Profile". About Thiruvananthapuram. National Informatics Centre District Centre, and Content Management Team Collectorate Thiruvananthapuram. Retrieved 22 May 2010. 
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  16. ^ Menon, Madhava (2005). Criminal Justice India Series: Kerala. Allied Publishers. p. 5. ISBN 978-8177-643-91-6. 
  17. ^ "Kerala at a glance". Govt of Kerala. Retrieved 6 October 2010. 
  18. ^ a b Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Cities having population 2 lakh and above (PDF) (Report). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  19. ^ Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 2 lakh and above (PDF) (Report). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  20. ^ "LDF, BJP hit the poll trail early in State capital". The Hindu. 4 October 2010. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  21. ^ "Kerala: Addition of wards". The Hindu. 16 June 2010. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  22. ^ Religious census 2011. Government of India (Report). Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  23. ^ Study of urban poor in TMC area (PDF). JNNURM (Report). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 January 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2010. 
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  30. ^ "India's hottest IT destinations". Rediff. Retrieved 22 October 2010. 
  31. ^ Exports from companies in Technopark: Chapter 21, page:220, section:21.66 (PDF) (Report). Planning Board, Government of Kerala. 1 December 2010. Retrieved 28 February 2011. 
  32. ^ Tourism statistics 2007 (PDF). Tourism Department, Kerala (Report). Retrieved 8 May 2008. 
  33. ^ "Tourism statistics 2005" (PDF). Tourism Department, Kerala. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2006. Retrieved 2 October 2006. 
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  35. ^ "Statistical data". Government of Kerala. Retrieved 25 August 2006. 
  36. ^ "Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation". Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation Introduction. Retrieved 3 January 2011. 
  37. ^ Delimitation of Assembly Constituencies, Final Order (PDF) (Report). Chief Electoral Officer, Kerala. Retrieved 3 March 2011. 
  38. ^ a b "Infrastructure in Thiruvananthapuram". Government of Kerala. Retrieved 8 March 2011. 
  39. ^ "Thiruvananthapuram Sewage Scheme". Government of Kerala. Retrieved 16 October 2006. 
  40. ^ Abram, David (2005). South India. Rough Guides. p. 261. ISBN 978-1843-531-03-6. 
  41. ^ "Details of Municipalities (Grade wise)". Details of Municipalities. Department of Urban affairs, Government of Kerala. Retrieved 3 January 2011. 
  42. ^ "Rainfall Stations in India". Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology. Retrieved 18 June 2010. 
  43. ^ Seismic zoning map of India (Map). Geological Survey of India. Retrieved 1 July 2010. 
  44. ^ Kapoor, Subodh (2002). The Indian encyclopaedia. Genesis publishing. ISBN 978-8177-552-57-7. 
  45. ^ "Thiruvananthapuram Climate". Weatherbase. Retrieved 25 August 2006. 
  46. ^ a b "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures upto 2010". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2014. 
  47. ^ "Thiruvananthapuram Climatological Table Period: 1971-2000". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 25 October 2014. 
  48. ^ "Thiruvananthapuram Climate Normals 1971-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 25 October 2014. 
  49. ^ M., Athira (29 April 2016). "Come and play". The Hindu. Retrieved 21 February 2017. 
  50. ^ Chandran, M.R. Praveen (18 June 2016). "State gets a world-class academy". The Hindu. Retrieved 21 February 2017. 
  51. ^
  52. ^ "Railway Stations in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala". India rail info. Retrieved 12 October 2010. 
  53. ^ "Thiruvananthapuram Airport General Information". Airports Authority of India. Retrieved 5 December 2010. 
  54. ^ "Air Commands in India". Indian Air Force. Retrieved 29 August 2006. 
  55. ^ "Temples' riches". The Economist. February 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2016. 
  56. ^ "US-India Sister City Relationships". Asia Matters for America. Washington, DC: East-West Center. Retrieved 21 February 2017. 
  57. ^ "City needs special zone for diplomatic missions". The Hindu. 7 December 2016. 


External linksEdit