Salem, Tamil Nadu
Salem ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a city in Salem district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located about 160 kilometres (100 mi) northeast of Coimbatore, 186 kilometres (116 mi) southeast of Bangalore and about 340 kilometres (210 mi) southwest of the state capital, Chennai. Salem is the sixth largest city in Tamil Nadu by population and covers 161 km2 (62 sq mi)..
|Nickname(s): Steel City
|• Body||Salem City Municipal Corporation|
|• City||161 km2 (62 sq mi)|
|Elevation||287 m (942 ft)|
|• Density||9,079/km2 (23,510/sq mi)|
|• Spoken||Tamil, English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||TN-27, TN-30, TN-54, TN-90|
The town and the surrounding hilly regions were part of the Chera dynasty and was part of the trade route with the Roman empire. It was later governed by Poligars, who built temples and forts in and around the city. It was part of the Vijayanagara empire before being captured by Hyder Ali during the early 18th century, after the Mysore-Madurai war. It was ceded to the British in 1768 and the area became part of the struggle between Kongu Nadu led by Dheeran Chinnamalai and the British. Salem became part of Salem district since independence in 1947.
Geography and climateEdit
Salem is located at  at an average elevation of 278 m (912 ft). The city is surrounded by hills: Nagaramalai on the north, Jarugumalai on the south, Kanjamalai on the west, Godumalai on the east and the Shevaroy Hills on the northeast. Kariyaperumal Hill is in southwestern Salem.The Thirumanimutharu River flows through the city, dividing it in two. The fort area is the oldest part of Salem.,
Salem has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw). January and February are generally pleasant; the hot summer begins in March, with the year's highest temperatures during April. Pre-monsoon thunderstorms occur during April and May. The Southwest monsoon season lasts from June to September. The northeast monsoon occurs from October to December.
|Climate data for Salem, India|
|Average high °C (°F)||32.1
|Average low °C (°F)||19.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||4.4
|Source: Indian Meteorological Department|
Administration and politicsEdit
|Municipal corporation officials|
|Member of Legislative Assembly|
|Salem West||M. K. Selvaraju|
|Salem South||G. Venkatachalam|
|Member of Parliament|
Salem is the headquarters of Salem district. The town was constituted as a municipality in 1867, and was upgraded to a special-grade municipality in 1979 and to a municipal corporation on 1 April 1994. The Salem municipal corporation has 72 wards, each with an elected councillor. The functions of the municipal corporation are divided into six departments: general administration and personnel, engineering, revenue, public health, city planning and information technology (IT). All six departments are governed by a municipal commissioner. Legislative power is vested in the 60-member council, headed by an elected chairperson and assisted by a deputy chairperson.
Law and order is maintained by the Salem city subdivision of the Tamil Nadu Police, headed by a Deputy superintendent. Special units include prohibition enforcement, district crime, social justice and human rights, district crime records and a district-level special branch headed by a superintendent of police.
Salem is a part of the Salem North, Salem West and Salem South assembly constituencies delineated in 2008. The city elects the three members to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly once every five years. Present MLAs are R. Mohan Raj (Salem North) from Desiya Murpokku Dravidar Kazhagam, M. K. Selvaraju (Salem West) and G. Venkatachalam (Salem South) from All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam.
Until 2008, the city was part of the Salem I and Salem II assembly constituencies. Since 1977, the ADMK party won the Salem I assembly seat five times (1977, 1980, 1984, 2001 and 2006); Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam won twice (1989 and 1996), and the Indian National Congress (INC) won in 1991. Since 1977, the ADMK won the Salem II assembly seat three times (1980, 1984 and 1991) and the DMK also won three times (1989, 1996 and 2006); the Janata Party (JP) won in 1977 and Pattali Makkal Katchi (PMK) won in 2001.
The city is part of the Salem Lok Sabha constituency consisting of six assembly constituencies: Omalur, Salem North, Salem South, Salem West, Veerapandi and Edappadi. Since 1952, the Salem parliament seat was held by the Indian National Congress eight times (1952, 1957, 1962, 1984, 1989, 1991 and 2004), by the ADMK four times (1977, 1991, 2009 and 2014), by DMK three times (1967, 1971 and 1980), and once each by an independent (1998) and the Tamil Maanila Congress (1996). The current Member of Parliament from the constituency is V. Pannerselvam from the ADMK.
Salem is a major textile centre in Tamil Nadu, with more than 125 spinning mills, weaving units and garment units. Until the 1960s, it had less few spinning mills. Private handloom weaving began to increase in the region after the 1960s and during the 1980s, the textile industry expanded with major spinning mills and dying units established supporting the industry.
The area also houses a number of sago factories for the production starch. In Salem district, 34,000 hectares (130 sq mi) of land are devoted to cassava and 650 industrial units are engaged in tapioca processing. In 1981, the Salem Starch and Sago Manufacturers Service Industrial Co-operative Society (SAGOSERVE) was established to promote the sago industry and nearly 80 percent of the national demand for sago and starch is met by SAGOSERVE. In and around Salem cassava yields are 25–30 tons per hectare, one of the highest in the world; the national average is 19 tons per hectare, and the world average is 10 tons.
The Salem Steel Plant, a unit of the Steel Authority of India, produces cold-rolled stainless steel and a hot-rolled stainless-carbon steel alloy. The plant is being expanded and modernised, with plans for steel-melting and continuous-casting facilities. The Southern Iron and Steel Company (part of JSW Steel) have their first integrated steel plant in Salem for the production of TMT corrosion-resistant bars and alloy steels.  The Salem region is rich in mineral ores, with some of the largest magnesite and bauxite deposits in India. Public and private magnesite factories include Burn Standard and Company, Dalmia Magnesites and Tata Refractories.
The Leigh Bazaar is the region's largest market for agricultural products. The Tamil Nadu government and the Electronics Corporation of Tamil Nadu are planning a 160-acre (65 ha) IT park in the city. The Steel Authority of India is planning a 250-acre (100 ha) steel special economic zone in its Salem plant, and an electrical and electronics industrial estate is in the Suramangalam area of the city.
Salem had a population of 826,267 in the 2011 census. There were 987 females for every 1,000 males, significantly higher than the national average of 929. A total of 79,067 were under age six: 40,570 males and 38,497 females. The city's literacy rate was 76.37 percent, higher than the national average of 72.99 percent. Salem had 215,747 households and a total of 332,147 workers: 1,599 farmers, 3,040 agricultural labourers, 32,597 in household industries, 278,892 other workers, 16,019 part-time workers, 165 part-time farmers, 544 part-time agricultural workers, 1,937 part-time workers in household industries and 13,373 other part-time workers. As per the religious census of 2011, Salem had 89.79% Hindus, 7.48% Muslims, 2.36% Christians, 0.11% Jains, 0.02% Sikhs, 0.01% Buddhists, 0.2% following other religions and 0.02% following no religion or did not indicate any religious preference.
Salem has a number of Hindu temples. The Kottai Mariamman Temple, dedicated to the goddess Mariamman, has an annual five-day festival during the Tamizh month of Aadi (mid-July to mid-August). The temple's gopuram is made up of seven tiers. Sugavaneshwarar Temple is dedicated to Shiva, and according to mythology the sage Sugha Brahmarishi worshiped here. Arunagirinadhar sang a song about Muruga in the temple, which was built during the 13th century by Mamannan Sundara Pandiyan. Kottai Perumal Temple, Skandhashram., Kothandaramar Temple and Sithar Koil are also in Salem. Oothumali Murugan Temple, Pandurangan Hill Temple, Kumaragiri Hill Murugan Temple and Kariperumal Karadu Hill Temple are in the hills in Salem. The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) has built a temple in Karuppur, near the city. Sri Kaliamman Temple, Jagir reddipatty  is famous for Navaratri Kolu pooja and chariot festival during Pongal.
Jama Masjid, on the southern bank of the Thirumanimutharu River in the heart of the city, is Salem's oldest mosque. It was reportedly built by the Kingdom of Mysore ruler Tipu Sultan, who is said to have prayed here. The Masjid Inam granted to the mosque in 1862 was confirmed by the British with a special resolution in 1880. Christ Church is located on Fort Road and the church was consecrated in 1875. The other popular churches in and around the city includes Lechler Memorial Church, the oldest church in Salem, was built in 1856 by a German missionary in Fort Salem. Infant Jesus Church near Four Roads, the Calvary Assembly of God Church on the Bangalore highway in Mamangam and Reformed Baptist Church in the Yercaud foothills are other churches in the city.
Sri Ramalinga Sowdeswari Amman located in gugai, karukalpatty and pulikutistreet and line madu.
Shopping and recreationEdit
Salem's traditional shopping areas are in the Town area, with major retailers in Bazaar Street, Car Street, First Agraharam and Chinna Kadai Street. Shevapet and the Fort area are noted for hardware and furniture, and Leigh Bazaar in Shevapet is the main wholesale market. Reliance Shopping Mall, the city's largest shopping complex is situated near Five Roads. Kurumbapatti Zoological Park and Anna Park are government-run parks. Paravasa Ulagam and Dream Land are amusement parks in the city. Mookaneri(Kannankurichi) and Kumaragiri(Ammapet) Lakes within the city limits is a popular tourist place and bird watching destination.
Thattu vadai settu is a savory snack and popular street food, similar to chaat, which originated in Salem and is now also available in Chennai. The sandwich consists of two crunchy thattai discs with fillings such as crispy beetroot, carrot and other vegetables, with green and red chutney as toppings. Norukkal Mix is another snack is smashed murukku mixed with chutney, groundnut, coconut, sliced tomatoes and Gunpowder (Molagapodi). Egg Settu, Murukku Settu and Maanga Settu is the varaities available in thattu vadai settu.
Salem has six arterial roads: Omalur Road, Cherry Road, Saradha College Road, Junction Main Road, Gugai Main Road and Attur Road. Three National Highways originate in or pass through: NH 44 (Srinagar via Madurai and Tirunelveli Kanyakumari), NH 544 (Salem – Kochi via Erode and Coimbatore) and NH 79 (Salem – Ulundurpet).
Salem is the headquarters of the Salem division of TNSTC. The city has two major bus stations: the MGR Integrated Bus Terminus in Meyyanoor and the Town Bus Station (Old Bus Stand) in the town area. Intercity and interstate routes and private buses originate at the Central Bus Stand(New Bus Stand), and local buses originate at the Old Bus Stand. The Anna Flyover is the oldest in the city, and the Trumpet Interchange was built in the realignment of NH 544 to ease traffic towards Coimbatore.
Salem Junction is located in Suramangalam, 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) west of the city. In 2005, the Railway Board approved the creation of a Salem railway division from Palakkad and Tiruchirapalli divisions. It is the fourth-largest of the six Southern Railway zone divisions. Salem Railway Junction has been rated as the most clean station among the divisional headquarters railway stations and also the ninth cleanest railway station in the entire country, according to a survey report published in June 2017.
Salem Airport (IATA SXV, ICAO VOSM) is located on the Salem-Bangalore Highway (NH 7) in Kaamalapuram about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from the city. Airports Authority of India (AAI) opened the airport in 1993 for commercial operations. Kingfisher Airlines flew from Chennai but ended its service in October 2011 due to low occupancy. Trujet plans to start services to Chennai in March 2018 as a part of the Udaan scheme by Government of India. The chief minister of tamilnadu flagged off the first commercial Trujet flight from Salem to Chennai on March 25, 2018. The nearest major airports are Tiruchirappalli (152 km) and Coimbatore (159 km).
- "My Salem - My Pride". Government of India. 30 October 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- "Census Info 2011 Final population totals – Salem(05740)". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- "Primary Census Abstract - Urban Agglomeration" (XLS). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
- "About Corporation". salemcorporation.gov.in. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
- "Far East Kingdoms of South Asia: Cheras". The History Files. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- E. H. Warmington (2014). The Commerce between the Roman Empire and India. Cambridge University Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-1107-432-14-7.
- Asha Sridhar (30 January 2015). "Winding the clock back, anti-colonial wise". The Hindu. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- "Falling Rain Genomic s, Inc – Salem". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- Syed Muthahar Saqaf (18 January 2015). "People throng tourist spots on 'Kaanum Pongal'". The Hindu. Retrieved 5 February 2018.
- SS.P. Saravanan (26 October 2015). "River Thirumanimuthar cries for attention". The Hindu. Retrieved 5 February 2018.
- "ABOUT SALEM CITY". sonatech.in. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
- "DISTRICT GROUNDWATER BROCHURE SALEM DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU" (PDF). Central Ground Water Board. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
- "Ground Water Augmentation Of Kannankuruchi Lake, Salem, TamilNadu Using GIS" (PDF). International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS). Retrieved February 5, 2018.
- "Climatological Information for Salem". Indian Meteorological Department. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
- "Chairman of municipal corporation". Salem municipal corporation. 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Commissioner of municipal corporation". Salem municipal corporation. 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Vice chairman of municipal corporation". Salem municipal corporation. 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "MLA of Salem (North)". Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "MLA of Salem (West)". Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "MLA of Salem (East)". Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Members of Lok Sabha from Tamil Nadu". Government of Tamil Nadu. 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- "Salem Corporation to increase number of wards". The Hindu. 1 June 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2018.
- "About the municipal corporation". Salem municipal corporation. 2011. Archived from the original on 25 May 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Commissioner of Municipal Administration". Commissionerate of Municipal Administration. 2006. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Councillors of municipal corporation". Salem municipal corporation. 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Economic and political weekly, Volume 30". Sameeksha Trust. 1995: 2396.
- "Salem Police". Tamil Nadu Police. 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "New Constituencies, Post-Delimitation 2008" (PDF). Chief Electoral Officer, Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "List of Assembly Constituencies". Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu state government. 2010. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
- "Partywise Comparison Since 1977". Election Commission of India. 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Partywise Comparison Since 1977". Election Commission of India. 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "List of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 1957 to the Second Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 17. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 1962 to the Third Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 49. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 1967 to the Fourth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 67. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 1971 to the Fifth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 71. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 1977 to the Sixth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 80. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 1980 to the Seventh Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 79. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 1984 to the Eighth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 73. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 1989 to the Ninth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 81. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 1991 to the Tenth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 51. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 1996 to the Eleventh Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 86. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 1998 to the Twelfth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 85. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 1999 to the Thirteenth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 85. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 2004 to the Fourteenth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 94. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Salem IIHT". The Hindu. 18 December 2010.
- "Sagoserve". indcom. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- "Sagoserve profile". Sagoserve. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- "Salem Steel". SAIL. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- "JSW Companies:Salem Works". JSW. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- "JSW Steels Ltd :TIDCO". TIDCO. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- "Magnesite". Dept.Geology and mining, TN. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- "Tamilnadu Elcot Website". Elcot. Retrieved 26 September 2008.
- "Site for IT Park ideally situated". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 9 January 2006.
- "Site for IT Park ideally situated". processingregister.com. Retrieved 26 September 2008.
- "Electrical and electronics industries". Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- "Census Info 2011 Final population totals". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- "Population By Religious Community - Tamil Nadu" (XLS). Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- "SalemKottaiMariamman Aadi Festival" (in Tamil). Maalaimalar. 1 August 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- "Dinamalar Temple | News | Thuligal | Information | Temple news | Story | Purana Kathigal". Temple.dinamalar.com. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- "5 persons drowned in salem" (in Tamil). Vikatan. 27 January 2018. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- "Mosque Details in Corporation". Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- Saravanan, S P (6 December 2014). "Christ Church celebrates 140 years of service in Salem". The Hindu. Salem. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
- "New Year Celebration" (in Tamil). Dailyhunt. 1 January 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- "Reliance mall getting ready". The Hindu. 24 August 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- "The only two amusement spots". The Hindu. 11 August 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
- "Newly married youth drowns in amusement park pool". The Times of India. 7 June 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
- "Mookeneri Lake". The Hindu. 26 May 2016. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
- "Kumaragiri Lake". The Hindu. 26 May 2016. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
- "Mookeneri Birds". The Hindu. 19 May 2016. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
- Saravanan, S.P. "Salem's own evening Snack". The Hindu. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
- Sripathi, Apoorva. "Chaat with a local flavour". The Hindu. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
- "This is Salem special Thattuvadai set" (in Tamil). Dinakaran. 19 February 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- "17 Chennai Street Foods That'll Make Other City People Feel Bad That They Don't Have These". chennaimemes.in. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- "List of National Highway, National Highways of India, National Highways". Indiamapped.com. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- Cleanest, Salem. "Salem among top 10 cleanest railway stations". The Hindu. Retrieved 2017-06-21.
- "More flying schools land in Salem airport as commercial flights shut - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
- Ananth, M.K. "Efforts underway to revive Salem Airport". The Hindu. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
- "Chennai flight puts Salem on aviation map". The Indian Express. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
- "Genesis of GCE". Government College of Engineering, Salem. Retrieved 30 July 2015.