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All India Radio (AIR), officially known since 1956 as Ākāsha Vāṇī ("Voice from the Sky") is the national public radio broadcaster of India and is a division of Prasar Bharati. It was established in 1930.[2] It is the sister service of Prasar Bharati's Doordarshan, an Indian television broadcaster. Headquartered in the Akashvani Bhavan building in New Delhi, it houses the Drama Section, the FM Section, the National Service, and is also home to the Indian television station Doordarshan Kendra, (Delhi).

All India Radio
TypeGovernment Organisation
CountryIndia
AvailabilityNational
MottoBahujanahitaya Bahujanasukhaya / बहुजनहिताय बहुजनसुखाय [1]
HeadquartersSansad Marg, New Delhi - 110001, India
OwnerPrasar Bharati
Launch date
8 June 1936; 82 years ago (1936-06-08)
WebcastGIR.fm-Delhi, GIR.fm-Kolkata
Official website
All India Radio, News on AIR
Distant photo of building complex with tower
AIR headquarters in New Delhi

All India Radio is the largest radio network in the world, and one of the largest broadcasting organizations in the world in terms of the number of languages broadcast and the spectrum of socio-economic and cultural diversity it serves. AIR’s home service comprises 420 stations located across the country, reaching nearly 92% of the country’s area and 99.19% of the total population. AIR originates programming in 23 languages and 179 dialects.[3]

Contents

EtymologyEdit

Ākāśavāni (आकाशवाणी) is a Sanskrit word meaning 'celestial announcement' or 'voice from the sky/heaven'. In Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism, Akashvanis are often featured in stories as a medium of communication from heaven to mankind.

'Akashvani' was first used in the context of radio by M. V. Gopalaswami in 1936 after setting up India's first private radio station in his residence, "Vittal Vihar" (about two hundred yards from AIR’s current Mysore radio station).[4] Akashvani was later adopted as All India Radio's on-air name in 1957.

HistoryEdit

Broadcasting began in June 1923 during the British Raj with programs by the Bombay Presidency Radio Club and other radio clubs. According to an agreement on 23 July 1927, the private Indian Broadcasting Company Ltd (IBC) was authorized to operate two radio stations: the Bombay station which began on 23 July 1927, and the Calcutta station which followed on 26 August 1927. The company went into liquidation on 1 March 1930. The government took over the broadcasting facilities and began the Indian State Broadcasting Service (ISBS) on 1 April 1930 on an experimental basis for two years, and permanently in May 1932 it then went on to become All India Radio on 8 June 1936.[2]

On 1 October 1939, the External Service began with a broadcast in Pushtu. It was intended to counter radio propaganda from Germany directed at Afghanistan, Iran and Arab nations. 1939 also saw the opening of the Dhaka station of Eastern India, in what is now Bangladesh. This station catered and nurtured the pioneers of Bengali intellectuals. The foremost among them, Natyaguru Nurul Momen, became the trail-blazer of the talk-show in 1939. He wrote and directed the first modern radio-play for this station in 1942. When India became independent in 1947, the AIR network had only six stations (Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Lucknow, and Tiruchirappalli). The three radio stations at Lahore, Peshawar and Dhaka remained in what became Pakistan after the division. The total number of radio sets in India at that time was about 275,000. On 3 October 1957, the Vividh Bharati Service was launched, to compete with Radio Ceylon. Television broadcasting began in Delhi in 1959 as part of AIR, but was split off from the radio network as Doordarshan on 1 April 1976.[5] FM broadcasting began on 23 July 1977 in Chennai, and expanded during the 1990s.[6]

Deccan Radio (Nizam Radio 1932), the first radio station in Hyderabad State (now Hyderabad, India), went live on air on 3 February 1935. It was launched by Mir Osman Ali Khan the 7th Nizam of Hyderabad with a transmitting power of 200 Watts. On 1 April 1950, Deccan Radio was taken over by the Indian Government, and in 1956 it was merged with All India Radio (AIR). Since then, it has been known as AIR-Hyderabad (100 kW).[7]

Domestic servicesEdit

AIR has many services in a number of languages, each serving different regions across India.

Vividh BharatiEdit

Vividh Bharati is one of the best-known services of All India Radio. Its name roughly translates as "Diverse Indian". It is also known as the Commercial Broadcasting Service or CBS. Commercially, it is the most accessible AIR network and is popular in Mumbai and other large cities. Vividh Bharati offers a wide range of programs including news, film music, short plays, music and comedy. It operates on different medium wave-band frequencies in each city.

Some programs broadcast on Vividh Bharati are:

Other servicesEdit

  • Primary Channel[8]
  • National Channel[9]

Regional servicesEdit

The headquarters of the Regional Deputy Directors General are located in Delhi and Chandigarh (NR), Lucknow and Bhopal (CR), Guwahati (NER), Kolkata (ER), Mumbai and Ahmedabad (WR), Chennai and Bangalore (SR).[10] All frequencies are in kHz, unless otherwise noted.

Northern regional service
City Frequency City Frequency City Frequency
Agra 1530 Ajmer 603 Allahabad 1026
Almora 999 Barmer 1458 Bikaner 1395
Chairhara (Budgam) 1485 Srinagar 819 Srinagar 666
Delhi C (Vividh Bharti) 1368 Delhi D (Yuv-vani) 1017 Delhi (National Channel) 1215
Diskit 1602 Faizabad 1485 Gorakhpur 909
Jaipur A 1476 Jalandhar A 837 Jalandhar B 702
Jammu A 990 Jodhpur A 531 Kalpa (Kinnaur) 1584
Kargil A 684 Kargil B 1584 Khalsi 1485
Kota 1413 Kupwara 1350 Leh 1053
Lucknow A 747 Lucknow C 1278 Mathura 1584
Najibabad 954 Naushera 1089 Nyoma 1485
Padam 1589 Pauri 1602 Pithoragarh 1602
Rampur 895 Rohtak 1143 Shimla 774
Budgam 1116 Budgam A 1224 Srinagar C 918
Tiesuru 1602 Udaipur 1125 Uttarkashi 1602
Varanasi A 1242 Sawai Madhopur 101.5 Raebareli 102.8
Northeast regional service
City Frequency City Frequency
Agartala 1269 Guwahati A 729
Shillong 864 Imphal 822
Eastern regional service
City Frequency City Frequency
Bhagalpur 1458, 1206 Chinsurah (Kolkata A, 1 MW) 594 & 1134 (Akashvani Maitree)
Cuttack A 972 Darbhanga 1296
Jamshedpur 1544 Kolkata A 657
Kolkata B 1008 Kolkata C (Vividh Bharati) 1323
Patna A 621 Ranchi A 549
Muzaffarpur A 100.1 MHz Muzaffarpur B 106.4 MHz
Kolkata (FM Rainbow) 107 Kolkata (FM Gold) 100.2
Kurseong 1440 kHz Siliguri 711 kHz
Western regional service
City Frequency City Frequency
Ahmedabad A 846 Aurangabad 1521
Bhopal A 1593 Chhindwara 102.2 MHz
Chhatarpur 675 Gwalior 1386
Indore A 648 Jalgaon 963
Mumbai A 1044 Mumbai B (Asmita Marathi) 558
Mumbai C (Vividh Bharati) 1188 Nagpur A 585
Nagpur B (National Channel, 1 MW) 1566 Panaji A 1287
Panaji B (Vividh Bharati) 828 Pune A 792
Rajkot A 810 Ratnagiri 1143
Solapur 1602 Sangli 1251
Parbhani A 102.0
Mysore 100.06

External servicesEdit

The external services of All India Radio are broadcast in 27 languages to countries outside India via high-power shortwave band broadcasts. Medium wave is also used to reach neighbouring countries. In addition to broadcasts targeted at specific countries by language, there is a General Overseas Service broadcasting in English with 8¼ hours of programming each day aimed at a general international audience. The external broadcasts were begun on 1 October 1939 by the British government to counter the propaganda of the Nazis directed at the Afghan people. The first broadcasts were in Pushto, beamed to Afghanistan and the North-West Frontier Province. Broadcasts soon began in other languages including: Dari, Persian, Arabic, English, Burmese, Japanese, Chinese, Malay and French. The external services broadcast in 16 foreign and 11 Indian languages, with a total program output of 70¼ hours per day on medium and shortwave frequencies.

External service transmitter sites
Location Number of transmitters kW Frequency DRM !
Aligarh (HPT) 4 250
Bengaluru (SPT) 6 500 100 kW
Chennai (Madras) 1 100 720 kHz MW
Gorakhpur 1 50
Guwahati 1 50
Jalandhar (Goraya) 1 300 702 kHz MW
Khampur-Delhi (HPT) 7 250
Khampur-Delhi (SPT) 2 500
Kingsway-Delhi 3 50
Kingsway-Delhi 2 100
Kolkata-Chinsurah/Mogra (SPT) 1 1000 1134 kHz and 594 kHz(Kolkata - A) 1142 KHZMW
Mumbai (Malad) 1 100
Nagpur (SPT) 1 1000 1566 kHz MW
Panaji (HPT) 2 250
Rajkot (SPT) 1 1000 1071 kHz AIR URDU 1080 kHz(2 MegaWatt)Vividha Bharti
Tuticorin 1 200 1053  kHz MW

Two high powered FM stations of All India Radio are being installed in Amritsar and Fazilka in the Punjab to supplement the programs broadcast from transmitters operating from Jalandhar, New Delhi, Chandigarh and Mumbai and to improve the broadcast services during unfavourable weather conditions in the border regions of Punjab.

Today, the External Services Division of All India Radio broadcasts daily with 57 transmissions with almost 72 hours or programming covering over 108 countries in 27 languages, of which 15 are foreign and 12 Indian. The foreign languages are: Arabic, Baluchi, Burmese, Chinese, Dari, French, Indonesian, Persian, Pushtu, Russian, Sinhala, Swahili, Thai, Tibetan and English (General Overseas Service). The Indian languages are Bengali, Gujarati, Marathi, Konkani, Kashmiri, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Nepali, Punjabi, Saraiki, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu.

The longest daily broadcast is the Urdu Service to Pakistan, around the clock on DTH (direct-broadcast satellite) and on short- and medium wave for 12¼ hrs. The English-language General Overseas Service is broadcast 8¼ hours daily. During Hajj, there are special broadcasts beamed to Saudi Arabia in Urdu. AIR is planning to produce programmes in the Baluchi language.[11]

The external services of AIR are also broadcast to Europe in DRM (Digital Radio Mondiale) on 9950 kHz between 1745–2230 UTC. These external transmissions are broadcast by high-power transmitters located at Aligarh, Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Gorakhpur, Guwahati, Mumbai and Panaji on shortwave and from Jalandhar, Kolkata, Nagpur, Rajkot and Tuticorin on medium wave. Soon All India Radio Amritsar will also start a booster service on the FM band. Some of these transmitters are 1000 kW (1 MW) or 500 kW. Programs are beamed to different parts of the world except for the Americas and the reception quality is very good in the target areas. In each language service, the program consists of news, commentary, a press review, talks on matters of general or cultural interest, feature programmes, documentaries and music from India and the target region. Most programs originate at New Broadcasting House on Parliament Street in New Delhi, with a few originating at SPT Bengaluru, Chennai, Hyderabad, Jalandhar, Kolkata, HPT Malad Mumbai, Thiruvananthapuram and Tuticorin.

The External Services Division of AIR is a link between India and rest of the world, especially in countries with Indian emigrants and people of Indian origin. It broadcasts the Indian point of view on matters of national and international importance, and demonstrates the Indian way of life through its programs. QSL cards (which are sought-after by international radio hobbyists) are issued to radio hobbyists by AIR in New Delhi for reception reports of their broadcasts.

Direct-To-HomeEdit

Direct-to-home (DTH) service is a satellite television service in which a large number of television channels are digitally compressed, encrypted, up-linked, and beamed down over a territory from a high-power satellite. The DTH signals can be received directly at homes using a small-sized dish receiver unit containing a dish antenna installed on a building’s rooftop or on a wall facing clear south and one indoors.[12] DTH service is offered on twenty one channels via Insat.

List of DTH channelsEdit

Other servicesEdit

Digital Radio MondialeEdit

Details of the Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) transmissions and frequencies are as follows:

  • 0130 - 0230 UTC on 11715 kHz Nepali (Nepal)
  • 0315-0415 UTC on 15185 kHz Hindi, (E.Africa, Mauritius)
  • 0415-0430 UTC on 15185 kHz Gujarati, (E.Africa, Mauritius)
  • 0430-0530 UTC on 15185 kHz Hindi(E.Africa, Mauritius)
  • 1300 - 1500 UTC on 15050 kHz Sinhala (Sri Lanka)
  • 1615-1715 UTC on 15140 kHz Russian (E. Europe)
  • 2245-0045 UTC on 11645 GOS-I English (NE Asia)

Above transmissions are in addition to following existing DRM txn's:

  • 0900-1200 on 6100 Vividh Bharati, DRM NVIS
  • 1745-1945 UTC on 9950 English (W. Europe)
  • 1945-2045 UTC on 9950 Hindi (W. Europe)
  • 2045-2230 UTC on 9950 English (W. Europe)

News-on-phoneEdit

All India Radio launched news-on-phone service on 25 February 1998 in New Delhi; it now has service in Chennai, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Indore, Patna and Bangalore. The service is accessible through Subscriber trunk dialing (STD), International Direct Dialing (ISD) and local calls. There are plans to establish the service in 11 additional cities including: Ahmedabad, Bhopal, Guwahati, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Jaipur, Kolkata, Lucknow, Ranchi, Shimla and Thiruvananthapuram. English and Hindi hourly news bulletins may be heard live.[13] News in MP3 format may be directly played from the site, and filenames are time-stamped. AIR news bulletins are available in nine regional languages: Tamil, Kannada, Gujarati, Bengali, Marathi, North East, Punjabi, Telugu and Urdu.

DocumentariesEdit

There is a long tradition of broadcasting documentary features on AIR. There is great interest in radio documentaries, particularly in countries like India, Iran, South Korea and Malaysia. The most prominent broadcaster of English Features was Melville de Mellow, and of Hindi Features, Shiv Sagar Mishra. This format has been revived by AIR producers across India because of its flexibility, its relative low cost to produce, its messaging potential and its creative potential.

Central Drama UnitEdit

AIR's Central Drama Unit (CDU) is responsible for the national broadcast of plays. Plays produced by the CDU are translated and produced by regional stations. Since its inception in the 1960s, the unit has produced more than 1,500 plays, and the CDU houses a repository of old scripts and productions. The National Programme of Plays is broadcast by the CDU on the fourth Thursday of each month at 9.30 pm. Each play included in the National Programme of Plays is produced in 22 Indian languages and broadcast at the same time by all regional and national network stations. The CDU also produces Chain Plays, half-hour dramas broadcast in succession by a chain of stations.

Social Media CellEdit

The News Service Division's Social Media Cell was established on 20 May 2013 and is responsible for providing AIR news on new media platforms such as websites, Twitter, Facebook, and SMS.

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Mission Of AIR".
  2. ^ a b "Milestones of AIR (official website)". All India Radio. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
  3. ^ "Default". allindiaradio.gov.in. Retrieved 2018-06-26.
  4. ^ "Mysore Akashavani is now 75 years old". Business Standard.
  5. ^ "AIR Manual, Chapter 1: History of All India Radio" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 September 2010.
  6. ^ "Milestones of AIR". All India Radio. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010.
  7. ^ "The Long and Interesting Story of All India Radio, Hyderabad–Part 2". Wavescan-NWS78. 15 August 2010.
  8. ^ "Primary Channel Services". allindiaradio.gov.in. Retrieved 2018-07-30.
  9. ^ "National Channel". Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  10. ^ "All India Radio". Know India. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  11. ^ IANS (31 August 2016). "All India Radio to revamp Baluchi language programme" – via Business Standard.
  12. ^ "DD Free Dish (DTH)". ddindia.gov.in. Retrieved 2016-07-21.
  13. ^ "Prasar Bharati". Retrieved 17 October 2011.

External linksEdit