Pashto (//,//;[Note 1] پښتو / Pəx̌tó, [pəʂˈt̪o, pʊxˈt̪o, pəʃˈt̪o, pəçˈt̪o]), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto,[Note 2] is an Eastern Iranian language of the Indo-European family. It is known in Persian literature as Afghani (افغانی, Afghāni).
|Pronunciation||[pəʂˈt̪o], [pʊxˈt̪o], [pəçˈt̪o], [pəʃˈt̪o]|
|Native to||Afghanistan, Pakistan|
|Perso-Arabic script (Pashto alphabet)|
Official language in
Areas in Afghanistan and Pakistan where Pashto is:
the predominant language
spoken alongside other languages
The language is natively spoken by Pashtuns (also called Pukhtuns/Pakhtuns; historically known as ethnic Afghans), an ethnic group of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Pashto comprises, along with Dari (alternatively known as 'Afghan Persian'), the two languages of Afghanistan with official status. Pashto is also the second-largest regional language in Pakistan, mainly spoken in the northwestern province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the northern districts of the Balochistan province. Likewise, it is the primary language of the Pashtun diaspora around the world; the total number of Pashto-speakers is thought to be at least 40 million, although some estimates place it as high as 80 million. Pashto is "one of the primary markers of ethnic identity" amongst Pashtuns.
As a national language of Afghanistan, Pashto is primarily spoken in the east, south, and southwest, but also in some northern and western parts of the country. The exact number of speakers is unavailable, but different estimates show that Pashto is the mother tongue of 45–60% of the total population of Afghanistan.
In Pakistan, Pashto is spoken by 15% of its population, mainly in the northwestern province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and northern districts of Balochistan province. Pashto-speakers are found in other major cities of Pakistan, most notably in Karachi, Sindh.
Other communities of Pashto speakers are found in India, Tajikistan, and northeastern Iran (primarily in South Khorasan Province to the east of Qaen, near the Afghan border). In India most ethnic Pashtun (Pathan) peoples speak the geographically native Hindi-Urdu language instead of Pashto. However small numbers of Pashto speakers exist in India, namely the Sheen Khalai in Rajasthan, and the Pathan community in the city of Kolkata, often nicknamed the Kabuliwala ("people of Kabul").
In addition, sizable Pashtun diaspora also exist in Western Asia, especially in the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. The Pashtun diaspora speaks Pashto in countries like the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Qatar, Australia, Japan, Russia, New Zealand, etc.
Pashto is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan, along with Dari Persian. Since the early 18th century, the monarchs of Afghanistan have been ethnic Pashtuns (except for Habibullāh Kalakāni in 1929). Persian, the literary language of the royal court, was more widely used in government institutions while the Pashtun tribes spoke Pashto as their native tongue. King Amanullah Khan began promoting Pashto during his reign (1926-1929) as a marker of ethnic identity and as a symbol of "official nationalism" leading Afghanistan to independence after the defeat of the British Empire in the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919. In the 1930s a movement began to take hold to promote Pashto as a language of government, administration, and art with the establishment of a Pashto Society Pashto Anjuman in 1931 and the inauguration of the Kabul University in 1932 as well as the formation of the Pashto Academy (Pashto Tolana) in 1937.
Although officially supporting the use of Pashto, the Afghan elite regarded Persian as a "sophisticated language and a symbol of cultured upbringing". King Zahir Shah (reigned 1933-1973) thus followed suit after his father Nadir Khan had decreed in 1933 that officials were to study and utilize both Persian and Pashto. In 1936 a royal decree of Zahir Shah formally granted to Pashto the status of an official language with full rights to usage in all aspects of government and education - despite the fact that the ethnically Pashtun royal family and bureaucrats mostly spoke Persian. Thus Pashto became a national language, a symbol for Pashtun nationalism.
The constitutional assembly reaffirmed the status of Pashto as an official language in 1964 when Afghan Persian was officially renamed to Dari. The lyrics of the national anthem of Afghanistan are in Pashto.
In Pakistan, Pashto is the first language of 15% of its population (as of 1998), mainly in the northwestern province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and northern districts of Balochistan province. It is also spoken in parts of Mianwali and Attock districts of the Punjab province, areas of Gilgit-Baltistan and in Islamabad, as well as by Pashtuns who live in different cities throughout the country. Modern Pashto-speaking communities are found in the cities of Karachi and Hyderabad in Sindh.
Urdu and English are the two official languages of Pakistan. Pashto has no official status at the federal level. On a provincial level, Pashto is the regional language of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and north Balochistan. The primary medium of education in government schools in Pakistan is Urdu.
The lack of importance given to Pashto and neglect has caused growing resentment amongst Pashtuns, who also complain that Pashto is often neglected officially . It is noted that Pashto is not taught well in schools in Pakistan. Moreover, in government schools material is not provided for in the Pashto dialect of that locality. Students are unable to fully comprehend educational material in Urdu.
"The government of Pakistan, faced with irredentist claims from Afghanistan on its territory, also discouraged the Pashto Movement and eventually allowed its use in peripheral domains only after the Pakhtun elite had been co-opted by the ruling elite...Thus, even though there is still an active desire among some Pakhtun activists to use Pashto in the domains of power, it is more of a symbol of Pakhtun identity than one of nationalism."— Tariq Rahman, The Pashto language and identity‐formation in Pakistan
Robert Nicols states:
"In the end, national language policy, especially in the field of education in the NWFP, had constructed a type of three tiered language hierarchy. Pashto lagged far behind Urdu and English in prestige or development in almost every domain of political or economic power..."— Language Policy and Language Conflict in Afghanistan and Its Neighbors, Pashto Language Policy and Practice in the North West Frontier Province
Some linguists have argued that Pashto is descended from Avestan or a variety very similar to it. However, the position that Pashto is a direct descendant of Avestan is not agreed upon. What scholars agree on is the fact that Pashto is an Eastern Iranian language sharing characteristics with Eastern Middle Iranian languages such as Bactrian, Khwarezmian and Sogdian.
Strabo, who lived between 64 BC and 24 CE, explains that the tribes inhabiting the lands west of the Indus River were part of Ariana. This was around the time when the area inhabited by the Pashtuns was governed by the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. From the 3rd century CE onward, they are mostly referred to by the name Afghan (Abgan).
Abdul Hai Habibi believe that the earliest modern Pashto work dates back to Amir Kror Suri of the early Ghurid period in the 8th century, and they use the writings found in Pata Khazana. Pə́ṭa Xazāná (پټه خزانه) is a Pashto manuscript claimed to be written by Mohammad Hotak under the patronage of the Pashtun emperor Hussain Hotak in Kandahar; containing an anthology of Pashto poets. However, its authenticity is disputed by scholars such as David Neil MacKenzie and Lucia Serena Loi. Nile Green comments in this regard:
"In 1944, Habibi claimed to have discovered an eighteenth-century manuscript anthology containing much older biographies and verses of Pashto poets that stretched back as far as the eighth century. It was an extraordinary claim, implying as it did that the history of Pashto literature reached back further in time than Persian, thus supplanting the hold of Persian over the medieval Afghan past. Although it was later convincingly discredited through formal linguistic analysis, Habibi’s publication of the text under the title Pata Khazana (‘Hidden Treasure’) would (in Afghanistan at least) establish his reputation as a promoter of the wealth and antiquity of Afghanistan’s Pashto culture."— Afghan History Through Afghan Eyes
From the 16th century, Pashto poetry become very popular among the Pashtuns. Some of those who wrote in Pashto are Bayazid Pir Roshan (a major inventor of the Pashto alphabet), Khushal Khan Khattak, Rahman Baba, Nazo Tokhi, and Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the modern state of Afghanistan or the Durrani Empire.
Pashto is a subject–object–verb (SOV) language with split ergativity. Adjectives come before nouns. Nouns and adjectives are inflected for two genders (masc./fem.), two numbers (sing./plur.), and four cases (direct, oblique, ablative and vocative). There is also an inflection for the subjunctive mood. The verb system is very intricate with the following tenses: present, simple past, past progressive, present perfect, and past perfect. The possessor precedes the possessed in the genitive construction. The verb generally agrees with the subject in both transitive and intransitive sentences. An exception occurs when a completed action is reported in any of the past tenses (simple past, past progressive, present perfect, or past perfect). In such cases, the verb agrees with the subject if it is intransitive, but if it is transitive, it agrees with the object, therefore Pashto shows a partly ergative behaviour. Unlike most other Indo-Iranian languages, Pashto uses all three types of adpositions – prepositions, postpositions, and circumpositions.
- Phonemes that have been borrowed, thus non-native to Pashto, are color coded. The phonemes /q/ and /f/ tend to be replaced by [k] and [p] respectively.[Note 3]
- /ɽ/ is voiced back-alveolar retroflex flap. MacKenzie states: "In distinction, from the alveolar trill r and from the dental (or alveolar) lateral l, it is basically a retroflexed lateral flap."
- The retroflex fricatives /ʂ, ʐ/ and palatal fricatives /ç, ʝ/ represent dialectally different pronunciations of the same sound, not separate phonemes. In particular, the retroflex fricatives, which represent the original pronunciation of these sounds, are preserved in the South Western dialects (especially the prestige dialect of Kandahar), while they are pronounced as palatal fricatives in the North Western dialects. Other dialects merge the retroflexes with other existing sounds: The South Eastern dialects merge them with the postalveolar fricatives /ʃ, ʒ/, while the North Eastern dialects merge them with the velar phonemes in an asymmetric pattern, pronouncing them as [x, ɡ]. Furthermore, according to Henderson (1983), the voiced palatal fricative /ʝ/ actually occurs generally in the Wardak Province, and is merged into /ɡ/ elsewhere in the North Western dialects. It is also pronounced as sometimes /ʝ/ in Bati Kot according to the findings of D.W Coyle.
- The velars /k, ɡ, x, ɣ/ followed by the close back rounded vowel /u/ assimilate into the labialized velars [kʷ, ɡʷ, xʷ, ɣʷ].
- Voiceless stops [p, t, t͡ʃ, k] are all unaspirated, like Romance languages, and Austronesian languages; they have slightly aspirated allophones prevocalically in a stressed syllable.
In Pashto, most of the native elements of the lexicon are related to other Eastern Iranian languages. As noted by Josef Elfenbein, "Loanwords have been traced in Pashto as far back as the third century B.C., and include words from Greek and probably Old Persian". For instance, Georg Morgenstierne notes the Pashto word مېچن mečә́n i.e. a hand-mill as being derived from the Ancient Greek word μηχανή [mēkhanḗ] i.e. a device. Post-7th century borrowings came primarily from Persian language and Hindi-Urdu, with Arabic words being borrowed through Persian, but sometimes directly. Modern speech borrows words from English, French, and German.
|Pashto||Persian Loan||Arabic Loan||Meaning|
|د ... په اړه
There a lot of old vocabulary that have been replaced by borrowings e.g. پلاز [throne] with تخت [from Persian]. Or the word يګانګي [yagānagí] meaning "uniqueness" used by Pir Roshan Bayazid. Such classical vocabulary is being reintroduced to modern Pashto. Some words also survive in dialects like ناوې پلاز [the bride-room].
Example from Khayr-al-Bayān:
... بې يګانګئ بې قرارئ وي او په بدخوئ کښې وي په ګناهان
Transliteration: ... be-yagānagə́i, be-kararə́i wi aw pə badxwə́i kx̌e wi pə gunāhā́n
Translation: " ... without singularity/uniqueness, without calmness and by bad-attitude are on sin ."
Pashto employs the Pashto alphabet, a modified form of the Perso-Arabic alphabet or Arabic script. In the 16th century, Bayazid Pir Roshan introduced 13 new letters to the Pashto alphabet. The alphabet was further modified over the years.
The Pashto alphabet consists of 45 to 46 letters and 4 diacritic marks. In Latin transliteration, stress is represented by the following markers over vowels: ә́, á, ā́, ú, ó, í and é. The following table (read from left to right) gives the letters' isolated forms, along with possible Latin equivalents and typical IPA values:
ǵ (or ẓ̌)
/ʐ, ʝ, ɡ, ʒ/
x̌ (or ṣ̌)
/ʂ, ç, x, ʃ/
̃ , ń
w, u, o
/w, u, o/
Pashto dialects are divided into two varieties, the "soft" southern variety Paṣ̌tō, and the "hard" northern variety Pax̌tō (Pakhtu). Each variety is further divided into a number of dialects. The southern dialect of Wanetsi is the most distinctive Pashto dialect.
- Durrani or Kandahar dialect (or South Western dialect)
- Kakar dialect (or South Eastern dialect)
- Shirani dialect
- Mandokhel dialect
- Marwat-Bettani dialect
- Southern Karlani group [aka. Central Dialects: Wazirwola and Banunchi]
- Central Ghilji dialect (or North Western dialect)
- Wardak dialect
- Yusufzai or Yusapzai dialect (or North Eastern dialect)
- Northern Karlani group
3. Waṇetsi Dialect
Standard Pashto or Literary Pashto is the standardized variety of Pashto which serves as a literary register of Pashto , and is based on the North Western dialect, spoken in the central Ghilji region, including the Afghan capital Kabul and some surrounding region. Literary Pashto's vocabulary, however, also derives from Southern Pashto. This dialect of Pashto has been chosen as standard because it is generally understandable. Standard Pashto is the literary variety of Pashto used in Afghan media.
Literary Pashto has been developed by Radio Television Afghanistan and Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan in Kabul. It has adopted neologisms to coin new terms from already existing words or phrases and introduce them into the Pashto lexicon. Educated Standard Pashto is learned in the curriculum that is taught in the primary schools in the country. It is used for written and formal spoken purposes, and in the domains of media and government.
There is no actual Pashto that can be identified as "Standard" Pashto, as Colye remarks:
"Standard Pashto is actually fairly complex with multiple varieties or forms. Native speakers or researchers often refer to Standard Pashto without specifying which variety of Standard Pashto they mean...people sometimes refer to Standard Pashto when they mean the most respected or favorite Pashto variety among a majority of Pashtun speakers."— Placing Wardak among Pashto Varities, page 4
As David MacKenzie notes there is no real need to develop a "Standard" Pashto:
"The morphological differences between the most extreme north-eastern and south-western dialects are comparatively few and unimportant. The criteria of dialect differentiation in Pashto are primarily phonological. With the use of an alphabet which disguises these phonological differences the language has, therefore, been a literary vehicle, widely understood, for at least four centuries. This literary language has long been referred to in the West as 'common' or 'standard' Pashto without, seemingly, any real attempt to define it."— A Standard Pashto, page 231
Pashto-speakers have long had a tradition of oral literature, including proverbs, stories, and poems. Written Pashto literature saw a rise in development in the 17th century mostly due to poets like Khushal Khan Khattak (1613–1689), who, along with Rahman Baba (1650–1715), is widely regarded as among the greatest Pashto poets. From the time of Ahmad Shah Durrani (1722–1772), Pashto has been the language of the court. The first Pashto teaching text was written during the period of Ahmad Shah Durrani by Pir Mohammad Kakar with the title of Maʿrifat al-Afghānī ("The Knowledge of Afghani [Pashto]"). After that, the first grammar book of Pashto verbs was written in 1805 under the title of Riyāż al-Maḥabbah ("Training in Affection") through the patronage of Nawab Mahabat Khan, son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan, chief of the Barech. Nawabullah Yar Khan, another son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan, in 1808 wrote a book of Pashto words entitled ʿAjāyib al-Lughāt ("Wonders of Languages").
An excerpt from the Kalām of Rahman Baba:
زۀ رحمان پۀ خپله ګرم يم چې مين يم
چې دا نور ټوپن مې بولي ګرم په څۀ
IPA: [zə raˈmɑn pə ˈxpəl.a gram jəm t͡ʃe maˈjan jəm]
[t͡ʃe d̪ɑ nor ʈoˈpən me boˈli gram pə t͡sə]
Transliteration: Zə Rahmā́n pə xpə́la gram yəm če mayán yəm
Če dā nor ṭopə́n me bolí gram pə tsə
Translation: "I Rahman, myself am guilty that I am a lover,
On what does this other universe call me guilty."
اوبه په ډانګ نه بېلېږي
Transliteration: Obә́ pə ḍāng nə beléẓ̌i
Translation: "One cannot divide water by [hitting it with] a pole."
|Hello||ستړی مه شې
ستړې مه شې
|stә́ṛay mә́ še
stә́ṛe mә́ še
|May you not be tired|
|ستړي مه شئ||stә́ṛi mә́ šəi||May you not be tired [said to people]|
|په خير راغلې||pə xair rā́ğle||With goodness (you) came|
|Thank you||مننه||manә́na||Acceptance [from the verb منل]|
|Goodbye||په مخه دې ښه||pə mә́kha de x̌á||On your front be good|
|خدای پامان||xwdā́i pāmā́n||From: خدای په امان [With/On God's security]|
List of colors:
سور/ سره sur/sra [red]
šin / šna [green]
کینخي kinaxí [purple]
تور/ توره tor/tóra [black]
šin / šna [blue]
سپین spin/spína [white]
نسواري naswārí [brown]
ژېړ/ ژېړه žeṛ/žéṛa [yellow]
چوڼيا čuṇyā́ [violet]
خړ / خړه xәṛ/xə́ṛa [grey]
List of colors borrowed from neighbouring languages:
- نارنجي nārәnjí - orange [from Persian]
- ګلابي gulābí - pink [from Hindustani, originally Persian]
- نيلي nilí - indigo [from Persian, ultimately Sanskrit]]
Times of the dayEdit
Names of the MonthEdit
|8||Kartika||کاتۍ / کاتک
kātә́i / kāták
- The only American pronunciation listed by Oxford Online Dictionaries is //.
- Sometimes spelled "Pushtu" or "Pushto", and then either pronounced the same or differently. The spelling "Pakhto" is so rare that it is not even mentioned by any major English dictionaries nor recognized by major English–Pashto dictionaries such as [thepashto.com], and it is specifically listed by Ethnologue only as an alternative name for Northern Pashto, and not Southern or Central Pashto.
- So for instance, the Arabic word فرق would be pronounced as /par(ə)k/.
- Constitution of Afghanistan – Chapter 1 The State, Article 16 (Languages) and Article 20 (Anthem)
- Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Elsevier. 6 April 2010. pp. 845–. ISBN 978-0-08-087775-4.
- "Pashto (less commonly Pushtu)". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- "Pashto (also Pushtu)". American Heritage Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- "Pashto (also Pushtu)". Oxford Online Dictionaries, UK English. Oxford University Press.
- "Pashto (also Pushto or Pushtu)". Oxford Online Dictionaries, US English. Oxford University Press.
- "Pashto (also Pushtu)". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins Publishers. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- John Leyden, Esq. M.D.; William Erskine, Esq., eds. (1921). "Events Of The Year 910 (1525)". Memoirs of Babur. Packard Humanities Institute. p. 5. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
To the south is Afghanistān. There are ten or eleven different languages spoken in Kābul: Arabic, Persian, Tūrki, Moghuli, Afghani, Pashāi, Parāchi, Geberi, Bereki, Dari and Lamghāni.
- Claus, Peter J.; Diamond, Sarah; Ann Mills, Margaret (2003). South Asian Folklore: An Encyclopedia : Afghanistan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka. Taylor & Francis. p. 447. ISBN 9780415939195.
- Henderson, Michael. "The Phonology of Pashto" (PDF). Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
- Henderson, Michael (1983). "Four Varieties of Pashto". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 103 (3): 595–8. doi:10.2307/602038. JSTOR 602038.
- Darmesteter, James (1890). Chants populaires des Afghans. Paris.
- "Pakistan - The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
- "Article Sixteen of the 2004 Constitution of Afghanistan". 2004. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
From among the languages of Pashto, Dari, Uzbeki, Turkmani, Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani, Pamiri (alsana), Arab and other languages spoken in the country, Pashto and Dari are the official languages of the state.
- Banting, Erinn (2003). Afghanistan: The land. Crabtree Publishing Company. p. 4. ISBN 0-7787-9335-4. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
- Population by Mother Tongue, Population Census – Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan
- Pashto (2005). Keith Brown (ed.). Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2 ed.). Elsevier. ISBN 0-08-044299-4. (60 million)
- Penzl, Herbert; Ismail Sloan (2009). A Grammar of Pashto a Descriptive Study of the Dialect of Kandahar, Afghanistan. Ishi Press International. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-923891-72-5.
Estimates of the number of Pashto speakers range from 60 million to 80 million...
- Hakala, Walter (9 December 2011). Language Policy and Language Conflict in Afghanistan and Its Neighbors: The Changing Politics of Language Choice. Brill. p. 55. ISBN 978-90-04-21765-2.
As is well known, the Pashtun people place a great deal of pride upon their language as an identifier of their distinct ethnic and historical identity. While it is clear that not all those who self-identify as ethnically Pashtun themselves use Pashto as their primary language, language does seem to be one of the primary markers of ethnic identity in contemporary Afghanistan.
- "Pashto language". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
- "Languages: Afghanistan". Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. Retrieved 27 October 2020. (48% L1 + L2)
- Brown, Keith; Sarah Ogilvie (2009). Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world. Elsevie. p. 845. ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
Pashto, which is mainly spoken south of the mountain range of the Hindu Kush, is reportedly the mother tongue of 60% of the Afghan population.
- "Pashto". UCLA International Institute: Center for World Languages. University of California, Los Angeles. Archived from the original on 3 January 2009. Retrieved 10 December 2010. (50%)
- Kieffer, Ch. M. (1982). "AFGHANISTAN v. Languages". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
"Paṧtō (1) is the native tongue of 50 to 55 percent of Afghans".
- "Government of Pakistan: Population by Mother Tongue" (PDF). statpak.gov.pk. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 February 2006. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy (17 July 2009). "Karachi's Invisible Enemy". PBS. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
- "Pashto, Southern". SIL International. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 14th edition. 2000. Archived from the original on 26 June 2008. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
- "Languages of Iran". SIL International. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
- "Languages of United Arab Emirates". SIL International. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
- "Languages of United Kingdom". SIL International. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
- Modarresi, Yahya: "Iran, Afghanistan and Tadjikistan, 1911–1916." In: Sociolinguistics, Vol. 3, Part. 3. Ulrich Ammon, Norbert Dittmar, Klaus J. Mattheier, Peter Trudgill (eds.). Berlin, De Gryuter: 2006. p. 1915. ISBN 3-11-018418-4 
- Tariq Rahman. "Pashto Language & Identity Formation in Pakistan." Contemporary South Asia, July 1995, Vol 4, Issue 2, p151-20.
- Lorenz, Manfred. "Die Herausbildung moderner iranischer Literatursprachen." In: Zeitschrift für Phonetik, Sprachwissenschaft und Kommunikationsforschung, Vol. 36. Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR. Akademie Verlag, Berlin: 1983. P. 184ff.
- Other sources note 1933, i.e. Johannes Christian Meyer-Ingwersen. Untersuchungen zum Satzbau des Paschto. 1966. Ph.D. Thesis, Hamburg 1966.
- Hussain, Rizwan. Pakistan and the emergence of Islamic militancy in Afghanistan. Burlington, Ashgate: 2005. p. 63.
- István Fodor, Claude Hagège. Reform of Languages. Buske, 1983. P. 105ff.
- Campbell, George L.: Concise Compendium of the world's languages. London: Routledge 1999.
- Dupree, Louis: "Language and Politics in Afghanistan." In: Contributions to Asian Studies. Vol. 11/1978. p. 131–141. E. J. Brill, Leiden 1978. p. 131.
- Spooner, Bryan: "Are we teaching Persian?" In: Persian Studies in North America: Studies in Honor of Mohammad Ali Jazayery. Mehdi Marashi (ed.). Bethesda, Iranbooks: 1994. p. 1983.
- "Government of Pakistan: Population by Mother Tongue" (PDF). statpak.gov.pk. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 February 2006. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- "In a city of ethnic friction, more tinder". The National. 24 August 2009. Archived from the original on 16 January 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
- "Columnists | The Pakhtun in Karachi". Time. 28 August 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
-  Archived 9 December 2012 at archive.today, thefridaytimes
- Septfonds, D. 2006. Pashto. In: Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world. 845 – 848. Keith Brown / Sarah Ogilvie (eds.). Elsevier, Oxford: 2009.
- Rahman, Tariq (2004), Craig Baxter (ed.), Education in Pakistan a Survey, Pakistan on the Brink: Politics, Economics and Society, Lexington Books, p. 172, ISBN 978-0195978056
- Rahim, Bushra (28 September 2014). "Will change in medium of instruction improve education in KP?". dawn.com. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- Daniel Hallberg (1992). Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan (PDF). 4. Quaid-i-Azam University & Summer Institute of Linguistics. p. 36 to 37. ISBN 969-8023-14-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2018. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "د کرښې پرغاړه (په پاکستان کې د مورنیو ژبو حیثیت)". mashaalradio.org. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- Hywel Coleman (2010). TEACHING AND LEARNING IN PAKISTAN: THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE IN EDUCATION (Report). British Council, Pakistan. Archived from the original on 4 November 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- Mohmand, Mureeb (27 April 2014). "The decline of Pashto". The Express Tribune.
...because of the state’s patronage, Urdu is now the most widely-spoken language in Pakistan. But the preponderance of one language over all others eats upon the sphere of influence of other, smaller languages, which alienates the respective nationalities and fuels aversion towards the central leadership...If we look to our state policies regarding the promotion of Pashto and the interests of the Pakhtun political elite, it is clear that the future of the Pashto language is dark. And when the future of a language is dark, the future of the people is dark.
- Carter, Lynn. "Socio-Economic Profile of Kurram Agency". Planning and Development Department, Peshawar, NWFP. 1991: 82.
- Carter and Raza. "Socio-Economic Profile of South Waziristan Agency". Planning and Development Department, Peshawar, NWFP. 1990: 69.
Sources say that this is mainly because the Pushto text books in use in the settled areas of N.W.F.P. are written in the Yusufzai dialect, which is not the dialect in use in the Agency
- Hallberg, Daniel. "Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan" (PDF). National Institute of Pakistan Studies Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguisitics. 4: 36.
A brief interview with the principal of the high school in Madyan, along with a number of his teachers, helps to underscore the importance of Pashto in the school domain within Pashtoon territory. He reported that Pashto is used by teachers to explain things to students all the way up through tenth class. The idea he was conveying was that students do not really have enough ability in Urdu to operate totally in that language. He also expressed the thought that Pashto-speaking students in the area really do not learn Urdu very well in public school and that they are thus somewhat ill prepared to meet the expectation that they will know how to use Urdu and English when they reach the college level. He likened the education system to a wall that has weak bricks at the bottom.
- Rahman, Tariq. "The Pashto language and identity‐formation in Pakistan". Contemporary South Asia - July 1995. 4 (2): 151–20 – via Research Gate.
- Language Policy and Language Conflict in Afghanistan and Its Neighbors: The Changing Politics of Language Choice. Brill. 9 December 2011. p. 279. ISBN 978-90-04-21765-2.
- Comrie, Bernard (2009). The world's major languages. Routledge.
- "AFGHANISTAN vi. Paṧto". G. Morgenstierne. Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
Paṧtō undoubtedly belongs to the Northeastern Iranic branch.
- "Afghan and Afghanistan". Abdul Hai Habibi. alamahabibi.com. 1969. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
- "History of Afghanistan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 22 November 2010.
- Noelle-Karimi, Christine; Conrad J. Schetter; Reinhard Schlagintweit (2002). Afghanistan – a country without a state?. University of Michigan, United States: IKO. p. 18. ISBN 3-88939-628-3.
The earliest mention of the name 'Afghan' (Abgan) is to be found in a Sasanid inscription from the third century AD and their language as "Afghani".
- "Pata Khazana" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
- David Neil MacKenzie: David N. Mackenzie: The Development of the Pashto Script. In: Shirin Akiner (Editor): Languages and Scripts of Central Asia. School of Oriental and African Studies, Univ. of London, London 1997, ISBN 978-0-7286-0272-4.p. 142
- Lucia Serena Loi: Il tesoro nascosto degli Afghani. Il Cavaliere azzurro, Bologna 1987, p. 33
- Green, Nile, ed. (2016). Afghan History Through Afghan Eyes. Oxford University Press. pp. 37–38. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190247782.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-049223-6.
- Ehsan M Entezar (2008). Afghanistan 101: Understanding Afghan Culture. Xlibris Corporation. p. 89. ISBN 978-1-4257-9302-9.[self-published source]
- Carol Benson; Kimmo Kosonen (13 June 2013). Language Issues in Comparative Education: Inclusive Teaching and Learning in Non-Dominant Languages and Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-94-6209-218-1.
- Muhammad Gul Khan Momand, Hewād Afghanistan
- Emeneau, M. B. (1962) "Bilingualism and Structural Borrowing" Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 106(5): pp. 430–442, p. 441
- Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara (1996). A Reference Grammar of Pashto (PDF). Washington: Center for Applied Linguistics. p. 15.
- Kaye, Alan S. (30 June 1997). Phonologies of Asia and Africa: (including the Caucasus). Eisenbrauns. p. 742. ISBN 978-1-57506-019-4.
- D.N. MacKenzie, 1990, "Pashto", in Bernard Comrie, ed, The major languages of South Asia, the Middle East and Africa, p. 103
- Coyle, Dennis (1 January 2014). "Placing Wardak Among Pashto Varieties". Theses and Dissertations: 298–299.
- Kaye, Alan S. (30 June 1997). Phonologies of Asia and Africa: (including the Caucasus). Eisenbrauns. p. 736. ISBN 978-1-57506-019-4.
- Morgenstierne, Georg (2003). A New Etymological Vocabulary of Pashto. Reichert. p. 48. ISBN 978-3-89500-364-6.
- John R. Perry, "Lexical Areas and Semantic Fields of Arabic" in Éva Ágnes Csató, Eva Agnes Csato, Bo Isaksson, Carina Jahani, Linguistic convergence and areal diffusion: case studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic, Routledge, 2005. p. 97: "It is generally understood that the bulk of the Arabic vocabulary in the central, contiguous Iranian, Turkic and Indic languages was originally borrowed into literary Persian between the ninth and thirteenth centuries"
- Vladimir Kushev (1997). "Areal Lexical Contacts of the Afghan (Pashto) Language (Based on the Texts of the XVI-XVIII Centuries)". Iran and the Caucasus. 1: 159–166. doi:10.1163/157338497x00085. JSTOR 4030748.
- Census Commissioner, India (1937). "Census of India, 1931, Volume 17, Part 2". Times of India: 292. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
At the same time Pashto has borrowed largely from Persian and Hindustani, and through those languages from Arabic.
- Herbert Penzl (January–March 1961). "Western Loanwords in Modern Pashto". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 81 (1): 43–52. doi:10.2307/594900. JSTOR 594900.
- Carol Benson; Kimmo Kosonen (13 June 2013). Language Issues in Comparative Education: Inclusive Teaching and Learning in Non-Dominant Languages and Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 64. ISBN 978-94-6209-218-1.
- Ehsan M Entezar (2008). Afghanistan 101: Understanding Afghan Culture. Xlibris Corporation. p. 89. ISBN 978-1-4257-9302-9.
- Raverty, Henry George Rahman (1867). A dictionary of the Puk'hto, Pus'hto, or language of the Afghans (2 ed.). London: Williams and Norgate.
- Zahid Qamos Pashto Glossary [Zahid Mishwanai]
- Pata Khanaza by M. Hotak (1762-1763), translated by K. Habibi page 21, Alama Habibi Portal.
- Habibi, Khushal (1997). The Hidden Treasure: A Biography of Pas̲htoon Poets. University Press of America. p. 225. ISBN 978-0-7618-0265-5.
- Faqir, Faqir Muhammad (2014). "The Neologism of Bayazid Ansari" (PDF). Pashto. 43 (647–648): 147–165.
- Pashtoon, Zeeya A. (2009). Pashto-English Dictionary. Dunwoody Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-1-931546-70-6.
- Momand, Qalandar. "Daryab Pashto Glossary".
- Hladczuk, John (1992). International Handbook of Reading Education. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 148. ISBN 9780313262531.
- Ullah, Noor (2011). Pashto Grammar. AuthorHouse. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-4567-8007-4.
- Coyle, Dennis Walter (August 2014). "Placing Wardak among Pashto varieties" (PDF). University of North Dakota:UND. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- Coyle, Dennis Walter (August 2014). "Placing Wardak among Pashto varieties" (PDF). University of North Dakota:UND. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- MacKenzie, D. N. (1959). "A Standard Pashto". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 22 (1/3): 231–235. ISSN 0041-977X. JSTOR 609426.
- BGN/PCGN romanization
- "21748082" "21748082 - BSB-Katalog". bsb-muenchen.de.[permanent dead link]
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 June 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "NGA: Standardization Policies". nga.mil. Archived from the original on 13 February 2013.
- Zellem, Edward (2014). Mataluna: 151 Afghan Pashto Proverbs. Cultures Direct Press. ISBN 978-0692215180.
- Bartlotti, Leonard and Raj Wali Shah Khattak, eds. (2006). Rohi Mataluna: Pashto Proverbs, (revised and expanded edition). First edition by Mohammad Nawaz Tair and Thomas C. Edwards, eds. Peshawar, Pakistan: Interlit and Pashto Academy, Peshawar University.
- Jazab, Yousaf Khan. An Ethno-Linguistic Study of the Karlanri Varieties of Pashto. Pashto Academy, University of Peshawar. pp. 342–343.
- Christopher John Fuller (2004). The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism and Society in India. Princeton University Press. pp. 291–293. ISBN 978-0-69112-04-85.
- Schmidt, Rüdiger (ed.) (1989). Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. Wiesbaden: Reichert. ISBN 3-88226-413-6.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Georg Morgenstierne (1926) Report on a Linguistic Mission to Afghanistan. Instituttet for Sammenlignende Kulturforskning, Serie C I-2. Oslo. ISBN 0-923891-09-9
- Daniel G. Hallberg (1992) Pashto, Waneci, Ormuri (Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, 4). National Institute of Pakistani Studies, 176 pp. ISBN 969-8023-14-3.
- Herbert Penzl A Grammar of Pashto: A Descriptive Study of the Dialect of Kandahar, Afghanistan, ISBN 0-923891-72-2
- Herbert Penzl A Reader of Pashto, ISBN 0-923891-71-4
- Morgenstierne, Georg. "The Place of Pashto among the Iranic Languages and the Problem of the Constitution of Pashtun Linguistic and Ethnic Unity." Paṣto Quarterly 1.4 (1978): 43-55.
|Pashto edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pashto language.|
|Look up pashto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Pashto.|
- Pashto Dictionary with Phonetic Keyboard & Auto-Suggestion
- Pashto Phonetic Keyboard
- Pashto Language & Identity Formation in Pakistan
- Indo-Aryan identity of Pashto
- Henry George Raverty. A Dictionary of the Puk'hto, Pus'hto, or Language of the Afghans. Second edition, with considerable additions. London: Williams and Norgate, 1867.
- D. N. MacKenzie, "A Standard Pashto", Khyber.org
- Freeware Online Pashto Dictionaries
- A Pashto Word List
- Origins of Pashto
- Resources for the Study of the Pashto Language