List of language regulators

This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages, often called language academies. Language academies are motivated by, or closely associated with, linguistic purism and prestige, and typically publish prescriptive dictionaries,[1] which purport to officiate and prescribe the meaning of words and pronunciations. A language regulator may also have a more descriptive approach, however, while maintaining and promoting (but not imposing) a standard spelling. Many language academies are private institutions, although some are governmental bodies in different states, or enjoy some form of government-sanctioned status in one or more countries. There may also be multiple language academies attempting to regulate and codify the same language, sometimes based in different countries and sometimes influenced by political factors (see also: pluricentric language).

Many world languages have one or more language academies. However, the degree of control that the academies exert over these languages does not render the latter controlled natural languages in the sense that the various kinds of "simple English" (e.g. Basic English, Simplified Technical English) or George Orwell's fictional Newspeak are. They instead remain natural languages to a considerable extent and are thus not formal languages such as Attempto Controlled English. They have a degree of standardization that allows them to function as standard languages (e.g. standard French). The English language has never had a formal regulator anywhere.

Natural languagesEdit

Language Territory Regulator(s)
Amis   Republic of China Council of Indigenous Peoples
Afrikaans   South Africa
  Namibia
Die Taalkommissie
Akan   Ghana Akan Orthography Committee (AOC)
Albanian   Albania
  Kosovo
Academy of Sciences of Albania, Tirana
Arabic
  Arab League Academy of the Arabic Language (مجمع اللغة العربية)
Arabic Language International Council
  Algeria Supreme Council of the Arabic language in Algeria
  Egypt Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo
  Iraq Iraqi Academy of Sciences
  Jordan Jordan Academy of Arabic
  Libya Academy of the Arabic Language in Jamahiriya
  Morocco Academy of the Arabic Language in Morocco
  Saudi Arabia Academy of the Arabic Language in Riyadh
  Somalia Academy of the Arabic Language in Mogadishu
  Sudan Academy of the Arabic Language in Khartum
  Syria Academy of the Arabic Language in Damascus
  Tunisia Beit Al-Hikma Foundation
  Israel
  Palestine
Academy of the Arabic Language in Israel (مجمع اللغة العربية)
Aragonese   Aragon Academia de l'Aragonés, Aragon, Spain
Armenian   Armenia Armenian National Academy of Sciences (Հայաստան)
Assamese   Assam Asam Sahitya Sabha (অসম সাহিত্য সভা)
Asturian   Asturias Academy of the Asturian Language (Academia de la Llingua Asturiana)
Azerbaijani   Azerbaijan
  Iran
Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences
Basque   Basque Country
  Navarre
  French Basque Country
Euskaltzaindia, often translated as Royal Academy of the Basque language
Belarusian   Belarus The Jakub Kolas and Janka Kupala Institute of Language and Literature[2] at the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus
Bengali (Bangla)   Bangladesh Bangla Academy (বাংলা একাডেমি)
  West Bengal Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi (পশ্চিমবঙ্গ বাংলা আকাদেমি)
Berber   Morocco Royal Institute of Amazight Culture
  Algeria Haut-Conseil à l'amazighité
Algerian Academy of Amazigh Language
Central Bikol   Philippines Academia Bicolana defunct
Bosnian   Bosnia and Herzegovina
  Sandžak
University of Sarajevo
Bulgarian   Bulgaria Institute for Bulgarian Language at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Burmese   Myanmar Myanmar Language Commission
Catalan   Catalonia Institute of Catalan Studies (Institut d'Estudis Catalans)
  Valencian Community Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (for the Valencian standard)
Cebuano   Philippines Visayan Academy of Arts and Letters (Akademyang Bisaya)
Cherokee   Cherokee Nation Council of the Cherokee Nation (ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ)[3]
Standard Chinese   China State Language Work Committee (国家语言文字工作委员会)
  Republic of China National Languages Committee (國語推行委員會)
  Singapore Promote Mandarin Council (讲华语运动理事会)
  Malaysia Chinese Language Standardisation Council of Malaysia (马来西亚华语规范理事会)
Cornish   Cornwall Cornish Language Partnership (Keskowethyans an Taves Kernewek)
Croatian   Croatia Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics (Institut za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje)
  Bosnia and Herzegovina
Czech   Czech Republic Institute of the Czech Language (of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) (Ústav pro jazyk český (Akademie věd České republiky))
Danish   Denmark Dansk Sprognævn (Danish Language Council)
Dalecarlian   Dalarna County Ulum Dalska
Divehi   Maldives Dhivehi Academy
Dutch   Netherlands
  Belgium
  Suriname
Nederlandse Taalunie (Dutch Language Union)
Dzongkha   Bhutan Dzongkha Development Commission (རྫོང་ཁ་གོང་འཕེལ་ལྷན་ཚོགས)
Estonian   Estonia Emakeele Seltsi keeletoimkond (Language Board at the Mother Tongue Society) sets rules and standards, authoritative advice is given by the Institute of the Estonian Language (Eesti Keele Instituut)
Faroese   Faroe Islands Faroese Language Council (Málráðið)
Filipino   Philippines Commission on the Filipino Language (Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino)
Finnish   Finland Institute for the Languages of Finland
French   France Académie française (French Academy)
  Belgium Académie royale de langue et de littérature françaises de Belgique (Royal Academy of French Language and Literature of Belgium)
  Quebec Office québécois de la langue française (Quebec Office of the French Language)
Galician   Galicia Royal Galician Academy (Real Academia Galega)
German   Germany
  Austria
   Switzerland
  South Tyrol
  Belgium
  Liechtenstein
  Luxembourg
  Namibia
Council for German Orthography (Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung)
Greenlandic   Greenland The Greenland Language Secretariat (Oqaasileriffik)
Greek   Greece
  Cyprus
Center for the Greek Language (Κέντρον Ελληνικής Γλώσσας)
Guarani   Paraguay Guarani Language Academy (Guarani Ñe’ ẽ Rerekuapavẽ)
Hakka   Republic of China Hakka Affairs Council (客家委員會)
Haitian Creole   Haiti Akademi Kreyòl Ayisyen (Haitian Creole Academy)
Hebrew   Israel Academy of the Hebrew Language (האקדמיה ללשון העברית)
Hindi   India Central Hindi Directorate (regulates use of Devanagari script and Hindi spelling in India)
Tulu   India Karnataka Tulu Sahitya Academy regulatory body for Tulu established by Government of Karnataka & Kerala Tulu Academy by Government of Kerala
Hmar   India Hmar Literature Society (Manipur, India)[citation needed]
Hungarian   Hungary Research Institute for Linguistics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Nyelvtudományi Intézete)
Icelandic   Iceland Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies
Igbo   Nigeria Society for Promoting Igbo Language and Culture
Indonesian   Indonesia Language and Book Development Agency (Badan Pengembangan Bahasa dan Perbukuan)
Irish   Republic of Ireland
  Northern Ireland
Foras na Gaeilge
Italian   Italy
  San Marino
   Switzerland
   Vatican City
Accademia della Crusca (Academy of the bran)
Japanese   Japan No official centralized regulation, but de facto regulations by Agency for Cultural Affairs (文化庁) at the Ministry of Education of Japan (文部科学省)
Kannada   Karnataka Various academies and Government of Karnataka
Kashubian   Poland Commission of the Kashubian Language [1]
Kazakh   Kazakhstan Ministry of Culture of Kazakhstan
Khmer   Cambodia Royal Academy of Cambodia (រាជបណ្ឌិត្យសភាកម្ពុជា)
Korean   South Korea National Institute of the Korean Language (국립국어원/國立國語院)
  North Korea The Language Research Institute, Academy of Social Science (사회과학원 어학연구소/社會科學院 語學研究所)
  China China Korean Language Regulatory Commission (중국조선어규범위원회/中国朝鲜语规范委员会)
Kven   Norway Kainun institutti – kvensk institutt
Kurdish   Kurdistan Kurdish Academy – ئەکادیمیای کوردی
Kyrgyz   Kyrgyzstan National Committee for State Language under the President of the Kyrgyz Republic (Кыргыз Республикасынын Президентине караштуу Мамлекеттик тил боюнча улуттук комиссия)
Latin    Holy See Pontifical Academy for Latin (Pontificia Academia Latinitatis) (ecclesiastical Latin)[4]
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy: botanical Latin)
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature: zoological Latin)
Latvian   Latvia Latvian State Language Center (Valsts Valodas Centrs)
Lithuanian   Lithuania Commission of the Lithuanian Language (Valstybinė lietuvių kalbos komisija)
Lusoga   Uganda Lusoga Language Authority (LULA)
Macedonian   North Macedonia Linguistics and Literary Science Department at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Malagasy   Madagascar Foibe momba ny teny at the Akademia Malagasy (http://www.tenymalagasy.gov.mg/)
Malay   Malaysia Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (The Institute of Language and Literature)
  Brunei Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Brunei (Language and Literature Bureau)
  Singapore Majlis Bahasa Melayu Singapura (Malay Language Council, Singapore)
Malayalam   Kerala Kerala Sahitya Akademi (കേരള സാഹിത്യ പരിശീലന സ്ഥാപനം) and Government of Kerala
Maltese   Malta National Council for the Maltese Language (www.kunsilltalmalti.gov.mt)
Manx   Isle of Man Coonceil ny Gaelgey
Māori   New Zealand Māori Language Commission
Mirandese   Portugal Anstituto de la Lhéngua Mirandesa (Institute of the Mirandese Language)
Mixtec   Mexico Academy of the Mixtec Language (Ve'e Tu'un Sávi)
Khalkha Mongolian   Mongolia Council of the official state language (Төрийн хэлний зөвлөл). Decisions have to be confirmed by the Mongolian government.[5]
Chakhar Mongolian   China Council for Language and Literature Work
Nepali     Nepal Language Academy of Nepal
Norwegian (Riksmål/Bokmål)   Norway Norwegian Academy
Norwegian Bokmål
Norwegian Nynorsk
Norwegian Language Council
Occitan   Occitania
  France
  Spain
  Monaco
  Italy
Lo Congrès Permanent de la lenga occitana (the permanent congress of occitan language)[6]
Institut d'Estudis Aranesi (Aranese)[7]
Conselh de la Lenga Occitana
Pashto   Afghanistan Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
  Pakistan Pashto Academy
Persian   Iran Academy of Persian Language and Literature (فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی)
  Afghanistan Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
  Tajikistan
  Uzbekistan
Tajik Language and Literature Committee
Paiwan   Republic of China Council of Indigenous Peoples
Polish   Poland Polish Language Council (Rada Języka Polskiego), of the Polish Academy of Sciences
Portuguese   Portugal Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, Classe de Letras
  Brazil Academia Brasileira de Letras (Brazilian Literary Academy)
  Galicia Galician Academy of the Portuguese Language (Academia Galega da Lingua Portuguesa)
Quechua   Peru High Academy of the Quechua Language (Qheswa simi hamut'ana kuraq suntur)
Rohingya   Arakan (Rakhine State) Rohingya Language Academy (𐴌𐴟𐴇𐴥𐴝𐴚𐴒𐴙𐴝 𐴎𐴟𐴁𐴝𐴕 𐴀𐴠𐴑𐴝𐴋𐴠𐴔𐴞)
Romanian   Romania Institutul de Lingvisticǎ al Academiei Române (Institute for Linguistics of the Romanian Academy)
  Moldova Academia de Ştiinţe a Moldovei
Romansh    Switzerland Lia Rumantscha
Russian   Russian Empire Russian Academy (1783–1841)
  Russia Russian Language Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (since 1944)
Scots   Scotland The Scots Language Centre supports the Scots language.[8] Scottish Language Dictionaries record and analyse the language as it is spoken and written throughout Scotland and Ulster today.[9]
Secwepemctsín   Canada Secwepemc Cultural Education Society
Serbian and Montenegrin   Serbia
  Montenegro
Board for Standardization of the Serbian Language
Sindhi   Pakistan Sindhi Language Authority [2]
Sinhala   Sri Lanka Hela Havula (හෙළ හවුල)
Slovak   Slovakia Ľudovít Štúr Institute of Linguistics (Jazykovedný ústav Ľudovíta Štúra) at Slovak Academy of Sciences (Slovenská akadémia vied)
Slovene   Slovenia Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Somali   Djibouti
  Ethiopia
  Somalia
Regional Somali Language Academy
Sorbian   Germany
  Czech Republic
  Poland
Serbski institut [3]
Spanish   Spain
  Colombia
  Ecuador
  Mexico
  El Salvador
  Venezuela
  Chile
  Peru
  Guatemala
  Costa Rica
  Philippines
  Panama
  Cuba
  Paraguay
  Bolivia
  Dominican Republic
  Nicaragua
  Argentina
  Uruguay
  Honduras
  Puerto Rico
  United States
  Equatorial Guinea
  Israel
Association of Spanish Language Academies (constituted by the Royal Spanish Academy plus 23 other separate national academies in the Spanish-speaking world and an Israel-based committee for Judaeo-Spanish.)
Swahili   Tanzania Baraza la Kiswahili la Taifa
  Kenya Chama cha Kiswahili cha Taifa
Swedish   Sweden Swedish Language Council (semi-official)
Swedish Academy
  Finland Swedish Language Department of the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland (Svenska språkbyrån)
Tamil   Tamil Nadu Thanjavur Tamil University and Official Language Commission of Government of Tamil Nadu
  Sri Lanka Department of Official Languages, Sri Lanka
  Singapore Tamil Language Council, Singapore
  Malaysia Malaysia Tamil Language Standardisation Council (மலேசியத் தமிழ் மொழியின் காப்பகம்)
Taiwanese Hokkien   Republic of China Ministry of Education (Taiwan)
Tatar   Tatarstan Institute of Language, Literature and Arts of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan [4]
Telugu   Andhra Pradesh and Telangana Telugu Academy and Official Language Commission of Government of Andhra Pradesh
Tetum   East Timor National Institute of Linguistics at the National University of East Timor
Thai   Thailand Royal Society of Thailand (ราชบัณฑิตยสภา)
Tibetan   Tibet Autonomous Region Committee for Tibetan Language Affairs [5]
  India Committee for the Standardisation of the Tibetan Language
Turkish   Turkey
  Cyprus
  Northern Cyprus
Turkish Language Association
Ukrainian   Ukraine NASU Institute of Ukrainian Language
Urdu   Pakistan National Language Authority, Pakistan
  India National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language, India
Urhobo   Nigeria Urhobo Studies Association
Vietnamese   Vietnam Institute of Linguistics of Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences
Võro   Estonia Võro Institute
Waray   Philippines Sanghiran san Binisaya ha Samar ug Leyte (Academy of the Visayan Language of Samar and Leyte) defunct
Welsh   Wales Welsh Language Commissioner (Aled Roberts)
— The Welsh Government
(previously the Welsh Language Board Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg)


(Principally, however, the role of the Welsh Language Commissioner is that of language planning and policy regulator and enforcer. The role also includes corpus planning.)

West Frisian   Friesland Fryske Akademy (Frisian Academy)
Wolof   Senegal Centre de linguistique appliquée de Dakar (Center of Applied Linguistics of Dakar at the Cheikh Anta Diop University)
Yiddish   United States
  Sweden
  Russia
YIVO[10] (Note that YIVO does not regulate or hold any sway over the Yiddish used in Ultra-Orthodox circles where the Yiddish language is most used in current times. The orthography and pronunciation of Yiddish in the Ultra-Orthodox communities is dramatically different from the standardized version of Yiddish devised by YIVO. A prime example of this is the spelling of the name for the Yiddish language in Yiddish itself. YIVO promotes the spelling "ייִדיש", while the spelling "אידיש" is more commonly used in most Ultra-Orthodox contexts.)
Yoruba   Nigeria Yoruba Academy

Auxiliary languagesEdit

EsperantoEdit

Apart from the Akademio de Esperanto, most auxiliary languages, also known as constructed languages (Conlangs) have no true linguistic regulators, language academies.[11]

Esperanto and Ido have been constructed (or planned) by a person or small group, before being adopted and further developed by communities of users through natural language evolution.

Bodies such as the Akademio de Esperanto look at questions of usage in the light of the original goals and principles of the language.

Language Regulator(s)
Esperanto Akademio de Esperanto
Ido Uniono por la Linguo Internaciona Ido
Lingua Franca Nova Asosia per Lingua Franca Nova
Lojban Logical Language Group
Volapük Kadäm Volapüka

Other constructed languagesEdit

Language Regulator(s)
Klingon Marc Okrand
Talossan Comità per l'Útzil del Glheþ

InterlinguaEdit

The auxiliary language Interlingua has no regulating body, as its vocabulary, grammar, and orthography are viewed as a product of ongoing social forces. In theory, Interlingua therefore evolves independent from any human regulator. Interlingua's vocabulary is verified and recorded by dynamically applying certain general principles to an existing set of natural languages and their etymologies. The International Auxiliary Language Association ceased to exist in 1954, and according to the secretary of Union Mundial de Interlingua "Interlingua doesn't need its Academy".[11]

Other bodiesEdit

These bodies do not attempt to regulate any language in a prescriptive manner and are primarily concerned with aiding and advising the government on policies regarding language usage.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Thomas, George (1991) Linguistic purism p.108, quotation:

    Whereas a number of the puristically motivated language societies have assumed de facto responsibility for language cultivation, the decisions of the academies have often had the force of law. ... Since academies are so closely associated with the notion of purism, a brief word on their history may not be out of place. The first academy to deal expressly and exclusively with language matters was the Accademia della Crusca ... Its orientation was essentially conservative, favouring a return to the Tuscan language as cultivated in the fourteenth century over the innovations of contemporary renaissance poets such as Torquato Tasso. ... One of its first tasks -- as with so many academies to follow -- was to produce a large-scale prescriptive dictionary of Italian

  2. ^ "Organizations Attached to the Department of Humanitarian Sciences and Arts". National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Archived from the original on 13 April 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2012. Field of Activities: ... compilation of the Belarusian language dictionaries including Belarusian – the other Slavonic languages and the other Slavonic languages – Belarusian dictionaries; ...
  3. ^ Council of the Cherokee Nation
  4. ^ "Pontificia Academia Latinitatis" (in Latin). Vatican.va. 10 November 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  5. ^ "Хуулийн нэгдсэн портал сайт". Legalinfo.mn (in Mongolian). Archived from the original on 14 September 2015.
  6. ^ "Lo Congrès". locongres.org. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  7. ^ "Reconeishença der Institut d'Estudis Aranesi coma academia e autoritat lingüistica der occitan, aranés en Aran - Conselh Generau d'Aran". conselharan.org.
  8. ^ "Scots Language Centre". Scotslanguage.com. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
  9. ^ "Scottish Language Dictionaries - Home". Scotsdictionaries.org.uk. 3 August 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
  10. ^ "YIVO Institute". Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  11. ^ a b Johan Derks, Prilingvaj institutoj de 18 naciaj lingvoj (Language Institutes of eighteen states), Interlingvistikaj Studoj, UAM, 2014/17, Esperanta Interlingvistiko 1