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The Kven language (kvääni or kväänin kieli; kainu or kainun kieli[3]) is a Finnish dialect spoken in northern Norway by the Kven people. For political and historical reasons, it received the status of a minority language in 2005 within the framework of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Linguistically, however, it is seen as a mutually intelligible dialect of the Finnish language, and grouped together with the Peräpohjola dialects such as Meänkieli, spoken in Torne Valley in Sweden.

Kven
kvääni, kainu
Native to Norway
Native speakers
2,000–8,000 (2005?)[1]
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated by Kven language board
Language codes
ISO 639-3 fkv
Glottolog kven1236[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Contrary to popular belief, the dialects spoken by the Kvens and Kainuu peoples are not closely related. The Kainuu dialect is one of the Savonian dialects that was formed from the 16th century onwards, when immigrants from Savonia started to settle in the northern wastelands.[citation needed]

The Kven language has come to incorporate many Norwegian loanwords, such as tyskäläinen (from the Norwegian word tysk, meaning German) instead of standard Finnish saksalainen. The Kven language also uses some old Finnish words that are no longer used in Finland.

There are about 1,500 to 10,000 known native speakers of this language, most of whom are over the age of 60. This population uses it as their main way of communicating and speaks no other language. This is a growing concern because as this population ages and soon passes away, there is fear that the Kven language will die out as well. Middle aged speakers tend to have a passing knowledge of the language. They use it occasionally, but not frequently enough to keep it off the endangered list. People under the age of 30 are barely seen to speak or know the language. However, children in the community of Børselv can learn Kven in their primary schools.[4]

Contents

HistoryEdit

There is no complete grammar for the language and scarce material, making it hard for this language to be learned. The Kven Assembly was formed in 2007 and plans to standardize a Kven written language.The term "Kven" first appeared in Othere's tales from the 800's along with the term "Finn" and "Norwegian". The area that the Kvens lived in was called Kvenland. They originally settled in Kvenland, which also expanded into the flat areas of the Bay of Bothnia. As the Kven community continued to grow and develop a long standing culture, the Norwegian state deemed the Kvens taxpayers and the term "Kven" soon became an ethical term.[5] In 1992, The European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages was set into place. This charter was set in place to protect regional and minority languages, the agreement included Kven as a minority language. The Kven language, however protected under the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages, is only considered a Level I. This means that the culture and language are barely protected under this charter and with the language dying out it is important that the language be moved up to a level III.[6]

OrganizationsEdit

The Norwegian Kven Organization was established in 1987. The organization currently has about 700 members and about 8 different local branches.[citation needed] The duties of this organization include many different tasks. The members report to the government about the history and rights of the Kven people. The members also try and highlight Kven news by advancing Kvens media coverage. The organization has also been pushing the Norwegian government to establish a state secretary for Kven issues. Moving the language of Kven into kindergarten classrooms, as well as all other education levels is also a forefront issue that the organization is aiming to tackle.[7] All advances made by the Norwegian Kven Organization is to promote the growth and conservation of the Kven language and culture.

Official statusEdit

From the 1860s onwards the Norwegian government attempted to assimilate the Kvens. For example, the use of the Kven language became forbidden in schools and government offices, and Kven town names were replaced by Norwegian names. From the 1970s onwards, the Kvens and the Sami in Norway have openly been allowed to use their original native languages, the Kven language and the Sami languages, respectively, and to teach them to their children in schools. Despite its recent gain of status as a minority language, there is still a major discussion among the Kven about whether the Finnish orthography should be applied to the language or if a new orthography should be devised.

Since 2006, it has been possible to study the Kven culture and language at the University of Tromsø,[8] and in 2007 the Kven language board was formed at the Kven institute, a national centre for Kven language and culture in Børselv, Norway. The council will work out a written Kven language, but use Finnish orthography to maintain inter-Finnish language understanding.[9]

Geographic distributionEdit

Today, most speakers of Kven are found in two Norwegian communities, Storfjord and Porsanger. A few speakers can be found other places, such as Bugøynes, Neiden, Vestre Jakobselv, Vadsø, and Nordreisa.

In northeastern Norway, mainly around Varanger Fjord, the spoken language is quite similar to standard Finnish, whereas the Kven spoken west of Alta, due to the area's close ties to the Torne Valley area along the border between Finland and Sweden, is more closely related to the Meänkieli Finnish spoken there.

In government report from 2005, the number of people speaking Kven in Norway is estimated to be between 2,000 and 8,000, depending on the criteria used. However, there are very few young people who speak it, making it an endangered language.[1]

PhonologyEdit

The phonology of Kven is basically the same as that of Finnish. It is however worth noting that while Standard Finnish has been replacing /ð/ by /d/, it is retained in Kven. For instance, the word meiđän ('our') in Kven is meidän in Standard Finnish.

VowelsEdit

Kven has 16 vowels, if one includes the vowel length:

Front Back
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded
Close i iː y yː u uː
Mid e eː ø øː o oː
Open æ æː ɑ ɑː

In writing, the vowel length is indicated by doubling the letter, e.g. ⟨yy⟩ /yː/ and ⟨öö⟩ /øː/.

The graphemes representing /ø/, /æ/ and /ɑ/ are ⟨ö⟩, ⟨ä⟩ and ⟨a⟩, respectively.

ConsonantsEdit

Kven has 14 consonants found in native vocabulary, and four consonants found in loanwords:

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ h
voiced ð
Trill r
Approximant ʋ l j

/b, d, ɡ, ʃ/ are only found in loanwords.

/ʋ/ and /ʃ/ are represented in writing by ⟨v⟩ and ⟨š⟩, respectively.

/ð/ is represented in writing by ⟨đ⟩.

/ŋ/ is represented in writing by ⟨n⟩ if followed by /k/, and ⟨ng⟩ if geminated, i.e. ⟨nk⟩ /ŋk/ and ⟨ng⟩ /ŋː/

Gemination is indicated in writing by doubling the letter, e.g. ⟨mm⟩ for /mː/ and ⟨ll⟩ for /lː/

ExampleEdit

Kven:[10]

Kvääninkieli oon se kieli mitä kväänit
oon puhuhneet ja vielä tääpänäki puhhuuvat,
ja mikä oon säilyny ruottalaistumisen
ja norjalaistumisen läpi minuriteettikielenä.
Minun mielestä Torniolakson «meiän kieliki»
oon vanhaa kvääninkieli tahi vanhaala
meiđän kielelä kaihnuunkieli.

Standard Finnish:

Kveenin kieli on se kieli, jota kveenit
ovat puhuneet ja vielä tänä päivänäkin puhuvat,
ja joka on säilynyt ruotsalaistumisen
ja norjalaistumisen läpi vähemmistökielenä.
Minun mielestäni Torniolaakson "meidän kielikin"
on vanhaa kveenin kieltä tai vanhalla
meidän kielellämme kainuun kieltä.

Literal English translation:

The Kven language is the language which the Kvens
have spoken and still today speak,
and which has survived through Swedenization
and Norwegianization as a minority language.
In my opinion "Meänkieli" of Meänmaa
is also an old Kven language
or in our old language, Kainu language.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Kainun Institutti
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kven Finnish". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Söderholm, Eira (2017). Kvensk grammatikk [A Grammar of Kven] (in Norwegian). Cappelen Damm Akademisk. ISBN 9788202569655. 
  4. ^ "Did you know Kven Finnish is severely endangered?". Endangered Languages. Retrieved 2017-04-30. 
  5. ^ "Kven language and culture (En) | Norske Kveners Forbund". kvener.no. Retrieved 2017-04-30. 
  6. ^ "The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages is the European convention for the protection and promotion of languages used by traditional minorities". European Charter for Regional
    or Minority Languages
    . Retrieved 2017-04-30.
     
  7. ^ Pietikäinen, Sari; Huss, Leena; Laihiala-Kankainen, Sirkka; Aikio-Puoskari, Ulla; Lane, Pia (2010-06-01). "Regulating Multilingualism in the North Calotte: The Case of Kven, Meänkieli and Sámi Languages". Acta Borealia. 27 (1): 1–23. doi:10.1080/08003831.2010.486923. ISSN 0800-3831. 
  8. ^ University of Tromsø
  9. ^ Andreassen, Irene: Et nytt skriftspråk blir til
  10. ^ "Miksi kvääninkieli kirjakielenä" by Terje Aronsen. Ruijan Kaiku 1/2004

External linksEdit

  •  : Söderholm, Eira (2007). "Kainun kielen grammatiikki". 
This grammar can be found in the Kven language here[permanent dead link].
The grammar above can be found in the Norwegian language here[permanent dead link].