In Finnish, the elative is typically formed by adding sta/stä", in Estonian by adding -st to the genitive stem, -õst in Livonian and -sto in Erzya. In Hungarian, the suffix -ból/-ből expresses the elative:
Finnish: talosta - "out of the house, from the house" (Finnish talo = "house")
taloista - "out of the houses, from the houses" (Finnish talot = "houses")
Estonian: majast - "out of the house, from the house" (Estonian maja = "house")
Erzya: kudosto - "out of the house, from the house" (Erzya kudo = "house")
Hungarian: házból - "out of the house" (Hungarian ház = "house")
In some dialects of Finnish it is common to drop the final vowel of the elative ending, which then becomes identical to the elative morpheme of Estonian; for example: talost. This pronunciation is common in southern Finland, appearing in the southwestern dialects and in some Tavastian dialects. Most other dialects use the standard form -sta.
In some rare cases the elative still exists in contemporary Russian, though it was used more widely in 17-18th cc. texts: и́з лесу (out of the forest), кровь и́з носу (blood from the nose), из Яросла́влю (from Yaroslavl).
Other locative cases are:
- Karlsson, Fred (2018). Finnish - A Comprehensive Grammar. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-82104-0.
- Anhava, Jaakko (2015). "Criteria For Case Forms in Finnish and Hungarian Grammars". journal.fi. Helsinki: Finnish Scholarly Journals Online.