Elative case

In grammar, the elative case (abbreviated ELA; from Latin: efferre "to bring or carry out") is a locative grammatical case with the basic[clarification needed] meaning "out of".


Uralic languagesEdit

In Finnish, the elative is typically formed by adding sta/stä", in Estonian by adding -st to the genitive stem and -õst in Livonian. In Hungarian, the suffix -ból/-ből expresses the elative:

talosta - "out of the house, from the house" (Finnish talo = "house")
taloista - "out of the houses, from the houses" (Finnish talot = "houses")
majast - "out of the house, from the house" (Estonian maja = "house")
házból - "out of the house" (Hungarian ház = "house")

In some dialects of colloquial Finnish it is common to drop the final vowel of the elative ending, which then becomes identical to the elative morpheme of Estonian; for example: talost.


In some rare cases the elative still exists in contemporary Russian, though it was used more widely in 17-18th cc. texts: и́з лесу (out of the forest), кровь и́з носу (blood from the nose), из Яросла́влю (from Yaroslavl).

See alsoEdit

Other locative cases are:

Further readingEdit

  • Karlsson, Fred (2018). Finnish - A Comprehensive Grammar. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-82104-0.
  • Anhava, Jaakko (2015). "Criteria For Case Forms in Finnish and Hungarian Grammars". journal.fi. Helsinki: Finnish Scholarly Journals Online.