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Near-open front unrounded vowel

The near-open front unrounded vowel, or near-low front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨æ⟩, a lowercase of the ⟨Æligature. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as "ash".

Near-open front unrounded vowel
æ
IPA Number325
Encoding
Entity (decimal)æ
Unicode (hex)U+00E6
X-SAMPA{
Braille⠩ (braille pattern dots-146)
Audio sample

The rounded counterpart of [æ], the near-open front rounded vowel (for which the IPA provides no separate symbol) has been reported to occur allophonically in Danish;[2][3] see open front rounded vowel for more information.

In practice, ⟨æ⟩ is sometimes used to represent the open front unrounded vowel; see the introduction to that page for more information.

FeaturesEdit

  • Its vowel height is near-open, also known as near-low, which means the tongue is positioned similarly to an open vowel, but is slightly more constricted – that is, the tongue is positioned similarly to a low vowel, but slightly higher.
  • Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned forward in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.

OccurrenceEdit

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[4] perd [pæːrt] 'horse' Allophone of /ɛ/ before sequences /rs/, /rt/, /rd/ and, in some dialects, before /k x l r/. See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic Standard[5] كتاب  [kiˈtæːb]  'book' Allophone of /a/ in the environment of plain labial and coronal consonants as well as /j/ (depending on the speaker's accent). See Arabic phonology
Bashkir[6] йәй / yäy  [jæj]  'summer'
Catalan Majorcan[7] tesi [ˈt̪æzi] 'thesis' Main realization of /ɛ/. See Catalan phonology
Valencian[7]
Danish Standard[2][8] dansk [ˈd̥a̝nsɡ̊] 'Danish' Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨a⟩ – the way it is realized by certain older or upper-class speakers.[9] See Danish phonology
Dutch[10] pen [pæn] 'pen' Allophone of /ɛ/ before /n/ and the velarized or pharyngealized allophone of /l/. In non-standard accents this allophone is generalized to other positions, where [ɛ] is used in Standard Dutch.[11] See Dutch phonology
English Cultivated New Zealand[12] cat  [kʰæt]  'cat' Higher in other New Zealand varieties. See New Zealand English phonology
General American[13] See English phonology
Conservative Received Pronunciation[14] Fully open [a] in contemporary RP.[14] See English phonology
Estonian[15] väle [ˈvæ̠le̞ˑ] 'agile' Near-front.[15] See Estonian phonology
Finnish[16] mäki [ˈmæki] 'hill' See Finnish phonology
French Parisian[17] bain [bæ̃] 'bath' Nasalized; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ̃⟩. See French phonology
Quebec[18] ver [væːʁ] 'worm' Allophone of /ɛ/ before /ʁ/ or in open syllables, and of /a/ in closed syllables.[18] See Quebec French phonology
German Standard Austrian[19] oder [ˈoːdæ] 'or' Used by some speakers instead of [ɐ].[19] See Standard German phonology
West Central German accents[20] Used instead of [ɐ].[20] See Standard German phonology
Northern accents[21] alles [ˈa̝ləs] 'everything' Lower and often also more back in other accents.[21] See Standard German phonology
Western Swiss accents[22] spät [ʃpæːt] 'late' Open-mid [ɛː] or close-mid [] in other accents; contrasts with the open-mid /ɛː/.[23] See Standard German phonology
Greek Macedonia[24] γάτα/gáta [ˈɣætæ] 'cat' See Modern Greek phonology
Thessaly[24]
Thrace[24]
Pontic[25] καλάθια/kaláthia [kaˈlaθæ] 'baskets'
Hungarian[26] nem [næm] 'no' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ⟩. See Hungarian phonology
Kurdish Sorani (Central) گاڵته [gäːɫtʲæ] 'joke' Equal to Palewani (Southern) front [a]. See Kurdish phonology
Lakon[27] rävräv [ræβræβ] 'evening'
Limburgish[28][29][30] twelf [ˈtβ̞æ̠ləf] 'twelve' Front[29][30] or near-front,[28] depending on the dialect. The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect, in which the vowel is near-front.
Luxembourgish[31] Käpp [kʰæpʰ] 'heads' See Luxembourgish phonology
Norwegian Urban East[32][33] lær [læːɾ] 'leather' See Norwegian phonology
Persian[34][35] هشت [hæʃt] 'eight'
Portuguese Some dialects[36] pedra [ˈpædɾɐ] 'stone' Stressed vowel. In other dialects closer /ɛ/. See Portuguese phonology
Some European speakers[37] também [tɐˈmæ̃] 'also' Stressed vowel, allophone of nasal vowel /ẽ̞/.
Romanian Bukovinian dialect[38] piele [ˈpæle] 'skin' Corresponds to [je] in standard Romanian. Also identified in some Central Transylvanian sub-dialects.[38] See Romanian phonology
Russian[39][40] пять  [pʲætʲ]  'five' Allophone of /a/ between palatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian Zeta-Raška dialect[41] дан/dan [d̪æn̪] 'day' Regional reflex of Proto-Slavic *ь and *ъ. Sometimes nasalised.[41]
Sinhala[42] ඇය [æjə] 'she'
Slovak Some speakers[43] väzy [ˈʋæzi̞] 'ligaments' Many speakers pronounce it the same as [ɛ̝]. See Slovak phonology
Swedish Central Standard[44][45][46] ära  [²æːɾä]  'hono(u)r' Allophone of /ɛː, ɛ/ before /r/. See Swedish phonology
Stockholm[46] läsa [²læːsä] 'to read' Realization of /ɛː, ɛ/ for younger speakers. Higher [ɛː, ɛ̝ ~ ɛ] for other speakers
Turkish[47] sen [s̪æn̪] 'you' Allophone of /e/ before syllable-final /m, n, l, r/. In a limited number of words (but not before /r/), it is in free variation with [].[47] See Turkish phonology

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ a b Grønnum (1998:100)
  3. ^ Basbøll (2005:46)
  4. ^ Donaldson (1993:3)
  5. ^ Holes (2004:60)
  6. ^ Berta (1998:183)
  7. ^ a b Rafel (1999:14)
  8. ^ Basbøll (2005:45)
  9. ^ Basbøll (2005:32)
  10. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:92, 129)
  11. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:92, 128–129, 131)
  12. ^ Gordon & Maclagan (2004:609)
  13. ^ Wells (1982:486)
  14. ^ a b Gimson (2014:119–120)
  15. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009:368)
  16. ^ Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008:21)
  17. ^ Collins & Mees (2013:226)
  18. ^ a b Walker (1984:75)
  19. ^ a b Moosmüller, Schmid & Brandstätter (2015:342)
  20. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:40)
  21. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:64)
  22. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:65)
  23. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:34, 64–65)
  24. ^ a b c Newton (1972:11)
  25. ^ Revithiadou & Spyropoulos (2009:41)
  26. ^ Szende (1994:92)
  27. ^ François (2005:466)
  28. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:159)
  29. ^ a b Peters (2006:119)
  30. ^ a b Verhoeven (2007:221)
  31. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)
  32. ^ Vanvik (1979:13)
  33. ^ Popperwell (2010:16, 21–22)
  34. ^ Majidi & Ternes (1991)
  35. ^ Campbell (1995)
  36. ^ Portuguese: A Linguistic Introduction – by Milton M. Azevedo Page 186.
  37. ^ Lista das marcas dialetais e ouros fenómenos de variação (fonética e fonológica) identificados nas amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP (in Portuguese)
  38. ^ a b Pop (1938), p. 29.
  39. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:50)
  40. ^ Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015:224–225)
  41. ^ a b Okuka 2008, p. 171.
  42. ^ Perera & Jones (1919:5)
  43. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  44. ^ Eliasson (1986:273)
  45. ^ Thorén & Petterson (1992:15)
  46. ^ a b Riad (2014:38)
  47. ^ a b Göksel & Kerslake (2005:10)

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit