Open main menu

Close-mid central rounded vowel

The close-mid central rounded vowel, or high-mid central rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɵ⟩, a lowercase barred letter o.

Close-mid central rounded vowel
ɵ
ö
IPA number323
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɵ
Unicode (hex)U+0275
X-SAMPA8
Kirshenbaum@.
Braille⠴ (braille pattern dots-356)⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
Listen

The character ɵ has been used in several Latin-derived alphabets such as the one for Yañalif, but in that language it denotes a different sound than it does in the IPA. The character is homographic with Cyrillic Ө. The Unicode code point is U+019F Ɵ LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH MIDDLE TILDE (HTML Ɵ).

This vowel occurs in Cantonese, Dutch, French, Russian and Swedish as well as in a number of English dialects as a realization of /ʊ/ (as in foot), /ɜː/ (as in nurse) or even /oʊ/ (as in goat).

This sound rarely contrasts with the near-close front rounded vowel. For this reason, it may be sometimes transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʏ⟩.

Contents

Close-mid central protruded vowelEdit

The close-mid central protruded vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨ɵ⟩, and that is the convention used in this article. As there is no dedicated diacritic for protrusion in the IPA, symbol for the close central rounded vowel with an old diacritic for labialization, ⟨  ̫⟩, can be used as an ad hoc symbol ⟨ɵ̫⟩ for the close central protruded vowel. Another possible transcription is ⟨ɵʷ⟩ or ⟨ɘʷ⟩ (a close central vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.

FeaturesEdit

IPA: Vowels
Front Central Back
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Paired vowels are: unrounded  rounded

OccurrenceEdit

Note: Because central rounded vowels are assumed to have protrusion, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have compression.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Azerbaijani Standard [example needed] Typically transcribed as /œ/.
Chinese Cantonese /ceot7 [tsʰɵt˥] 'to go out' See Cantonese phonology
Dutch Standard[2][3] hut [ɦɵt] 'hut' See Dutch phonology
English Cardiff[4] foot [fɵt] 'foot' More often unrounded [ɘ];[5] corresponds to [ʊ] in other dialects. See English phonology
Cultivated South African[6] Younger, especially female speakers.[6] Other speakers have a less front vowel [ʊ]. May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʊ̟⟩ or ⟨ʉ̞⟩. See South African English phonology
Received Pronunciation[7] [fɵʔt] Younger speakers. Others pronounce [ʊ]. See English phonology
Hull[8] goat [ɡɵːt] 'goat' Corresponds to /oʊ/ in other dialects.
New Zealand[9] bird [bɵːd] 'bird' Possible realization of /ɵː/. See New Zealand English phonology
French[10] je [ʒɵ] 'I' May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩ or ⟨ɵ⟩. Also described as mid [ɵ̞].[11][12] May be more front for a number of speakers. See French phonology
German Swabian[13] wird [ʋɵʕ̞d̥] 'becomes' Allophone of /i/ before /ʁ/.[13]
Upper Saxon[14] Wunder [ˈʋɵn̪(t̪)oˤ] 'wonder' The example word is from the Chemnitz dialect.
Hiw[15] yöykö [jɵjkɵŋ] 'forget'
Irish Munster[16] dúnadh [ˈd̪ˠuːn̪ˠө] 'closing' Allophone of /ə/ adjacent to broad consonants, when the vowel in the preceding syllable is either /uː/ or /ʊ/.[16] See Irish phonology
Limburgish Most dialects[17][18][19] bluts [blɵts] 'bump' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʏ⟩. The example word is from the Weert dialect.[17][18][19]
Maastrichtian[18] beuk [bɵːk] 'books' Sometimes realized as a narrow diphthong [ɵʉ̞];[18] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨øː⟩. Front [øː] in other dialects.[17][20]
Mongolian[21] өгөх [ɵɡɵx] 'to give'
Norwegian Urban East[22] søt [sɵːt] 'sweet' Also described as front [ø̫ː];[23] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨øː⟩. See Norwegian phonology
Ripuarian Kerkrade dialect[24] sjuts [ʃɵts] 'marksman'
Russian[25] тётя  [ˈtʲɵtʲə] 'aunt' Allophone of /o/ following a palatalized consonant. See Russian phonology
Tajik[26] кӯҳ [kʰɵːh] 'mountain' Merges with /u/ in central and southern dialects.
Toda ? [pɵːr̘] 'name'
Uzbek koʻz [kɵz] 'eye'
West Frisian Standard[27][28] put [pɵt] 'well' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ø⟩. See West Frisian phonology
Southwestern dialects[29] fuotten [ˈfɵtn̩] 'feet' Corresponds to [wo] in other dialects.[29] See West Frisian phonology
Xumi Lower[30] [RPʎ̟ɐtsɵ] 'to filter tea' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʉ⟩.[30]
Upper[31] [Htɵ] 'way to do things' Allophone of /o/ after alveolar consonants; may be realized as [o] or [ɤ] instead.[31]

Close-mid central compressed vowelEdit

Close-mid central compressed vowel
ø̈
ɘ͡β̞
ɘᵝ

As there is no official diacritic for compression in the IPA, the centering diacritic is used with the front rounded vowel [ø], which is normally compressed. Other possible transcriptions are ⟨ɘ͡β̞⟩ (simultaneous [ɘ] and labial compression) and ⟨ɘᵝ⟩ ([ɘ] modified with labial compression).

FeaturesEdit

OccurrenceEdit

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Swedish Central Standard[32] full [fø̈lː] 'full' More often described as mid [ɵ̞ᵝ].[33][34] See Swedish phonology

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ van Heuven & Genet (2002).
  3. ^ Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  4. ^ Collins & Mees (1990:92–93)
  5. ^ Collins & Mees (1990:92)
  6. ^ a b Lass (2002), pp. 115-116.
  7. ^ "Received Pronunciation Phonology". The British Library.
  8. ^ Williams & Kerswill (1999), pp. 143 and 146.
  9. ^ Bauer et al. (2007), pp. 98–99.
  10. ^ "english speech services | Le FOOT vowel". Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  11. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  12. ^ Lodge (2009), p. 84.
  13. ^ a b Khan & Weise (2013), p. 237.
  14. ^ Khan & Weise (2013), p. 236.
  15. ^ François (2013), p. 207.
  16. ^ a b Ó Sé (2000).
  17. ^ a b c Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  18. ^ a b c d Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  19. ^ a b Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 110.
  20. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  21. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 62, 66–67.
  22. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), pp. 16–17, 33–35, 37, 343.
  23. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 20.
  24. ^ Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997:16). The source describes this vowel as the same as the short u in Standard Dutch lucht, which is close-mid central [ɵ] (van Heuven & Genet (2002)).
  25. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), pp. 62–63.
  26. ^ Ido (2014), pp. 91–92.
  27. ^ Sipma (1913), pp. 6, 8, 10.
  28. ^ Tiersma (1999), p. 11.
  29. ^ a b Hoekstra (2003:202), citing Hof (1933:14)
  30. ^ a b Chirkova & Chen (2013), pp. 369–370.
  31. ^ a b Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), p. 389.
  32. ^ Andersson (2002), p. 272.
  33. ^ Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  34. ^ Rosenqvist (2007), p. 9.

ReferencesEdit