Close-mid central rounded vowel

The close-mid central rounded vowel, or high-mid central rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɵ, a lowercase barred letter o.

Close-mid central rounded vowel
IPA Number323
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)ɵ
Unicode (hex)U+0275
Braille⠴ (braille pattern dots-356)⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)

The character ɵ has been used in several Latin-derived alphabets such as the one for Yañalif but then denotes a sound that is different from that of the IPA. The character is homographic with Cyrillic Ө. The Unicode code point is U+019F Ɵ LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH MIDDLE TILDE.

This vowel occurs in Cantonese, Dutch, French, Russian and Swedish as well as in a number of English dialects as a realization of /ʊ/ (as in foot), /ɜː/ (as in nurse) or /oʊ/ (as in goat).

This sound rarely contrasts with the near-close front rounded vowel and so is sometimes transcribed with the symbol ʏ (the symbol for the near-close front rounded vowel).

Close-mid central protruded vowel edit

The close-mid central protruded vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ɵ, and that is the convention used in this article. As there is no dedicated diacritic for protrusion in the IPA, symbol for the close central rounded vowel with an old diacritic for labialization,   ̫, can be used as an ad hoc symbol ɵ̫ for the close central protruded vowel. Another possible transcription is ɵʷ or ɘʷ (a close central vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.

Features edit

Occurrence edit

Because central rounded vowels are assumed to have protrusion, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have compression.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Asturian Some Western dialects[2] fuöra [ˈfwɵɾɐ] 'outside' Realization of ⟨o⟩ in the diphthong ⟨uo⟩. May also be realized as [ø] or [œ].
Azeri Tabriz[3] göz گؤز [gɵz] 'eye' Typically transcribed as /œ/.
Chinese Cantonese /ceot7 [tsʰɵt˥] 'to go out' See Cantonese phonology
Dutch Standard[4][5] hut [ɦɵt] 'hut' See Dutch phonology
English Cardiff[6] foot [fɵt] 'foot' More often unrounded [ɘ];[7] corresponds to [ʊ] in other dialects. See English phonology
General South African[8] Younger, especially female speakers.[8] Other speakers have a less front vowel [ʊ]. May be transcribed in IPA with ʊ̟ or ʉ̞. See South African English phonology
Modern Received Pronunciation[9] [fɵʔt] [ʊ] in more conservative varieties. See English phonology
Hull[10] goat [ɡɵːt] 'goat' Corresponds to /oʊ/ in other dialects.
New Zealand[11] bird [bɵːd] 'bird' Corresponds to /ɜː(r)/ in other dialects. See New Zealand English phonology
French[12] je [ʒɵ] 'I' May be transcribed in IPA with ə or ɵ. Also described as mid [ɵ̞].[13][14] May be more front for a number of speakers. See French phonology
German Swabian[15] wird [ʋɵʕ̞d̥] 'becomes' Allophone of /i/ before /ʁ/.[15]
Upper Saxon[16] Wunder [ˈv̞ɵn(d̥)oˤ] 'wonder' The example word is from the Chemnitz dialect.
Hiw[17] yöykö [jɵjkɵŋ] 'forget'
Irish Munster[18] dúnadh [ˈd̪ˠuːn̪ˠө] 'closing' Allophone of /ə/ adjacent to broad consonants, when the vowel in the preceding syllable is either /uː/ or /ʊ/.[18] See Irish phonology
Kazakh көз [kɵz] 'eye' Typically transcribed in IPA with œ.
Limburgish Most dialects[19][20][21] bluts [blɵts] 'bump' Typically transcribed in IPA with ʏ. The example word is from the Weert dialect.[19][20][21]
Maastrichtian[20] beuk [bɵːk] 'books' Sometimes realized as a narrow diphthong [ɵʉ̞];[20] typically transcribed in IPA with øː. Front [øː] in other dialects.[19][22]
Mongolian[23] өгөх/ögökh [ɵɡɵx] 'to give'
Norwegian Stavangersk[24] gull [ɡɵl] 'gold' Near-close [ʉ̞] in other dialects that have this vowel.[24] Typically transcribed in IPA with ʉ. See Norwegian phonology
Urban East[25] søt [sɵːt] 'sweet' Also described as front [ø̫ː];[26] typically transcribed in IPA with øː. See Norwegian phonology
Ripuarian Kerkrade dialect[27] sjuts [ʃɵts] 'marksman' See Kerkrade dialect phonology
Russian[28] тётя/tyotya [ˈtʲɵtʲə] 'aunt' Allophone of /o/ following a palatalized consonant. See Russian phonology
Tajik Northern dialects[29] кӯҳ/kūh [kɵh] 'mountain' May be realized as mid [ɵ̞], merged with /u/ in the central and southern dialects. See Tajik phonology
Toda பர்/pȫr [pɵːr̘] 'name'
Uzbek kz/кўз [kɵz] 'eye' Allophone of /o/, especially near velar consonants /k/ and /g/. May be realized as mid [ɵ̞]. See Uzbek phonology
West Frisian Standard[30][31] put [pɵt] 'well' Typically transcribed in IPA with ø. See West Frisian phonology
Southwestern dialects[32] fuotten [ˈfɵtn̩] 'feet' Corresponds to [wo] in other dialects.[32] See West Frisian phonology
Xumi Lower[33] ľatsö [ʎ̟ɐtsɵ˦] 'to filter tea' Typically transcribed in IPA with ʉ.[33]
Upper[34] htö [htɵ] 'way to do things' Allophone of /o/ after alveolar consonants; may be realized as [o] or [ɤ] instead.[34]

Close-mid central compressed vowel edit

Close-mid central compressed vowel

As there is no official diacritic for compression in the IPA, the centering diacritic is used with the front rounded vowel [ø], which is normally compressed. Other possible transcriptions are ɘ͡β̞ (simultaneous [ɘ] and labial compression) and ɘᵝ ([ɘ] modified with labial compression).

Features edit

Occurrence edit

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Swedish Central Standard[35] full [fø̈lː] 'full' More often described as mid [ɵ̞ᵝ].[36][37] See Swedish phonology

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ García, Fernando Álvarez-Balbuena (1 September 2015). "Na frontera del asturllionés y el gallegoportugués: descripción y exame horiométricu de la fala de Fernidiellu (Forniella, Llión). Parte primera: fonética". Revista de Filoloxía Asturiana. 14 (14). ISSN 2341-1147.
  3. ^ Mokari & Werner (2016).
  4. ^ van Heuven & Genet (2002).
  5. ^ Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  6. ^ Collins & Mees (1990:92–93)
  7. ^ Collins & Mees (1990:92)
  8. ^ a b Lass (2002), pp. 115–116.
  9. ^ Robinson, Jonnie (1 April 2007), "Received Pronunciation Phonology", Diverse voices: language, accent and dialect in the UK, The British Library, archived from the original on 25 December 2018, retrieved 26 October 2012
  10. ^ Williams & Kerswill (1999), pp. 143 and 146.
  11. ^ Bauer et al. (2007), pp. 98–99.
  12. ^ Lindsey, Geoff (15 January 2012). "english speech services | Le FOOT vowel". Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  13. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  14. ^ Lodge (2009), p. 84.
  15. ^ a b Khan & Weise (2013), p. 237.
  16. ^ Khan & Weise (2013), p. 236.
  17. ^ François (2013), p. 207.
  18. ^ a b Ó Sé (2000).
  19. ^ a b c Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  20. ^ a b c d Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  21. ^ a b Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 110.
  22. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  23. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 62, 66–67.
  24. ^ a b Vanvik (1979), p. 19.
  25. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), pp. 16–17, 33–35, 37, 343.
  26. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 20.
  27. ^ Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997:16). The source describes this vowel as the same as the short u in Standard Dutch lucht, which is close-mid central [ɵ] (van Heuven & Genet (2002)).
  28. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), pp. 62–63.
  29. ^ Ido (2014), pp. 91–92.
  30. ^ Sipma (1913), pp. 6, 8, 10.
  31. ^ Tiersma (1999), p. 11.
  32. ^ a b Hoekstra (2003:202), citing Hof (1933:14)
  33. ^ a b Chirkova & Chen (2013), pp. 369–370.
  34. ^ a b Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), p. 389.
  35. ^ Andersson (2002), p. 272.
  36. ^ Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  37. ^ Rosenqvist (2007), p. 9.

References edit

External links edit