Near-close near-back rounded vowel

The near-close near-back rounded vowel, or near-high near-back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The IPA symbol that represents this sound is ʊ. It is informally called "horseshoe u". Prior to 1989, there was an alternative IPA symbol for this sound, ɷ, called "closed omega"; use of this symbol is no longer sanctioned by the IPA.[2] In Americanist phonetic notation, the symbol (a small capital U) is used. Sometimes, especially in broad transcription, this vowel is transcribed with a simpler symbol u, which technically represents the close back rounded vowel.

Near-close near-back rounded vowel
IPA Number321
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)ʊ
Unicode (hex)U+028A
Braille⠷ (braille pattern dots-12356)
Spectrogram of ʊ

Handbook of the International Phonetic Association defines [ʊ] as a mid-centralized (lowered and centralized) close back rounded vowel (transcribed [u̽] or [ü̞]), and the current official IPA name of the vowel transcribed with the symbol ʊ is near-close near-back rounded vowel.[3] However, some languages have the close-mid near-back rounded vowel, a vowel that is somewhat lower than the canonical value of [ʊ], though it still fits the definition of a mid-centralized [u]. It occurs in some dialects of English (such as General American and Geordie)[4][5] as well as some other languages (such as Maastrichtian Limburgish).[6] It can be transcribed with the symbol ʊ̞ (a lowered ʊ) in narrow transcription. For the close-mid (near-)back rounded vowel that is not usually transcribed with the symbol ʊ (or u), see close-mid back rounded vowel.

In some other languages (such as Bengali and Luxembourgish)[7][8] as well as some dialects of English (such as Scottish)[9][10] there is a fully back near-close rounded vowel (a sound between cardinal [u] and [o]), which can be transcribed in IPA with ʊ̠, or .

Near-close back protruded vowel edit

The near-close back protruded vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ʊ, and that is the convention used in this article. As there is no dedicated diacritic for protrusion in the IPA, symbol for the near-close back rounded vowel with an old diacritic for labialization,   ̫, can be used as an ad hoc symbol ʊ̫ for the near-close back protruded vowel. Another possible transcription is ʊʷ or ɯ̽ʷ (a near-close back vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.

The close-mid near-back protruded vowel can be transcribed ʊ̞ʷ or ʊ̫˕, whereas the fully back near-close protruded vowel can be transcribed u̞ʷ, ɯ̞ʷ or u̫˕.

Features edit

  • Its vowel height is near-close, also known as near-high, which means the tongue is not quite so constricted as a close vowel (high vowel).
  • Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned back in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. The prototypical [ʊ] is somewhat further front (near-back) than the neighboring cardinal vowels.
  • Its roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, and the inner surfaces exposed. The prototypical [ʊ] has a weak protruded rounding, more like [ɔ] than the neighboring cardinal vowels.

Occurrence edit

Because back rounded vowels are assumed to have protrusion, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have compression. In the table below, vowels transcribed with have a considerably stronger rounding than the prototypical value of ʊ.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[11] Botha [ˈbʊ̞ˑta] 'Botha' Close-mid. Allophone of /ʊə/ in less stressed words, in stressed syllables of polysyllabic words and word-finally when unstressed. In the second case, it is in free variation with the diphthongal realization [ʊə̯ ~ ʊ̯ə ~ ʊə].[11] See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic Hejazi قُلْت/gult [gʊlt] 'I said' Allophone of /u/ in medial and initial positions. See Hejazi phonology
Assamese[12] কোৰ/kûr [kʊɹ] 'hoe' Close-mid;[12] also described as open [ɒ].[13]
Bengali[7] তুমি/tumī [ˈt̪u̞ˌmiː] 'you' Fully back;[7] typically transcribed in IPA with u. See Bengali phonology
Burmese[14] မွတ်/ [mʊʔ] 'smooth' Allophone of /u/ in syllables closed by a glottal stop and when nasalized.[14]
Chinese Mandarin[15] / hóng [xʊŋ˧˥] 'red' Fully back; height varies between mid and close depending on the speaker. See Standard Chinese phonology
Shanghainese[16] / [kʊ¹] 'melon' The height varies between close and close-mid; contrasts with a close to close-mid back compressed vowel.[16]
Danish Standard[17] mave [ˈmɛːʊ] 'stomach' Phonetic realization of the sequence /və/.[17] See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard Northern[18] oren [ˈʊːrə(n)] 'ears' Allophone of /oː/ before /r/. Can be a centering diphthong [ʊə] instead, especially before coda /r/. See Dutch phonology
Some speakers[19] hok [ɦʊk] 'den' Contrasts with /ɔ/ in certain words, but many speakers have only one vowel /ɔ/.[19] See Dutch phonology
English Irish[20] hook [hʊk] 'hook'
Welsh[21][22] In Cardiff, it is advanced and lowered to [ɵ], often also with unrounding to [ɘ].[23]
Cockney[24] [ʊʔk] Sometimes fronted to [ʊ̈].[24]
Conservative New Zealand[25][26] [hʊʔk] The height varies from near-close to close-mid. The innovative General New Zealand variant is fronted and unrounded to [ɪ̈ ~ ɘ].[26][27] See New Zealand English phonology
Conservative Received Pronunciation[28] Often lowered and advanced to [ɵ], or unrounded to [ɘ]. See English phonology
Multicultural London[29] May be front [ʏ] instead.[29]
Some Estuary speakers[31] Often advanced to [ʊ̈ ~ ʏ], or advanced and lowered to [ɵ ~ ʏ̞].[31]
General American[4] [hʊ̞k] Close-mid.[4][5][32]
Southern Michigan[32]
Northern England cut [kʊt] 'cut' Phonetic realization of /ʌ/ in most dialects without the foot-strut split.[33]
Local Dublin[34]
Australian[35][36] thought [θo̝ːt] 'thought' Fully back.[35][36][37] In New Zealand English, the height varies from near-close [o̝ː] (a typical value in General NZE) to mid [o̞ː] (a typical value in Maori English).[25][37][38] It corresponds to [ɔː] in other dialects. See Australian English phonology and New Zealand English phonology
General New Zealand[39]
Scottish[9][10] go [ɡo̝ː] 'go' Fully back.[9][10] Corresponds to [oʊ] in other dialects.
Faroese gult [kʊɬt] 'yellow' See Faroese phonology
French Quebec[40] foule [fʊl] 'crowd' Allophone of /u/ in closed syllables.[40] See Quebec French phonology
German Standard[41][42] Stunde [ˈʃtʊndə] 'hour' The quality has been variously described as near-close back [ʊ̠][41] and close-mid near-back [ʊ̞].[43] For some speakers, it may be as high as [u].[44] See Standard German phonology
Hindustani[45] Hindi गुलाब/gulāb [gʊˈläːb] 'rose' See Hindustani phonology
Urdu گلاب/gulāb
Hungarian[46] ujj [ʊjː] 'finger' Typically transcribed in IPA with u. See Hungarian phonology
Irish Munster[47] dubh [d̪ˠʊvˠ] 'black' Allophone of /ʊ/ between broad consonants.[47] See Irish phonology
Italian Central-Southern accents[48] ombra [ˈo̝mbrä] 'shade' Fully back; local realization of /o/.[48] See Italian phonology
Kurdish[49][50] Kurmanji (Northern) gul [gʊl] 'flower' See Kurdish phonology
Sorani (Central) گـوڵ/gul
Palewani (Southern)
Latin Classical puella [pʊɛlla] 'girl'
Limburgish Some dialects[6][51] póp [pʊ̞p] 'doll' Close-mid in the Maastrichtian dialect.[6] The example word is from that dialect.
Luxembourgish[8] Sprooch [ʃpʀo̝ːχ] 'language' Fully back.[8] Typically transcribed in IPA with . See Luxembourgish phonology
Malay mampus [mam.pʊs] 'die' Allophone of /u/ in closed-final syllables. May be [o] or [] depending on the speaker. See Malay phonology
Pashayi Lower Darai Nur dialect[52] صُر/sar [sʊ̞r] 'sun' Close-mid.[52]
Portuguese Brazilian[53] pulo [ˈpulʊ] 'leap' Reduction and neutralization of unstressed /u, o, ɔ/; can be voiceless. See Portuguese phonology
Russian[54] сухой suhoj [s̪ʊˈxʷo̞j] 'dry' Unstressed allophone of /u/.[54] See Russian phonology
Saterland Frisian[55] Roop [ʀo̝ːp] 'rope' Phonetic realization of /oː/ and /ʊ/. Near-close back [o̝ː] in the former case, close-mid near-back [ʊ̞] in the latter. Phonetically, the latter is nearly identical to /ɔː/ ([o̟ː]).[55]
Scots Glenoe dialect[56] go [ɡo̝ː] 'go' Fully back.[56]
Rathlin dialect[56]
Scottish Gaelic Some dialects talamh [ˈt̪ʰal̪ˠʊ] 'land' Reduction of word-final /əv/; a similar phenomenon is seen in Ulster Irish.
Sinhalese[57] හුඟක්/huňgak [ɦʊ̜ᵑɡak] 'much' Only weakly rounded;[58] typically transcribed in IPA with u.
Slovak[59][60] ruka [ˈru̞kä] 'arm' Typically fully back.[59] See Slovak phonology
Sotho[61] potso [pʼʊ̠t͡sʼɔ] 'query' Fully back; contrasts close, near-close and close-mid back rounded vowels.[61] See Sotho phonology
Spanish Eastern Andalusian[62] tus [t̪ʊ̠ː] 'your' (pl.) Fully back. Corresponds to [u] in other dialects, but in these dialects they are distinct. See Spanish phonology
Turkish[63] buzlu [buz̪ˈl̠ʊ] 'icy' Allophone of /u/ described variously as "word-final"[63] and "occurring in final open syllable of a phrase".[64] See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[65] Мусій [mʊˈsij] 'Musiy' (name) See Ukrainian phonology
Welsh graidd [ɡʊ.raið] 'manly' See Welsh phonology
Yoruba[66] lati sun [lati sũ̟] 'to sleep' Near-back or back; typically transcribed in IPA with ũ. It is nasalized, and may be close [ũ̟ ~ ũ] instead.[66]

Near-close back compressed vowel edit

Near-close back compressed vowel

Some languages, such as Norwegian, are found with a near-close back vowel that has a distinct type of rounding, called compressed or exolabial.

There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA. However, the compression of the lips can be shown with the letter ⟨β̞⟩ as ɯ̽͡β̞ (simultaneous [ɯ̽] and labial compression) or ɯ̽ᵝ ([ɯ̽] modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic   ͍ may also be used with a rounded vowel letter ʊ͍ as an ad hoc symbol, though technically 'spread' means unrounded.

Only the Shanghainese dialect is known to contrast this with the more typical protruded (endolabial) near-close back vowel, although the height of both of these vowels varies from close to close-mid.[16]

The fully back variant of the near-close compressed vowel can be transcribed ɯ̞͡β̞, ɯ̞ᵝ or u͍˕.

Features edit

  • Its vowel height is near-close, also known as near-high, which means the tongue is not quite so constricted as a close vowel (high vowel).
  • Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned back in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its roundedness is compressed, which means that the margins of the lips are tense and drawn together in such a way that the inner surfaces are not exposed. The prototypical [ʊ] has a weak rounding (though it is protruded, rather than compressed), more like [ɔ] than the neighboring cardinal vowels.

Occurrence edit

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chinese Shanghainese[16] [tɯ̽ᵝ¹] 'capital' The height varies between close and close-mid; contrasts with a close to close-mid back protruded vowel.[16]
Norwegian[67][68] ond [ɯ̞ᵝnː] 'evil' Backness varies among dialects; it is a back vowel [ɯ̞ᵝ] in Urban East Norwegian, whereas in Stavangersk it is near-back [ɯ̽ᵝ].[67] The UEN vowel has also been described as close back [ɯᵝ].[69] See Norwegian phonology
Swedish Central Standard[70][71] ort [ɯ̽ᵝʈː] 'locality' The quality has been variously described as near-close near-back [ɯ̽ᵝ],[70] near-close back [ɯ̞ᵝ][71] and close back [ɯᵝ].[72] See Swedish phonology

Notes edit

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999), p. 169.
  3. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999), pp. 13, 170, 180.
  4. ^ a b c Wells (1982), p. 486.
  5. ^ a b c Watt & Allen (2003), p. 268.
  6. ^ a b c Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), pp. 158–159.
  7. ^ a b c Khan (2010), p. 222.
  8. ^ a b c Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 70.
  9. ^ a b c Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  10. ^ a b c Lindsey (2012b).
  11. ^ a b Lass (1987), p. 119.
  12. ^ a b Mahanta (2012), p. 220.
  13. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), pp. 293–294.
  14. ^ a b Watkins (2001), p. 293.
  15. ^ Lee & Zee (2003), p. 111.
  16. ^ a b c d e Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), pp. 328–329.
  17. ^ a b Basbøll (2005), p. 58.
  18. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 134, 200–201.
  19. ^ a b van Oostendorp (2013), section 29.
  20. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 421–422.
  21. ^ Connolly (1990), p. 125.
  22. ^ Tench (1990), p. 135.
  23. ^ Collins & Mees (1990), pp. 92–93.
  24. ^ a b Mott (2011), p. 75.
  25. ^ a b Bauer et al. (2007), p. 98.
  26. ^ a b Hay, Maclagan & Gordon (2008), p. 24.
  27. ^ Bauer et al. (2007), pp. 98, 100–101.
  28. ^ Lindsey (2012a).
  29. ^ a b Cruttenden (2014), p. 91.
  30. ^ Lodge (2009), p. 168.
  31. ^ a b Altendorf & Watt (2004), p. 188.
  32. ^ a b Hillenbrand (2003), p. 122.
  33. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 132, 196–199, 351–353.
  34. ^ "Glossary". Retrieved 2021-04-23.
  35. ^ a b Cox & Palethorpe (2007), p. 344.
  36. ^ a b Cox & Fletcher (2017), p. 65.
  37. ^ a b Hay, Maclagan & Gordon (2008), p. 21.
  38. ^ Warren & Bauer (2004), p. 617.
  39. ^ Hay, Maclagan & Gordon (2008), pp. 21–22.
  40. ^ a b Walker (1984), pp. 51–60.
  41. ^ a b Kohler (1999), p. 87.
  42. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), pp. 34, 64.
  43. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  44. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 64.
  45. ^ Ohala (1999), p. 102.
  46. ^ Szende (1994), p. 92.
  47. ^ a b Ó Sé (2000), p. ?.
  48. ^ a b Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005), p. 137.
  49. ^ Thackston (2006a), p. 1.
  50. ^ Khan & Lescot (1970), pp. 8–16.
  51. ^ Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 110.
  52. ^ a b Lamuwal & Baker (2013), p. 245.
  53. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004), p. 229.
  54. ^ a b Jones & Ward (1969), p. 69.
  55. ^ a b Peters (2017), p. ?.
  56. ^ a b c Gregg (1953).
  57. ^ Perera & Jones (1919), pp. 5, 10.
  58. ^ Perera & Jones (1919), p. 10.
  59. ^ a b Pavlík (2004), pp. 93, 95.
  60. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 375.
  61. ^ a b Doke & Mofokeng (1974), p. ?.
  62. ^ a b Zamora Vicente (1967), p. ?.
  63. ^ a b Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 10.
  64. ^ Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 155.
  65. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  66. ^ a b Bamgboṣe (1966), p. 166.
  67. ^ a b Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 18.
  68. ^ While Vanvik (1979) does not describe the exact type of rounding of this vowel, some other sources (e.g. Haugen (1974:40) and Kristoffersen (2000:16)) state explicitly that it is compressed.
  69. ^ Kvifte & Gude-Husken (2005), p. 2.
  70. ^ a b Rosenqvist (2007), p. 9.
  71. ^ a b Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  72. ^ Dahlstedt (1967), p. 16.

References edit

External links edit