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Open-mid back rounded vowel

The open-mid back rounded vowel, or low-mid back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɔ⟩. The IPA symbol is a turned letter c and both the symbol and the sound are commonly called "open-o". The name open-o represents the sound, in that it is like the sound represented by ⟨o⟩, the close-mid back rounded vowel, except it is more open. It also represents the symbol, which can be remembered as an o which has been "opened" by removing part of the closed circular shape.

Open-mid back rounded vowel
ɔ
IPA Number306
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɔ
Unicode (hex)U+0254
X-SAMPAO
Braille⠣ (braille pattern dots-126)
Audio sample

In English, the symbol ⟨ɔ⟩ (or ⟨ɔː⟩) is typically associated with the vowel in "thought", but in Received Pronunciation, Australian English, New Zealand English and South African English that vowel is produced with considerably stronger lip rounding and higher tongue position than that of cardinal [ɔ], i.e. as close-mid [] or somewhat lower. Open-mid [ɔː] or even open [ɒː] realizations are found in North American English (where this vowel is often indistinguishable from the open back unrounded vowel in "bra"), Hiberno-English, Northern England English, Scottish English and Welsh English. In RP, the open-mid realization of /ɔː/ has been obsolete since the 1930s. Pronouncing that vowel as such is subject to correction for non-native speakers aiming at RP.[2][3][4][5]

In Received Pronunciation and Australian English, the open-mid back rounded vowel occurs as the main allophone of the LOT vowel /ɒ/. The contrast between /ɔː/ and /ɒ/ is thus strongly maintained, with the former vowel being realized as close-mid [] and the latter as open-mid [ɔ], similarly to the contrast between /o/ and /ɔ/ found in German, Italian and Portuguese.[2][3][6]

FeaturesEdit

OccurrenceEdit

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[7] հողմ [hɔʁm] 'storm'
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[8] [example needed] May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɒ⟩.[8]
Bengali[9] অর্থ [ɔrt̪ʰo] 'meaning' See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian[10] род [rɔt̪] 'kin' See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan[11] soc [ˈsɔk] 'clog' See Catalan phonology
Cipu Tirisino dialect[12] kødø [kɔ̟̀ɗɔ̟́] 'cut down!' Near-back.[13]
Danish Standard[14][15] kort [ˈkʰɔːd̥] 'short' Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɒː⟩. See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard Belgian[16] och  [ʔɔˤx]  'alas' 'Very tense, with strong lip-rounding',[17] strongly pharyngealized[18] (although less so in standard Belgian[19]) and somewhat fronted.[16][20] See Dutch phonology
Standard Northern[20]
English Australian[2] not  [nɔt]  'not' See Australian English phonology
Estuary[21]
New Zealand[22] May be somewhat fronted.[23] Often transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɒ⟩. See New Zealand English phonology
Received Pronunciation[3][6] /ɒ/ has shifted up in emerging RP.
General American thought [θɔːt] 'thought' Mainly in speakers without the cot–caught merger. It may be lower [ɒ]. (It is rarely lowered to /ɒ/ in before liquids /l ɹ/, and may thus be more familiar to many North Americans in r-colored form, /ɔ˞/.)
Scottish[24] Many Scottish dialects exhibit the cot-caught merger, the outcome of which is a vowel of [ɔ] quality.
Sheffield[25] goat [ɡɔːt] 'goat' Common realization of the GOAT vowel particularly for males.
Newfoundland[26] but [bɔt] 'but' Less commonly unrounded [ʌ].[26] See English phonology
Faroese[27] toldi [ˈtʰɔltɪ] 'endured' See Faroese phonology
French[28][29] sort [sɔːʁ] 'fate' The Parisian realization has been variously described as back [ɔ][28] and near-back [ɔ̟].[29] See French phonology
Galician home [ˈɔmɪ] 'man' See Galician phonology
Georgian[30] სწრი [st͡sʼɔɾi] 'correct'
German Standard[31] voll  [fɔl]  'full' See Standard German phonology
Italian[32] parola  [päˈrɔ̟ːlä]  'word' Near-back.[32] See Italian phonology
Kaingang[33] [ˈpɔ] 'stone'
Kera[34] [dɔ̟̀l] 'hard earth' Near-back.[34]
Kokborok kwrwi [kɔrɔi] 'not'
Limburgish[35][36] mòn [mɔːn] 'moon' Lower [ɔ̞ː] in the Maastrichtian dialect.[37] The example word is from the Hasselt dialect.
Lower Sorbian[38] osba [ˈpʂɔz̪bä] 'a request'
Low German Most dialects stok [stɔk] 'stick' May be more open [ɒ] in the Netherlands or more closed [o̞] in East Prussian dialects.
Various dialects slaap [slɔːp] 'sleep' May be as low as [ɒː] and as high as [oː] in other dialects.
Southern Eastphalian brâd[39] [brɔːt] 'bread' Corresponds to [oː], [ou̯], [ɔu̯], [ɛo̯] in other dialects.
Luxembourgish[40] Sonn [zɔn] 'son' Possible realization of /o/.[40] See Luxembourgish phonology
Norwegian Some dialects[41] så [sɔː] 'so' Present e.g. in Telemark; realized as mid [ɔ̝ː] in other dialects.[41] See Norwegian phonology
Oriya ହଁ [hɔ̃] 'yes'
Polish[42] kot  [kɔt̪]  'cat' See Polish phonology
Portuguese Most dialects[43][44] fofoca [fɔˈfɔ̞kɐ] 'gossip' Stressed vowel might be lower. The presence and use of other unstressed ⟨o⟩ allophones, such as [ o ʊ u], varies according to dialect.
Some speakers[45] bronca [ˈbɾɔ̃kə] 'scolding' Stressed vowel, allophone of nasal vowel /õ̞/. See Portuguese phonology
Russian Some speakers[46] сухой [s̪ʊˈxɔj] 'dry' More commonly realized as mid [].[46] See Russian phonology
Temne[47] pɔn [pɔ̟̀n] 'swamp' Near-back.[47]
Ukrainian[48] любов [lʲuˈbɔw] 'love' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[38][49] pos [pɔs̪] 'dog' See Upper Sorbian phonology
West Frisian[50] rôt [rɔːt] 'rat' See West Frisian phonology
Yoruba[51] Nasalized; may be near-open [ɔ̞̃] instead.[51]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ a b c Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997)
  3. ^ a b c Geoff Lindsey (2012) Morgen — a suitable case for treatment, Speech Talk
  4. ^ Roach (2004:242)
  5. ^ Wells (1982)
  6. ^ a b Wikström (2013:45), "It seems to be the case that younger RP or near-RP speakers typically use a closer quality, possibly approaching Cardinal 6 considering that the quality appears to be roughly intermediate between that used by older speakers for the LOT vowel and that used for the THOUGHT vowel, while older speakers use a more open quality, between Cardinal Vowels 13 and 6."
  7. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:13)
  8. ^ a b Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  9. ^ Khan (2010:222)
  10. ^ Ternes & Vladimirova-Buhtz (1999:56)
  11. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:54)
  12. ^ McGill (2014), pp. 308–309.
  13. ^ McGill (2014), p. 308.
  14. ^ Grønnum (1998:100)
  15. ^ Basbøll (2005:47)
  16. ^ a b Verhoeven (2005:245)
  17. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:132)
  18. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:132, 222 and 224)
  19. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:222)
  20. ^ a b Gussenhoven (1992:47)
  21. ^ Wells (1982:305)
  22. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009)
  23. ^ Bauer et al. (2007:98)
  24. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006:7)
  25. ^ Stoddart, Upton & Widdowson:74)
  26. ^ a b Wells (1982:498)
  27. ^ Árnason (2011:68, 75)
  28. ^ a b Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  29. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2013:225)
  30. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:261–262)
  31. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:34)
  32. ^ a b Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:119)
  33. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676–677 and 682)
  34. ^ a b Pearce (2011:251)
  35. ^ Verhoeven (2007:221)
  36. ^ Peters (2006:118–119)
  37. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:158–159)
  38. ^ a b Stone (2002:600)
  39. ^ Schambach, Gerog (1858), "Wörterbuch der niederdeutschen Mundart der Fürstenthümer Göttingen und Grubenhagen oder GöttingischGrubenhagen'sches Idiotikon", p. 30.
  40. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)
  41. ^ a b Popperwell (2010:26)
  42. ^ Jassem (2003:105)
  43. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  44. ^ Variação inter- e intra-dialetal no português brasileiro: um problema para a teoria fonológica – Seung-Hwa LEE & Marco A. de Oliveira Archived 2014-12-15 at the Wayback Machine
  45. ^ Lista das marcas dialetais e ouros fenómenos de variação (fonética e fonológica) identificados nas amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP (in Portuguese)
  46. ^ a b Jones & Ward (1969:56)
  47. ^ a b Kanu & Tucker (2010:249)
  48. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  49. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984:20)
  50. ^ Tiersma (1999), p. 10.
  51. ^ a b Bamgboṣe (1969:166)

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit