The phonological system of the Polish language is similar in many ways to those of other Slavic languages, although there are some characteristic features found in only a few other languages of the family, such as contrasting retroflex and palatal fricatives and affricates, and nasal vowels. The vowel system is relatively simple, with just six oral monophthongs and two nasals, while the consonant system is more complex.
The vowel systemEdit
The Polish vowel system consists of six oral monophthongs and two nasal diphthongs. Vowel nasality in Polish is partially preserved from Proto-Slavic, having been lost in most other modern Slavic languages.
- /i/ is close front unrounded [i].
- /ɨ/ is close-mid advanced central unrounded [ɘ̟].
- Older sources describe this vowel differently:
- According to Rocławski (1976), it is near-close central unrounded [ɨ̞], with a close-mid central unrounded [ɘ] allophone being optional before /r/ and in some unstressed positions.
- According to Wierzchowska (1971) and Jassem (1971), it is near-close near-front unrounded [ɪ]. However, according to Rocławski (1976), this realization is present only in northeastern dialects.
- Older sources describe this vowel differently:
- /u/ is close back rounded [u]. Between soft consonants, it is somewhat fronted [u̟].
- /ɛ/ is open-mid front unrounded [ɛ]. According to the British phonetician John C. Wells, it is often noticeably centralized [ɛ̈], i.e. somewhat closer to a central vowel [ɜ].
- /ɔ/ is open-mid back.
- There is not a complete agreement about the rounding of /ɔ/:
- According to Gussmann (2007), it is simply "rounded" [ɔ].
- According to Rocławski (1976), it is usually somewhat rounded [ɔ̜], but sometimes, it is pronounced with neutral lips [ʌ]. In the latter case, the lack of rounding is compensated for by a stronger retraction of the tongue.
- According to Wierzchowska (1967), it is unrounded [ʌ].
- There is not a complete agreement about the realization of /ɔ/ between soft consonants:
- There is not a complete agreement about the rounding of /ɔ/:
- Most sources describe the main allophone of /a/ as open central unrounded [ä]. However, Gussmann (2007) describes it as open front unrounded [a].
|/i/||i||miś ('teddy bear')|
|/ɛ/||e||ten ('this one')|
The nasal vowels do not feature uniform nasality over their duration. Phonetically, they consist of an oral vowel followed by a nasal semivowel (so that są is pronounced [sɔw̃], which sounds closer to Portuguese são [sɐ̃w̃] than French sont [sɔ̃] – all three words mean "[they] are"). Therefore, they are phonetically diphthongs. (For nasality following other vowel nuclei, see under Consonant allophony below.) /ɛ ɨ ɔ ɛ̃ ɔ̃/ are also less commonly transcribed /e ɪ o ẽ õ/ respectively, for example by PWN-Oxford Polish-English Dictionary.
The vowels /ɨ/ and /i/ have largely complementary distribution. Either vowel may follow a labial consonant, as in mi ('to me') and my ('we'). Elsewhere, however, /i/ is usually restricted to word-initial position and positions after palatal consonants and the palatalized velars, while /ɨ/ cannot appear in those positions (see Hard and soft consonants below). In some phonological descriptions of Polish that make a phonemic distinction between palatized and unpalatized labials, [ɨ] and [i] may thus be treated as allophones of a single phoneme. However /i/ appears outside its usual positions in some foreign-derived words, as in czipsy ('potato chips') and tir ('large lorry', see TIR). The vowels /ɨ/ and /i/ are considered to rhyme in Polish poetry out of tradition, as in the past /ɨ/ was closer to [ɪ], which is acoustically more similar to [i].
The nasal vowels do not occur except before a fricative and in word-final position. When the letters ą and ę appear before stops and affricates, they indicate an oral /ɔ/ or /ɛ/ followed by a nasal consonant homorganic with the following consonant. For example, kąt is [kɔnt] ('angle'), gęba ('mouth') is [ˈɡɛmba], and pięć ('five') is [pjɛɲt͡ɕ], as if they were spelled *kont, *gemba, and *pieńć. Before /l/ or /w/, the nasality is lost altogether and the vowels are pronounced as oral [ɔ] or [ɛ]. It is also very common to denasalize /ɛ̃/ to [ɛ] in word-final position, as in będę /ˈbɛn.dɛ/ "I will be".
An alternative analysis postulates that nasal vowels no longer exist in Standard Polish as independent phonemes. The motivation for this is the fact that they are realized as actual nasal consonants before stops and affricates, while their nasal-diphthong realization before fricatives can be analyzed as allophonical realization of the sequences /on/, /om/ or /oɲ/ likewise. Moreover, studies indicate that the nasalization of the presumed nasal diphthongs ą [ɔw̃] and ę [ɛw̃] is no longer distinctive to native speakers in word-final position either, and is retained only in emphatic, hypercorrect or artificial speech.
Distinctive vowel length was inherited from late Proto-Slavic, with some changes (e.g. stressed acute and circumflex vowels were shortened, as well as some long vowels occurring after the stress). Additional vowel lengths were introduced in Proto-Polish (as in other West Slavic languages) as a result of compensatory lengthening when a yer in the next syllable disappeared: If a yer (or other vowel) disappeared, then the preceding vowel became long (unless it was also a yer, in which case it became a short e).
This system of vowel lengths is well preserved in Czech and to a lesser degree in Slovak. In the emerging modern Polish, however, the long vowels were shortened again, although sometimes (depending on dialect) with a change in quality (the vowels tended to become higher). The latter changes came to be incorporated into the standard language only in the case of long o and the long nasal vowel, mostly for vowels located before voiced obstruents. The vowel shift may thus be presented as follows:
- long oral /aː/ → short oral /a/ (certain dialects: /ɒ/)
- long oral /eː/ → short oral /ɛ/ (certain dialects: /ɨ/ or /i/)
- long oral /ɨː/ or /iː/ → short oral /ɨ/ or /i/
- long oral /oː/ → short oral /u/, written ó
- long oral /uː/ → short oral /u/, written u
- long nasal /ãː/ → short nasal /ɔ̃/, written ą
Note that the /u/ which was once a long /oː/ is still distinguished in script as ó. Former long /eː/ was written é until the 19th century (á for long /aː/ became disused sooner).
In most circumstances, consonants were palatalized when followed by an original front vowel, including the soft yer (ь) that was often later lost. For example: *dьnь became dzień ('day'), while *dьnьmъ became dniem ('day' instr.).
The history of the nasal vowels is as follows. The nasal vowels *ę and *ǫ of late Proto-Slavic merged (*ę leaving a trace by palatalizing the preceding consonant) to become the medieval Polish vowel /ã/, written ø. Like other Polish vowels, this developed long and short variants. The short variant developed into present-day /ɛ̃/ ę, while the long form became /ɔ̃/, written ą, as described above. Overall:
- Proto-Slavic *ę → ię when short, ią when long (where the i represents palatalization of the preceding consonant)
- Proto-Slavic *ǫ → ę when short, ą when long
These historical shifts are the reason for the alternations o:ó and ę:ą commonly encountered in Polish morphology. For example, *rogъ ('horn') became róg due to the loss of the following yer (originally pronounced with a long o, now with /u/), while the instrumental case of the same word went from *rogъmъ to rogiem (with no lengthening of the o). Similarly *dǫbъ ('oak') became dąb (originally with the long form of the nasal vowel), while in the instrumental *dǫbъmъ the vowel remained short and we now have dębem.
Dialectal variation of vowelsEdit
Polish dialects differ particularly in their realization of nasal vowels; both in terms of whether and when they are decomposed to an oral vowel followed by a nasal consonant, and in terms of the quality of the vowels used.
Also, some dialects preserve non-standard developments of the historical long vowels (see previous section); for example, a may be pronounced with [ɔ] in words where it was historically long.
The consonant systemEdit
The Polish consonant system is more complicated; its characteristic features include the series of affricates and palatal consonants that resulted from four Proto-Slavic palatalizations and two further palatalizations which took place in Polish and Belarusian.
The consonant phonemes of Polish are as follows:
The fricatives and affricates shown as retroflex may instead be transcribed as palato-alveolar consonants with /ʃ/, /ʒ/, etc. However, they are more accurately described as retroflex, although they are laminal (like the retroflexes of Standard Chinese). They may therefore also be transcribed phonetically with the symbols ⟨ʐ̠⟩ etc., indicating the laminal feature.[clarification needed]
The phonemes /kʲ/ and /ɡʲ/ are less commonly transcribed as /c/ and /ɟ/ (i.e. as if they were palatal stops).
|IPA||Polish script||Example||IPA||Polish script||Example|
|/m/||m||masa ('mass')||/d͡ʑ/||dź/dz(i)||dźwięk ('sound')|
|/b/||b||bas ('bass')||/t͡ɕ/||ć/c(i)||ćma ('moth')|
|/p/||p||pas ('belt')||/ʐ/||ż/rz|| żona ('wife')
|/v/||w||wór ('bag')||/ʂ/||sz||szum ('rustle')|
|/f/||f||futro ('fur')||/d͡ʐ/||dż||dżem ('jam')|
|/n/||n||noga ('leg')||/t͡ʂ/||cz||czas ('time')|
|/d/||d||dom ('home')||/ɲ/||ń/n(i)||koń ('horse')|
|/t/||t||tom ('volume')||/ɡʲ/||g(i)||gips ('plaster cast')|
|/z/||z||zero ('zero')||/kʲ/||k(i)||kiedy ('when')|
|/s/||s||sum ('catfish')||/ɡ/||g||gmin ('populace')|
|/d͡z/||dz||dzwon ('bell')||/k/||k||kmin ('cumin'), buk ('beech tree')|
|/t͡s/||c||co ('what')||/x/||h/ch||hak ('hook'), chór ('choir')|
|/r/||r||krok ('step')||/j/||j||jutro ('tomorrow')|
|/l/||l||pole ('field'), liść ('leaf')||/w/||ł||mały ('small'), łaska ('grace')|
|/ʑ/||ź/z(i)||źrebię ('foal')||/xʲ/||h(i)/ch(i)||historia ('history'), chichot ('giggle')|
Note the distinction between the laminal retroflex sounds (sz, ż, cz, dż) and the corresponding alveolo-palatals (ś, ź, ć, dź) – both of these series sound similar to the English palato-alveolar consonants (the sh and ch sounds and their voiced equivalents). The alveolo-palatals are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised to the palate. The series are known as "rustling" (szeleszczące) and "humming" (szumiące) respectively; the equivalent alveolar series (s, z, c, dz) is called "hissing" (syczące).
- czysta [ˈt͡ʂɨsta] ('clean' fem.) vs. trzysta [ˈtʂɨsta] ('three hundred').
- dżem' [ˈd͡ʐɛm] ('jam') with vs. drzem [ˈdʐɛm] ('take a nap' imper.).
- This distinction is lost in some Lesser Polish dialects. See more in Polish dialects.
- For the possibility of an additional glottal fricative phoneme /ɦ/ for h, see Dialectal variation of consonants below.
/x/ has a voiced allophone [ɣ] that occurs whenever /x/ is followed by a voiced obstruent (even across a word boundary), in accordance with the rules given under voicing and devoicing below. For example, dach ('roof') is [ˈdax], but dach domu ('roof of the house') is [daɣ ˈdɔmu].
/x/ has the strongest friction before consonants [x̝], weaker friction before vowels and weakest friction intervocalically, where it may be realized as glottal [h]. The intervocalic variant "may appear to be voiced".
Non-palatal consonants are weakly palatalized when they precede /i/. This is far less audible than it is in Russian.
Before fricatives, nasal consonants may be realized as nasalized semivowels, analogous to /ɔ̃/ and /ɛ̃/ (see The vowel system above). This occurs in loanwords, and in free variation with the typical consonantal pronunciation (e.g. instynkt [ˈiw̃stɨŋkt⁓ˈinstɨŋkt] 'instinct'). Similarly, the palatal nasal [ɲ] in coda position is in free variation with a nasalized palatal approximant [ȷ̃]. For example, koń [koɲ⁓kɔj̃], Gdańsk [ɡdaɲsk⁓ɡdaj̃sk]
Polish, like other Slavic languages, permits complex consonant clusters, which historically often arose from the disappearance of yers (see Historical development above). Examples of such clusters can be found in words such as bezwzględny [bɛzˈvzɡlɛndnɨ] ('absolute' or 'heartless', 'ruthless'), źdźbło [ˈʑd͡ʑbwɔ] ('blade of grass'), wstrząs [ˈfstʂɔw̃s] ('shock'), and krnąbrność [ˈkrnɔmbrnɔɕt͡ɕ] ('disobedience'). A popular Polish tongue-twister (from a verse by Jan Brzechwa) is W Szczebrzeszynie chrząszcz brzmi w trzcinie [fʂt͡ʂɛbʐɛˈʂɨɲɛ ˈxʂɔw̃ʂt͡ʂ ˈbʐmi fˈtʂt͡ɕiɲɛ] ('In Szczebrzeszyn a beetle buzzes in the reed').
For restrictions on combinations of voiced and voiceless consonants in clusters, see Voicing and devoicing below. Note that unlike languages such as Czech, Polish does not have syllabic consonants – the nucleus of a syllable is always a vowel.
The consonant /j/ is restricted to positions adjacent to a vowel. It also cannot precede i or y. (For other restrictions on consonants appearing before i or y, see Vowel distribution above.)
The palatalized velar stops occur only before e (where they are spelt ki and gi) and before i (where they are spelt k and g; plain /k/ and /ɡ/ do not occur in that position).
Voicing and devoicingEdit
Polish obstruents (stops, affricates and fricatives) are subject to voicing and devoicing in certain positions. This leads to neutralization of voiced/voiceless pairs in those positions (or equivalently, restrictions on the distribution of voiced and voiceless consonants). The phenomenon applies in word-final position and in consonant clusters.
In a Polish consonant cluster, including across a word boundary, the obstruents are either all voiced or all voiceless. To determine (based on the spelling of the words) whether a given cluster has voiced or voiceless obstruents, examine whether the last obstruent in the cluster, excluding w or rz (but including ż), appears to be voiced or voiceless. The consonants n, m, ń, r, j, l, ł do not represent obstruents, and therefore do not affect the voicing of other consonants; they are also usually not subject to devoicing except when surrounded by unvoiced consonants. Some examples follow (click the words to hear them spoken):
- łódka [ˈwutka] ('boat'), /d/ → [t] before the voiceless k
- kawka [ˈkafka] ('jackdaw'), /v/ → [f] before the voiceless k
- także [ˈtaɡʐɛ] ('also'), /k/ → [ɡ] before the voiced ż
- jakby [ˈjaɡbɨ] ('as if'), /k/ → [ɡ] before the voiced b
- krzak [kʂak] ('bush'), /ʐ/ → [ʂ]; rz does not determine the voicing of the cluster
- odtworzyć [ɔtˈtfɔʐɨt͡ɕ] ('to reproduce'), /d/ → [t] & /v/ → [f]; w does not determine the voicing of the cluster
- dach domu [daɣ dɔmu] ('roof of the house'), /x/ → [ɣ]; the rule still applies across a word boundary
At the end of a word obstruents are pronounced voiceless, (unless followed by a word beginning with a voiced obstruent, in which case the above cluster rules apply). For example, the /ɡ/ in bóg ('god') is pronounced [k], and the /zd/ in zajazd ('inn') represents a pronunciation like [st]. However, in some regional dialects, especially in western and southern Poland, final obstruents are voiced if the following word starts with a sonorant (here, for example, the /t/ in brat ojca 'father's brother' would be pronounced as [d]).
Hard and soft consonantsEdit
Multiple palatalizations and some depalatalizations that took place in the history of Proto-Slavic and Polish created quite a complex system of what are often called 'soft' and 'hard' consonants. These terms are useful in describing some inflection patterns and other morphological processes, although exact definitions of 'soft' and 'hard' may differ somewhat.
'Soft' generally refers to the palatal nature of a consonant. The alveolo-palatal sounds ń, ś, ź, ć, dź are considered soft, as normally is the palatal j. The l sound is also normally classed as a soft consonant – like the preceding sounds it cannot be followed by y, but takes i instead. The palatalized velars /kʲ/, /ɡʲ/ and /xʲ/ might also be regarded as soft on this basis.
Consonants which are not classed as soft are called 'hard'. However, there exists a subset of hard consonants, c, dz, sz, ż/rz, cz, dż, which often derive from historical palatalizations (for example, rz usually represents a historical palatalized r), and which behave like the soft consonants in some respects (for example, they normally take e in the nominative plural). These sounds may be called 'hardened' or 'historically soft' consonants.
In some phonological descriptions of Polish, however, a greater number of consonants, including especially the labials m, p, b, f, w, are regarded as occurring in 'hard' and 'soft' pairs. In this approach, for example, the word pies ('dog') is analysed not as /pjɛs/ but as /pʲɛs/, with a soft /pʲ/. These consonants are then also analysed as soft when they precede the vowel /i/ (as in pić /pʲit͡ɕ/ 'to drink'), although here the palatalization is hardly audible. Unlike their equivalents in Russian, these consonants cannot retain their softness in the syllable coda (when not followed by a vowel). For example, the word for 'carp' has the inflected forms karpia, karpie etc., with soft /pʲ/ (or /pj/, depending on the analysis), but the nominative singular karp, with hard /p/.
The consonants t, d, r (and some others) can also be regarded as having hard and soft forms according to the above approach, although the soft forms occur only in loanwords such as tir /tʲir/ ('large lorry'; see TIR). If the distinction is made for all relevant consonants, then y and i can be regarded as allophones of a single phoneme, with y following hard consonants and i following soft ones (and in initial position).
The historical palatized forms of some consonants have developed in Polish into noticeably different sounds. Thus historical palatized t, d, r have become the sounds now represented by ć, dź, rz respectively. Similarly palatized s, z, n became the sounds ś, ź, ń. Palatization of labials has resulted (according to the main phonological analysis given in the sections above) in the addition of /j/, as in the example pies just given. These developments are reflected in some regular morphological changes in Polish grammar, such as in noun declension.
Dialectal variation of consonantsEdit
In some Polish dialects (found in the eastern borderlands and in Upper Silesia) there is an additional voiced glottal fricative /ɦ/, represented by the letter ⟨h⟩. In standard Polish, both ⟨h⟩ and ⟨ch⟩ represent /x/.
Some eastern dialects also preserve the velarized dental lateral approximant, [ɫ̪], which corresponds with [w] in standard Polish. These dialects also can palatalize /l/ ([lʲ]) in every position, whereas standard Polish does so only allophonically before /i/ and /j/. [ɫ̪] and [lʲ] are also common realizations in native speakers of Polish from Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine.
Rocławski (1976) notes that students of Polish philology were hostile towards the lateral variant of ⟨ł⟩, saying that it sounded "unnatural" and "awful". Some of these students also said that they perceived the lateral ⟨ł⟩ as a variant of ⟨l⟩, which, he further notes, along with the necessity of deciding from context whether the sound meant was /w/ or /l/ was what made people hostile towards this sound. On the other hand, some Poles view the lateral variant with nostalgia, associating it with elegant pre-World War Two Polish culture.
In the Masurian dialect and some neighbouring dialects, the phenomenon of mazurzenie occurs, whereby the retroflex /ʂ, ʐ, t͡ʂ, d͡ʐ/ merge with the corresponding dentals /s, z, t͡s, d͡z/, except when /ʂ/ is spelled ⟨rz⟩, which a few centuries ago represented a palatalized trill /rʲ/, distinct from /ʂ/. In modern Polish, only the latter sound occurs.
More on clustersEdit
Clusters are much different in Polish from English. Polish can have word-initial and word-medial clusters of up to four consonants, whereas word-final clusters can have up to five consonants. English, on the other hand, does not allow such complex clusters to exist word-initially or word-finally because the rules are much stricter. For example, for a three-consonant cluster to exist word-initially in English, it must have the fricative /s/ followed by a voiceless stop and a liquid or glide, for example, /spr/, /spl/, /skr/, /str/, /skw/ as in spring, splash, scream, string, squash. Clusters can also occur between two or more words in Polish. Consonant clusters do have rules in Polish as well, they are just not as strict as English. For example, a two-consonant cluster can be an obstruent followed by a sonorant, an obstruent followed by an obstruent, or /m/ followed by another sonorant. However, it is impossible to have a sonorant (other than /m/) followed by a sonorant or a sonorant followed by an obstruent, except in a special condition. The larger the consonant cluster, however, the more complex the rules become.
The predominant stress pattern in Polish is penultimate stress – in a word of more than one syllable, the next-to-last syllable is stressed. Alternating preceding syllables carry secondary stress, e.g. in a four-syllable word, where the primary stress is on the third syllable, there will be secondary stress on the first.
Each vowel represents one syllable, although the letter i normally does not represent a vowel when it precedes another vowel (it represents /j/ or palatization of the preceding consonant; see Polish orthography). Also the letters u and i sometimes represent only semivowels when they follow another vowel, as in autor /ˈawtɔr/ ('author')
Some loanwords, particularly from the Classical languages, have the stress on the antepenultimate (third-from-last) syllable. For example, fizyka (/ˈfizɨka/) ('physics') is stressed on the first syllable. When additional syllables are added to such words through inflection or suffixation, the stress normally becomes regular. For example, uniwersytet (/uɲiˈvɛrsɨtɛt/, 'university') has irregular stress on the third (or antepenultimate) syllable, but the genitive uniwersytetu (/uɲivɛrsɨˈtɛtu/) and derived adjective uniwersytecki (/uɲivɛrsɨˈtɛt͡skʲi/) have regular stress on the penultimate syllables. Over time, loanwords become nativized to have penultimate stress.
Another class of exceptions is verbs with the conditional endings -by, -bym, -byśmy, etc. These endings are not counted in determining the position of the stress; for example, zrobiłbym ('I would do') is stressed on the first syllable, and zrobilibyśmy ('we would do') on the second. According to prescriptive grammars, the same applies to the first and second person plural past tense endings -śmy, -ście, although this rule is often ignored in colloquial speech (so zrobiliśmy 'we did' is said to be correctly stressed on the second syllable, although in practice it is commonly stressed on the third as zrobiliśmy). These irregular stress patterns are explained by the fact that these endings are detachable clitics rather than true verbal inflections: for example, instead of kogo zobaczyliście? ('whom did you see?') it is possible to say kogoście zobaczyli? – here kogo retains its usual stress (first syllable) in spite of the attachment of the clitic. Reanalysis of the endings as inflections when attached to verbs causes the different colloquial stress patterns.
Some common word combinations are stressed as if they were a single word. This applies in particular to many combinations of preposition plus a personal pronoun, such as do niej ('to her'), na nas ('on us'), przeze mnie ('because of me'), all stressed on the bolded syllable.
- Jassem (2003), p. 105.
- Gussmann (2007), p. 2.
- "John Wells's phonetic blog: the Polish way out". Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- Rocławski (1976), pp. 75, 112–113.
- Rocławski (1976), p. 113.
- Rocławski (1976), pp. 75, 113.
- For example, Jassem (2003), Rocławski (1976) and Wiśniewski (2001)
- Gussmann (2007:2), citing Biedrzycki (1963), Biedrzycki (1978), Wierzchowska (1971:135).
- Linde-Usiekniewicz et al. (2011), p. 1430.
- Gussmann (2007), pp. 2–3.
- Zagórska Brooks (1968)
- Rocławski (1976), pp. 130–181.
- Rocławski (1976), pp. 136, 179.
- Rocławski (1976), p. 132.
- Hamann (2004), p. 65.
- Gussmann (2007), p. 7.
- Rocławski (1976), p. 158.
- Gussmann (2007:3), citing Dukiewicz (1995:32–33)
- Urbańczyk (1992), p. 369.
- Rocławski (1976), p. 130.
- Rocławski (1976), pp. 130–131.
- "Słynne gładkie ł". Radio Białystok. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
- Gussmann (2007:8), deferring to Rubach & Booij (1985) for further discussion.
- Gussmann (2007), p. 9.
- Phonetics and Phonology of lexical stress in Polish verbs, Dominika Oliver, Martine Grice, Institute of Phonetics, Saarland University, Germany
- Biedrzycki, Leszek (1963), "Fonologiczna interpretacja polskich głosek nosowych" [Phonological interpretation of Polish nasal vowels], Biuletyn Polskiego Towarzystwa Językoznawczego (in Polish), 22: 25–45
- Biedrzycki, Leszek (1978), Fonologia angielskich i polskich rezonantów. Porównanie samogłosek oraz spółgłosek [Phonology of English and Polish resonants. Comparison of vowels and consonants] (in Polish), Warsaw: PWN
- Dukiewicz, Leszek (1995), "Fonetyka" [Phonetics], in Dukiewicz, L.; Sawicka, I., Gramatyka współczesnego języka polskiego. Fonetyka i fonologia [Grammar of the contemporary Polish language. Phonetics and phonology] (in Polish), Kraków: Wydawnictwo Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN, pp. 7–103
- Gussmann, Edmund (2007), The Phonology of Polish, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-926747-7
- Hamann, Silke (2004), "Retroflex fricatives in Slavic languages" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 53–67, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001604
- Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
- Wiśniewski, Marek (2001), Zarys z fonetyki i fonologii współczesnego języka polskiego, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika
- Linde-Usiekniewicz; et al. (2011), Wielki Słownik Polsko-Angielski [Great Polish-English dictionary] (in Polish and English), Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, ISBN 978-83-01-14136-3
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