Voiceless labial–velar fricative

The voiceless labial–velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is or occasionally ʍ. The letter ʍ was defined as a voiceless [w̥] until 1979, when it was defined as a fricative with the place of articulation of [k͡p] the same way that [w] is an approximant with the place of articulation of [ɡ͡b]. However, the IPA Handbook treats it as both a "fricative" (IPA 1999: ix) and as an "approximate" (IPA 1999: 136).

Voiceless labial–velar fricative
IPA Number169
Entity (decimal)ʍ
Unicode (hex)U+028D
Braille⠖ (braille pattern dots-235)⠺ (braille pattern dots-2456)
Voiceless labial–velar approximant
IPA Number170+402A
Audio sample

Some linguists posit voiceless approximants distinct from voiceless fricatives. To them, English /ʍ/ is an approximant [w̥],[1] a labialized glottal fricative [hʷ], or an [hw] sequence, not a velar fricative.[2] Scots /ʍ/ has been described as a velar fricative,[3] especially in older Scots, where it was [xw].[4] Other linguists believe that a "voiceless approximant" is a contradiction in terms, and so [w̥] must be the same as [xʷ]. Ladefoged and Maddieson were unable to confirm that any language has fricatives produced at two places of articulation, like labial and velar.[5] They conclude that "if it is a fricative, it is better described as a voiceless labialized velar fricative".[6]

Features edit

Features of the voiceless labial–velar fricative:

Occurrence edit

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Aleut[7] Atkan hwax̂ [ʍaχ] 'smoke'
Bering ʼЎ
Cornish SWF hwi [ʍi] 'you all'
English Conservative Received Pronunciation[8] whine [ʍaɪ̯n] 'whine' English /ʍ/ is generally a labio-velar fricative or approximant.[2] It is usually represented phonemically as /hw/, but phonetically there is not a sequence of [h] plus [w] (see English phonology). In General American[9] and New Zealand English[10] only some speakers maintain a distinction with /w/; in Europe, mostly heard in Irish and Scottish accents.[8] See English phonology and phonological history of wh.
Cultivated South African[11]
Conservative General American[9]
Irish[11][12] [ʍʌɪ̯n]
Southern American[15] [ʍäːn]
New Zealand[10][13][16] [ʍɑe̯n]
Hupa[17] xwe꞉y [xʷeːj] 'his property' A voiceless labialized velar fricative.
Kham Gamale Kham ह्वा [ʍɐ] 'tooth' Described as an approximant.[18]
Slovene[19][20] vse [ˈʍsɛ] 'everything' Allophone of /ʋ/ in the syllable onset before voiceless consonants, in free variation with a vowel [u]. Voiced [w] before voiced consonants.[19][20] See Slovene phonology.
Washo Wáʔi [ˈxʷaʔi] or [ˈw̥aʔi] 'he's the one who's doing it' Variously described as a labialized velar fricative or a voiceless approximant.

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ For instance, Lyle Campbell (2020) Historical Linguistics, 4th edition, page xxii.
  2. ^ a b Ladefoged (2006), p. 68.
  3. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999), p. 22.
  4. ^ Johnston (1997), pp. 499, 510.
  5. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), pp. 330–2.
  6. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 326.
  7. ^ Головко, Е. В. (1994). Словарь алеутско-русский и русско-алеутский (беринговский диалект) [Aleut-Russian and Russian-Aleut Dictionary (Bering dialect)]. Отд-ние изд-ва "Просвещение". p. 14. ISBN 978-5-09-002312-2.
  8. ^ a b "Received Pronunciation Phonology".
  9. ^ a b Rogers (2000), p. 120.
  10. ^ a b Rogers (2000), p. 117.
  11. ^ a b c Lass (2002), p. 121.
  12. ^ Wells (1982), p. 432.
  13. ^ a b McMahon (2002), p. 31.
  14. ^ Wells (1982), p. 408.
  15. ^ Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006).
  16. ^ Wells (1982), p. 610.
  17. ^ Golla, Victor (1996). "Hupa Language Dictionary Second Edition". Retrieved Oct 31, 2021.
  18. ^ Wilde (2016).
  19. ^ a b Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999), p. 136.
  20. ^ a b Greenberg (2006), p. 18.

References edit

External links edit