|Voiceless labial–velar fricative|
Some linguists posit voiceless approximants distinct from voiceless fricatives. To them, English /ʍ/ is an approximant [w̥], a labialized glottal fricative [hʷ] or an [hw] sequence, not a velar fricative, though Scots /ʍ/ has been described as a velar fricative, especially in older Scots, where it was [xw]. Other linguists believe that a "voiceless approximant" is a contradiction in terms, and so [w̥] must be the same as [xʷ]. Ladefoged and Maddieson were unable to confirm that any language has fricatives produced at two places of articulation, like labial and velar. They conclude that "if it is a fricative, it is better described as a voiceless labialized velar fricative".
Features of the voiceless labial–velar fricative:
- Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is labialized velar, which means it is articulated with the back part of the tongue raised toward the soft palate (the velum) while rounding the lips.
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|English||Conservative Received Pronunciation||whine||[ʍaɪ̯n]||'whine'||English /ʍ/ is generally an approximant or an [hw] sequence, not a velar fricative.[contradictory] In General American and New Zealand English only some speakers maintain a distinction with /w/; in Europe, mostly heard in Irish and Scottish accents. See English phonology and phonological history of wh.|
|Cultivated South African|
|Conservative General American|
|Hupa||wha||[hʷa]||'sun'||Non-velar like English wh|
|xwe꞉y||[xʷeːj]||'his property'||Voiceless labialized velar fricative|
|Kham||Gamale Kham||ह्वा||[ʍɐ]||'tooth'||Described as an approximant.|
|Scots||older pronunciation||whine||[xwaɪ̯n]||'whine'||A semivowel in standard modern Scots. Northern dialects have [f] instead.|
|Slovene||vse||[ˈʍsɛ]||'everything'||Allophone of /ʋ/ in the syllable onset before voiceless consonants, in free variation with a vowel [u]. Voiced [w] before voiced consonants. See Slovene phonology|
|Washo||Wáʔi||[ˈxʷaʔi] or [ˈw̥aʔi]||'he's the one who's doing it'||variously described as a labialized velar fricative or a voiceless approximant|
- Ladefoged (2006), p. 68.
- International Phonetic Association (1999), p. 22.
- Johnston (1997), pp. 499, 510.
- Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), pp. 330–2.
- Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 326.
- "Received Pronunciation Phonology".
- Rogers (2000), p. 120.
- Rogers (2000), p. 117.
- Lass (2002), p. 121.
- Wells (1982), p. 432.
- McMahon (2002), p. 31.
- Wells (1982), p. 408.
- Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006).
- Wells (1982), p. 610.
- Golla, Victor (1996). "Hupa Language Dictionary Second Edition". Retrieved Oct 31, 2021.
- Wilde (2016).
- Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999), p. 136.
- Greenberg (2006), p. 18.
- Greenberg, Mark L. (2006), A Short Reference Grammar of Standard Slovene, Kansas: University of Kansas
- International Phonetic Association (1999), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
- Johnston, Paul (1997), "Regional Variation", in Jones, Charles (ed.), The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press
- Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (2006), The Atlas of North American English, Berlin: Mouton-de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-016746-8
- Ladefoged, Peter (2006), A Course in Phonetics (5th ed.), Fort Worth: Harcourt College Publishers
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996), The Sounds of the World's Languages, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4
- Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend (ed.), Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052
- McMahon, April (2002), An Introduction to English Phonology, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd, ISBN 0-7486-1252-1
- Rogers, Henry (2000), The Sounds of Language: An Introduction to Phonetics, Essex: Pearson Education Limited, ISBN 978-0-582-38182-7
- Šuštaršič, Rastislav; Komar, Smiljana; Petek, Bojan (1999), "Slovene", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 135–139, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
- Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Volume 1: An Introduction (pp. i–xx, 1–278), Volume 3: Beyond the British Isles (pp. i–xx, 467–674). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52129719-2 , 0-52128541-0 .
- Wilde, Christopher P. (2016), "Gamale Kham phonology revisited, with Devanagari-based orthography and lexicon", Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society (9): 130–199