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A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the soft palate (or velum) so that the air flow escapes through the nose and the mouth simultaneously, as in the French vowel About this sound/ɑ̃/  or Amoy [ɛ̃]. By contrast, oral vowels are produced without nasalization. In a stricter sense, nasal vowels shall not be confused with nasalised vowels.

IPA number424
Entity (decimal)̃
Unicode (hex)U+0303

Nasalised vowels are vowels under the influence of neighbouring sounds. For instance, the [æ] of the word hand is affected by the following nasal consonant. In most languages, vowels adjacent to nasal consonants are produced partially or fully with a lowered velum in a natural process of assimilation and are therefore technically nasal, but few speakers would notice. That is the case in English: vowels preceding nasal consonants are nasalized, but there is no phonemic distinction between nasal and oral vowels (and all vowels are considered phonemically oral).

However, the words "huh?" and "uh-huh" are pronounced with a nasal vowel, as is the negative "unh-unh".[1]

The nasality of nasal vowels, however, is a distinctive feature of certain languages. In other words, a language may contrast oral vowels and nasalised vowels phonemically.[2] Linguists make use of minimal pairs to decide whether or not the nasality is of linguistic importance. In French, for instance, nasal vowels are distinct from oral vowels, and words can differ by this vowel quality. The words beau /bo/ "beautiful" and bon /bõ/ "good" are a minimal pair that contrasts primarily the vowel nasalization, even if the /õ/ from bon is slightly more open.

Portuguese behaves similarly with minimal pairs as vim /vĩ/ "I came" and vi /vi/ "I saw", except /ĩ/ and /i/ are of same vowel height. Portuguese also allows nasal diphthongs that contrast with their oral counterparts, like the minimal pair sem /sẽj̃/ "without" and sei /sej/ "I know".

Although there are French loanwords into English with nasal vowels like croissant [ˈkɹwɑːsɒ̃], there is no expectation that an English speaker would nasalize the vowels to the same extent that French or Portuguese speakers do. Likewise, pronunciation keys in English dictionaries do not always indicate nasalization of French loanwords.


Influence on vowel heightEdit

Nasalization as a result of the assimilation of a nasal consonant tends to cause a raising of vowel height; phonemically distinctive nasalization tends to lower the vowel.[3]

In most languages, vowels of all heights are nasalized indiscriminately, but preference occurs in some language, such as for high vowels in Chamorro and low vowels in Thai.[4]

Degree of nasalisationEdit

A few languages, such as Palantla Chinantec,[5] contrast lightly nasalized and heavily nasalized vowels. They may be contrasted in print by doubling the IPA diacritic for nasalization: ⟨⟩ vs ⟨̃⟩. Bickford & Floyd (2006) combine the tilde with the ogonek: ⟨⟩ vs ⟨ę̃⟩. (The ogonek is sometimes used in an otherwise IPA transcription to avoid conflict with tone diacritics above the vowels.)


Rodney Sampson described a three-stage historical account, explaining the origin of nasal vowels in modern French. The notation of Terry and Webb will be used below, where V, N, and Ṽ (with a tilde above) represent oral vowel, nasal consonant, and nasal vowel, respectively.[6]

Historical Development of French Nasal Vowels
Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3
ca. 13th ca. 14th-16th ca. 17th-18th
vend [vẽnt], [vɑ̃nt] [vɑ̃(n)t] [vɑ̃]

In the Old French period, vowels become nasalised under the regressive assimilation, as VN > ṼN. In the Middle French period, the realisation of the nasal consonant became variable, as VN > Ṽ(N). As the language evolves into its modern form, the consonant is no longer realised, as ṼN > Ṽ.


Languages written with Latin script may indicate nasal vowels by a trailing silent n or m, as is the case in French, Portuguese, Lombard (central classic orthography), Bamana, Breton, and Yoruba.

In other cases, they are indicated by diacritics. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, nasal vowels are denoted by a tilde over the symbol for the vowel. The same practice can be found in Portuguese marking with a tilde in diphthongs (e.g. põe) and for words ending in /ɐ̃/ (e.g. manhã, ímã). Polish, Navajo, and Elfdalian use a hook under the letter, called an ogonek, as in ą, ę. The Pe̍h-ōe-jī romanization of Taiwanese Hokkien and Amoy uses a superscript n (aⁿ, eⁿ, ...).

The Brahmic scripts used for most Languages of India mark nasal vowels and nasal junctions between consonants with the chandrabindu (◌̐) diacritic and its variants.

The Nasta'liq script of Urdu indicates nasalization by employing a dotless form of the Arabic letter ˂ن˃ nūn (˂ں˃), called nūn ghunna. Nasalized vowels occur in Classical Arabic but not in contemporary speech or Modern Standard Arabic. There is no orthographic way to denote the nasalization, but it is systematically taught as part of the essential rules of tajwid, used to read the Qur'an. Nasalization occurs in recitation, usually when a final ˂ن˃ nūn is followed by a ˂ي˃ yāʼ.


These languages use phonemic nasal vowels:


  1. ^ huh. Collins American English Dictionary. HarperCollins Publishers Limited. Accessed October 4, 2014.
  2. ^ Crystal, David. (2008). Nasal. In A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics (6th ed., pp. 320-321). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
  3. ^ Beddor, P. S. 1983. Phonological and phonetic effects of nasalization on vowel height
  4. ^ Hajek, John. (2013). Vowel Nasalization. In M. Dryer & M. Haspelmath (eds.), The World Atlas of Language Structures Online. Retrieved 30 March 2019 from]
  5. ^ Blevins, Juliette. (2004). Evolutionary Phonology: The Emergence of Sound Patterns (p. 203). Cambridge University Press.
  6. ^ Terry, Kristen Kennedy & Webb, Eric Russell. (2011). Modeling the emergence of a typological anomaly: Vowel nasalization in French. In Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 37(1), 155-169.

Further readingsEdit

  • de Medeiros, Beatriz Raposo. (2011). Nasal Coda and Vowel Nasality in Brazilian Portuguese. In S. M. Alvord (Ed.), Selected Proceedings of the 5th Conference on Laboratory Approaches to Romance Phonology (pp. 33-45).
  • Hajek, John & Maeda, Shinji. (2000). Investigating Universals of Sound Change: the Effect of Vowel Height and Duration on the Development of Distinctive Nasalization. Papers in Laboratory Phonology V: Acquisition and the lexicon (pp. 52-69).
  • Jeong, Sunwoo. (2012). Directional asymmetry in nasalization: Aperceptual account. Studies in Phonetics, Phonology and Morphology, 18(3), 437-469.
  • Michaud, A., Jacques, G., & Rankin, R. L. (2012). Historical transfer of nasality between consonantal onset and vowel: from C to V or from V to C? Diachronica, 29(2), 201-230.
  • Sampson, Rodney. (1999). Nasal Vowel Evolution in Romance. Oxford University Press.

See alsoEdit